Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajaees.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) contact@journalajaees.com (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:14:18 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Determinants of Household Economic Sustainability of Members of Agricultural Cooperatives in West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30276 <p>The study analyzed is the of determinants of Household Economic Sustainability of Members in Agricultural Cooperatives in West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State. The study units and the sampled respondents were 1112 and 294 respectively. The study units were selected purposively. To address the objective of this study, both qualitative and quantitative data were used. For the data analysis SPSS (version 20) was used. Based on this, the outcome of the study showed that (62.6%) were economically unsustainable; at 95% confidence level. Large family size, inefficient use of family labor, less saving habit, less members’ education and training were found to be determinants of household economic sustainability.</p> Tolera Merdassa, S. Nakkiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30276 Sat, 28 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Extension Training Program on Small-Scale Poultry and Rabbit Production Projects at Alexandria Governorate, Egypt http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30272 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study was undertaken to measure the efficacy of an extension training program associated with small-scale poultry and rabbit production projects in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study was applied using two levels of the Donald L Kirkpatrick model through Action Research approach. The presented content of training program to trainees included important knowledge and skills of three topics which are broilers, ducks and rabbits to success small-scale production projects.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> 52 trainees were considered as a purposive sample, who attended all sessions of the extension training program in the agricultural administration at Khurshid, Alexandria Governorate, during April 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A structured questionnaire was designed to collect data from participants before and after implementation of the training program to measure approval level of trainees toward the training program elements and their knowledge and skills level.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that majority (61.53%) of trainees had medium level of acceptance towards the extension training program components. Consequently, there was a significant improvement in the knowledge and skills levels of trainees after executing the extension program concerning broilers, ducks and rabbits production for promoting small- scale production projects. Findings also showed that deficiency of knowledge and experience related to poultry production, insufficient extension training programs, unavailability of proper site for establishing the project and getting its licenses, non-provision of capital and lack of veterinary services, in that order, were the most severe constraints of trainees affecting poultry production projects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This training program succeeded by increasing and improving the knowledge and skills of participants regarding poultry and rabbits production, which reflect on encouraging them to establish such income-raising projects.</p> Ola M. S. Elkashef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30272 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Relevance and Utility of Different Training Needs of Input Dealers in Jhansi District of Bundelkhand Region http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30273 <p>Agri-input dealers play a vital role in guaranteeing that farming communities have access to some of the essential and critical agricultural input that contribute in boosting the agricultural productivity. Besides this, they also contribute towards strengthening the Agricultural Extension System by providing valuable agro-advisory services to the farmers. It is essential that they are equipped with latest scientific know how through refresher training courses. The present study was conducted during 2018-19 in Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region to ascertain training needs of agri-input dealers. Data was collected personally by using well-structured interview schedule of 57 agri-input dealers. Respondents were found to be young age group (50.88%), one-third had higher secondary education (35.09%), sought financial assistance from bank and other financial institution (36.84%) and identification of trade name, chemical name and properties of pesticides have emerged as the most needed training area. Around 84.21 per cent of the respondent’s priorities vegetable among crop specific training needs and 84.21 per cent of the respondents had expressed ‘most needed’ training needs on micro nutrient fertilizers. More than two-third of respondents had expressed their training needs on improved varieties or hybrids of crops for cultivation (89.47%) and training in computer and its application in business is another preferred area. Lack of technical knowledge of different brands of product, fluctuation of sale on season basis and lack of need based training were some of the major constraints faced by agri-input dealers while delivering services. In order to overcome these problems agricultural institution must arrange some training programme which caters the above mentioned training need of input dealers.</p> Arjun Prasad Verma, Vimal Raj Yadav, Diksha Patel, Nishi Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30273 Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Forecasting Area, Production and Yield of Onion in Bangladesh by Using ARIMA Model http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30274 <p>In Bangladesh, onion is the widely used spices both for preparing food and curing diseases as it has medicinal values. As the demand for onion is increasing day by day, it is necessary to make actual projections of onion for undertaking some policies based on it. Therefore, the study investigates the future changes in the area, yield and production of onion in Bangladesh by using the most popular Box-Jenkins methodology. The auto regressive integrated moving average model has been used to understand the pattern of change over a period of 57 years (1961 to 2017) as well as to forecast the changes in the upcoming years. Some information criteria (such as AIC, AICc and BIC) was considered for selecting the best-fitted models of each variable. The forecasted results showed an upward trend for all the variables considered in this study. It implies that the area of onion will increase from 193932.6 hectares in 2018 to 265770.9 hectare in 2027. Again, the amount of onion production will increase from 2073.61 M tons to 3574.06 M tons and for onion yield, it will rise from 10343.17 Kg/ha to 12988.02 kg/ha from 2018 to 2027. These predictions may help the government balancing the demand with the supply and also regulating the price of onion in the domestic markets of Bangladesh.</p> Farhana Arefeen Mila, Mst. Tania Parvin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30274 Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption Outcomes of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture Technologies by Farmers in South India http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30275 <p>Rainfed areas are subjected to climate change through extreme weather events, decrease of water availability and decrease in agricultural productivity. The problem to be addressed is the limited access to and exchange of, information and knowledge related to agriculture and food security at local, national, and regional levels. Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) act as a crucial player in technology assessment, refinement and demonstration. Technology adoption to be successful depends on successful technology assessment, refinement and demonstration. Hence, the role of KVKs is of paramount importance in the above processes. KVK Rangareddy district of Telangana state (South India) is attached to the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad. The study was conducted in three KVK adopting villages’ of Pudur mandal, Rangareddy district, Telangana state. The objectives of the study are to assess the extent of adoption of KVK technologies, factors affecting and constraints in adoption; to assess the impact of KVK technologies in terms of improved productivity in crops, livestock, income levels of farm women; and to assess the gain in knowledge levels. A sample of 40 farmers each from adopting and non-adopting categories in the same villages was selected for data collection, thus, making a total sample of 240 farmers. The data was collected using a pre-tested interview schedule from the farmers. Focus group discussion and interviews were conducted to elicit data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (correlation, multiple linear regression and adoption indices). Final data was averaged from the three villages both for adopting and non-adopting category of farmers and presented. More than 60% adoption was recorded for production technology and stem borer management in maize; spacing and fertilizer management in cotton; and demonstration of perennial fodder hybrid Bajra Napier CO-4 etc. T-test scores showed significant higher mean values for adopters over non-adopters except in the case of the variable age. Adopters had better knowledge and adoption rates over non-adopters. Productivity of farmers increased between 33-57% with KVK technologies. Income levels of farm women increased three to four times based on the enterprise after adoption. Farmers’ adoption of technologies requires more concerted efforts in establishing mechanisms and traits including readiness of availability, ease of use, low cost, low labor requirement and time requirements of different technologies and their components. The adoption results of KVK technologies/interventions in case of non adopting category of farmers were found to be meager.</p> K. Ravi Shankar, G. Nirmala, K. Nagasree, P. K. Pankaj, Josily Samuel, K. Sindhu, B. M. K. Raju, S. Vijaya Kumar, G. Ravindra Chary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30275 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Scale Construction to Measure the Attitude of Farmers towards IARI-Post Office Linkage Extension Model http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30277 <p>Addressing a lot of marginal and small farmers in developing country like India, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute introduced an alternate approach to public extension as IARI-Post office Linkage Extension Model in 2009 to reach out the grass root farmers with improved frontline technologies in remote villages through Branch post masters. In the initial expansion phase, there is a need to analyze the impact and future perspective of the model in relation to farmers' behaviours. Interpreting farmers' orientation towards the model could be measured through attitude scale construction with the new concept. Likert-type scale was considered with statements preparation and validation through juries' method and relevancy score method. The scale was pretested in a non-sample area. Item analysis of thirty-six (36) filtered statements could reduce to eighteen (18) reliable attitude statements in the final scale with accepted "t" values. The reliability test showed the scale was quite reliable through Cronbach alpha value as 0.75 and split half reliability full test value as 0.72 after Spearman-Brown correction. The scale was found to be valid through content validity and known group method test. The scale was administered to the sample farmers with five point continuum response in the Likert scale would categorize farmers into five classes like least favourable, less favourable, favourable, highly favourable, very highly favourable attitudes. Measuring attitude through a standardized scale of stakeholders facilitates future strategy and decision making by policy makers. It can be further validated in meeting several future innovative extension methods.</p> Alok Kumar Sahoo, R. Roy Burman, V. Lenin, V. K. Sajesh, Ph Romen Sharma, Sujit Sarkar, J. P. Sharma, Asif Iquebal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30277 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Maize Commercialization among Smallholder Farmers: The Case of Nunu Kumba District, East Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30278 <p>This study were aimed at analyzemaize producer’s household level of market participation, determinants of maize producer household’s degree of market participationand determinants of maize producer households level of commercialization in the study area. The study used a cross sectional data collected from 345 randomly selected households from four kebeles through semi-structured household questionnaires. Tobit model was used to analyze determinants of level of market participation of maize producers and ordered logit model was used to assess the factors affecting household maize commercialization.Based on Tobit result family size and distance from nearest market affected market participation of maize producers significantly and negatively, and land allocated for maize, access to improved seed, raw planting, amount of credit received and membership of cooperative affected market participation of maize producers significantly and positively. The result of ordered logit revealed that Marital status, Household size, distance from nearest market and age of household head significantly and negatively affected level of commercialization. Whereas, Household labor supply, access to improved seed, amount of fertilizer, credit amount, and household head education class positively and significantly affected level of commercialization. Policies that give more emphasis to family planning, improving and strengthening rural infrastructure, strengthening institutional arrangement like cooperatives have paramount implications to speed up the move from subsistence and semi commercial towards commercial oriented production.</p> Mabiratu Dangia, Prem Kumar Dara, Gersam Daniel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30278 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of Improved Sweet Potato Production Technologies among Small-scale Farmers in South East, Nigeria http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30279 <p>The study was carried out to determine adoption of improved sweet potato production technologies among small-scale farmers in South East, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 100 respondents using questionnaire. Percentage, mean score and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority (64.0%) of the respondents were male, married (85.0%) with a mean age of 55 years, having 81.0% of the respondents with a farming experience of 10-19 years. A greater percentage of the sweet potato producers sourced information on time of planting (55.0%), planting spacing (46.0%) and weeding (37.0%) from research institute while 36.0% sourced information on fertilizer application from fellow farmers. Adoption of improved sweet potato production technologies by producers in the study area included use of improved varieties (79%), planting spacing/distance used (81%), vine cutting (81%), fertilizer application (400 kg/ha, NPK 15:15:15) (91%), pest control (66%), harvesting (77%) and storage method (51%). The study recommended the need for awareness campaign by extension agents, public health agencies, nutritionists and non-governmental organizations on the availability of these sweet potato varieties that produce high yields for better returns. Efforts of government and non-governmental organizations are needed in encouraging sweet potato producers to adopt improved technologies through conduct of practical oriented training programmes, provision of suitable and necessary incentives and technologies in order to increase production and income.</p> M. N. Okeke, E. N. Mbah, M. C. Madukwe, H. U. Nwalieji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30279 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Profitability Analysis of Rice Production, Constraints and Consumption Shares by Small-scale Producers in Tanzania http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30280 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study examines the profitability of rice production, its key factors, and the consumption shares at household level.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A cross-section study design was used in this research.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in the two Districts of Mbarali and Kyela in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania from January to March 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data from 240 small scale rice producers. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and Farm Budgetary Techniques was used to calculate farm economic viability variables including profitability index, return on investment, capital turn over and benefit cost ratio. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to pinpoint and examine the key factors affecting rice profitability by farmers in the study area.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Descriptive statistics revealed that majority farmers have 45 years and below, 95.8% of the farmers are married. Majority (83.3%) households have family size of 2-4 individuals indicating shortage of family labor. About 80.8% of the respondents allocated farm size of 1-3 hectares. The budgetary farm technique revealed that average total cost, gross margin, and net farm income was 846450 (~ US $ 368.08), 1484175 (~US $ 645.41) and 1357975 (~US $ 590.73) Tanzania Shillings respectively. The profitability index, return on investment, capital turn over and benefit cost ratio for producers were 9.5%, 160, 2.6 and 3.1 respectively. According to Kendall’s coefficient of accordance, the identified main constraints for economic viability of rice production were weather variability, lack of access to irrigation services, rice price instability, lack of access to agricultural information and technology, and poor access to the key production inputs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It indicates that rice production is a profitable business in the study area and still there is potential for improving from the current yield. It was demonstrated that most of rice outputs are for commercial purposes with regards to consumption shares. This shows that rice is highly growing as commercial food crop in the Tanzania.</p> Peter, D. Kulyakwave, Shiwei Xu, Wen Yu, Sar Sary, S. Muyobozi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30280 Sat, 04 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Dynamics of Cropping Pattern in Karimnagar District of Telangana – A Markov Chain Approach http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30281 <p>The assessment of shift in cropping pattern in several regions is crucial for a much better insight into the agricultural development method. The present study was undertaken to examine the dynamics of cropping pattern in Karimnagar district of Telangana. The data was collected from Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Telangana from 1966-67 to 2016-17 and it was analysed with the help of Markov chain by decade wise and for last decade, analysed for five periods. The major findings from the study revealed that any set of crops did not retain its area in Karimnagar, but the acreage of the crops was continuously shifting from one set of crops to another set throughout the period. The cereals area was observed to be more stable while the loss of area from cereals towards commercial crops like cotton and turmeric etc. Indicated that the cropping pattern of the region moves towards diversification in northern Telangana zone. There is a larger scope for deciding within the choice of crops to place the agriculture on the pedestal of property growth that has to be thought-about in analysis and extension programmes.</p> D. A. Rajini Devi, R. Uma Reddy, B. Madavi, P. Ravi, P. Sadvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30281 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of Good Management Practices by the Gaushalas (Cow-shed) in Karnataka State, India http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30282 <p>Gaushalas play a vital role in safeguarding the cattle wealth of our country. It is primarily occupied with providing shelter to cows and is catering mostly the needs of non-lactating, weak, unproductive and stray cattle. However, a few fore front Gaushalas also maintain nucleus herd for <em>in-situ </em>conservation of indigenous purebred cows and produce quality males so as to enhance productivity of indigenous breeds. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding the level of adoption of good management practices by the Gaushalas. The study was conducted in Karnataka State involving 40 out of 80 registered Gaushalas, categorized as small (n=12), medium (n=18) and large (n=10) Gaushalas based on the herd size. Good management practices play an important role in improving the production performances of cattle, enhancing efficiency of animals in Gaushalas. In the present study ‘adoption’ was operationalised as the degree to which the good management practices viz., breeding, feeding, healthcare, general management and hygienic milk production, were adopted in the Gaushalas.</p> Kalyan Mandi, S. Subash ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30282 Thu, 09 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in Collective Marketing and the Extent of Participation in Improved Indigenous Chicken Markets in Baringo, Kenya http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30283 <p>Smallholder farmer collective action not only provides a solution to farmer’s constraints such as lack of market accessibility and inability to take advantage of available market opportunities but also holds the potential to diversify their incomes and increase agricultural productivity translating to enhanced food security and poverty eradication. This research aimed at investigating the role of farmer marketing groups in smallholder market participation using a sample of 198 farmers, sampled from a population of 395 smallholder improved indigenous chicken farmers in Baringo, Kenya, using Probit and Tobit models. The study findings established that farmers' involvement in collective action is predominantly determined by; Education level, household size, distance to extension, cost of transport, and the price per chicken. The extent of participation in improved indigenous chicken markets was positively related to; education level of the household head and farm size while negatively and significantly influenced by off-farm income and the cost of farming. The results of this study provide evidence that farmer collective action has the potential of strengthening market participation among smallholder farmers.</p> Emmanuel Kiprop, Cedric Okinda, Samuel Wamuyu, Xianhui Geng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30283 Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Analysis of Cut Flower (Rose and Gerbera) Production under Polyhouse in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh, India http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30284 <p>Flowers are crowning beauty of God's creation. They are inseparable part of human joy and sorrows. It is said that man is born with flowers, lives with flowers and finally dies with flowers.The main objective of the present study was to analyze the cost of production of selected cut flower i.e. rose, gerbera grown under polyhouses in Jabalpur district. From the selected blocks a list of polyhouse cut flower growers were collected with the help of officials of the Joint Director of Horticulture, Jabalpur There are eight cut flowers polyhouse established in the district during last year. The primary data required for the study were collected by personal interview of the respondents. The information on cost and return in production of cut flower were collected personally by the use of well structured interview schedule. The data were collected through selected farmers. This paper examined the cost and return and benefit cost ratio of cut flower cultivation under protected condition.&nbsp; The study revealed that total cost in gerbera and rose production grown on an average 1200 m<sup>2</sup> were Rs 909206 and Rs. 882517, respectively. The annual gerbera and rose production on sample polyhouse 409288 nos and 342000 nos flowers respectively which is 108 and 76% higher than the break- even level, Net profit was to the extent of Rs 529868 and Rs 345288 and benefit- cost ratio was 1:85 and 1:61 respectively. Thus, existing production technology yield sufficient profit to the cut flowers growers. huge investment requirement, shortage of trained manpower, price fluctuation, lack of scientific knowledge &amp; training, attack by pest &amp; disease, lack of extension work came out as major financial and technical problems (Wani NI, 2017). There is a need to establish a research and development wing in order to develop better methods of cultivation and optimum use of recommended inputs in floriculture.</p> Yogesh Tiwari, P. K. Awasthi, Prem Ratan Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30284 Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Analysis of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberusum) Marketing in Metropolitan Markets of Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30285 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This paper evaluates the economic analysis of Irish Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) marketing in the metropolitan markets of Bauchi State.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A sample random sampling technique was used in selecting eighty (80) respondents (30 wholesalers and 50 retailers).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was done at Bauchi State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Questionnaire was used to collect data on the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers and other information on cost/return from the respondents. It was however complemented with oral interviews.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results shows that the enterprise is a profitable venture in the metropolitan markets of Bauchi with a Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of (1.84) Yelwa Tudu market compared to other markets, while acquisition cost constitutes the highest proportion of the total cost of marketing potato. The majority of the marketers were female (57.75%) with 70% of the total respondents falling within the age bracket of 30-50 years. Majority of the marketers had a marketing experience of 1-10 years (58.73%). Also 70% of the marketers were married and 57% started their business with personal savings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study identified different challenges in Irish potatoes production and marketing in Bauchi State, Nigeria.</p> U. E. Umoffia, U. K. Iroegbute, T. M. Barnabas, J. A. Nandi, J. N. Akeweta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30285 Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influencing Factors of Rural Families’ Migration to Urban Area: The Case of Kabul, Afghanistan http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30286 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed to determine factors influencing rural families’ migration to urban areas in Kabul, Afghanistan.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Data were collected in different neighbourhoods of Kabul, Afghanistan during the July-September period of 2019. Data analyses and manuscript preparation were completed in the October-December period of 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> First, the most populated neighbourhoods of Kabul, particularly those areas where the majority of families migrated from rural areas were determined. The data of the study were collected from 400 rural-urban migrants in Kabul city. The questionnaires were filled during face to face informal meetings with households. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, and means. The questionnaire included socio-economic characteristics of rural-urban migrants, pushing and pulling factors which affected rural migration, reasons for insecurity in rural areas, and satisfaction and reintegration of migrants in Kabul city.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show that unemployment with 9.53 and fear of terror with 9.15 are the most effective pushing factors for rural families to migrate. However, the most important pulling factors which make Kabul city attractive for rural families are the issues regarding rights (women rights with 8.82, having right to vote with 8.73 and human rights with 8.71).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the last five years Afghanistan had huge number immigration internally (1.1 million person) and internationally (1.7 million people) Results of this study suggest that to slower rural-urban migration in Afghanistan, rural development programs should be implemented, and the priority of these programs should be given to the creation of employment opportunities and eliminating gender inequalities in rural areas. Otherwise, either rural-urban migration or dissatisfaction of being in Kabul and preferring not reintegrating back to their villages will make rural-urban migrants seek international migration.</p> Abdul Ahad Hakim, Ismet Boz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/30286 Tue, 14 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000