Urbanization, Carbon Dioxide Emission, and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria

Main Article Content

Kehinde John Akomolafe
Anigbogu Chukwuebuka Madu
Alatise Kayode Ebenezer


This study examines the effects of carbon dioxide emission and urbanisation on total agricultural production, livestock production and crop production in Nigeria. The data span from 1981 to 2014. In other to avoid endogeniety problem, the relationship among the variables was modelled using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The result implies that carbon dioxide emission impacts total agricultural, total livestock and total crop production positively, but it was negative in the case of urbanization. More so, the effect of carbon dioxide emission and urbanization increase overtime.

Carbon di-oxide, urbanization, agriculture, livestocks, vector error correction model, environmental pollution.

Article Details

How to Cite
Akomolafe, K. J., Madu, A. C., & Ebenezer, A. K. (2021). Urbanization, Carbon Dioxide Emission, and Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 39(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i130503
Original Research Article


Irz X, Roe T. Can the world feed itself? Some insights from growth theory. Agrekon, 2000;39(4):513-528.

Alexandratos N. World food and agriculture to 2030/50. In Highlights and views from MID-2009: Paper for the Expert Meeting on “How to Feed the World in. 2009; 2050.

United Nations. World urbanization prospects; 2018.

Iheke OR, Ihuoma U. Effect of urbanization on agricultural production in Abia State. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems. 2016; 5(2):83-89.

Berry D. Effects of urbanization on agricultural activities. Growth and Change (United States). 1978;9(3).

Boopen S, Vinesh S. On the relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth: the Mauritian experience. In University of Mauritius, Mauritius Environment Outlook Report. 2011; 14:2015.
Available:http://www. csae. ox. ac. uk/conferences/2011-EDiA/papers/776-Seetanah. pdf

Central Bank of Nigeria, Annual Statsitical Buleting. Abuja; 2018.

Mohammed S, Ibrahim US, Abubakar N. Effect of hike in food prices on households food expenditure in kano state, Nigeria: a case of 2008 global food crisis. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2014;5(4):155-159.

Okuneye PA. Rising cost of food prices and food insecurity in Nigeria and its implication for poverty reduction. CBN Economic and Financial Review. 2002; 39(4):1-14.

Oyefara JL. Food insecurity, HIV/AIDS pandemic and sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. 2007; 4(2):626-635.

Eigege J, Cooke J. Tracing the Roots of Nigeria's Agricultural Decline. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); 2016.

Energy Information Administration, Emission of Greenhouse Gasses in United States 2009, Washington, DC, USA; 2011.

Solomon S, Plattner GK, Knutti R, Friedlingstein P. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2009;106(6):1704-1709.

Glaeser EL, Kahn ME. The greenness of cities: carbon dioxide emissions and urban development. Journal of Urban Economics. 2010;67(3):404-418.

Baccini AGSJ, Goetz SJ, Walker WS, Laporte NT, Sun, M., Sulla-Menashe D, Samanta S. Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Climate Change. 2012;2(3):182-185.

Fabricant RE. General Counsel, US Environmental Protection Agency, memorandum to Marianne L. Horinko (Acting Administrator); 2003.

Davison M. Man made global warming; 2017.

Lupo AR. Anthropogenic global warming: A skeptical point of view. Missouri medicine. 2008;105(2):22-25.

Cline WR. Global warming and agriculture. Finance and Development. 2008;45(1):23.

Lacetera N. Impact of climate change on animal health and welfare. Animal Frontiers. 2019;9(1):26-31.

Bernabucci U. Climate change: impact on livestock and how can we adapt. Animal Frontiers: the Review Magazine of Animal Agriculture. 2019;9(1):3.

Mendelsohn R, Seo N. Changing farm types and irrigation as an adaptation to climate change in Latin American agriculture. The World Bank; 2007.

Mendelsohn R. Past climate change impacts on agriculture. Handbook of agricultural economics. 2007;3:3009-3031.

World Bank, World Bank Development Indicators; 2018.

Oueslati W, Salanié J, Wu J. Urbanization and agricultural productivity: some lessons from European cities. Journal of Economic Geography. 2019;19(1):225-249.

Asumadu-Sarkodie S, Owusu PA. The relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana: A comparison of VECM and ARDL model. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016; 23(11):10968-10982.

Asumadu-Sarkodie S, Owusu PA. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem—an econometric approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017; 24(2):1608-1618.

Owusu PA, Asumadu-Sarktodie S. Is there a causal effect between agricultural production and carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana?. Environmental Engineering Research. 2016;22(1):40-54

Rehman A, Ozturk I, Zhang D. The causal connection between CO2 emissions and agricultural productivity in Pakistan: empirical evidence from an autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach. Applied Sciences. 2019;9(8):1692.

Leitão NC. The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and Portuguese agricultural productivity. Studies in Agricultural Economics. 2018;120(3):143-149.

Mohiuddin O, Asumadu-Sarkodie S, Obaidullah M. The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and GDP: A recent evidence from Pakistan. Cogent Engineering. 2016; 3(1):1210491.

Sarkodi, SA, Owusu PA. The relationship between carbon dioxide, crop and food production index in Ghana: By estimating the long-run elasticities and variance decomposition. Environmental Engineering Research. 2017;22(2):193-202

Oyinbo O, Adegboye GA, Sulaiman R. Retrospective Study of Causal Relationship between Climate Variability and Crop Production in Nigeria. Journal of Occupational Safety and Environmental Health. 2012;1(1):79-83.