The Scenario of Groundwater Pollution after Implementation of Zero Liquid Discharge: An Agricultural Economic Perspective

G. Arun Prasath *

School of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Gandhigram Rural Institute (GRI - DTBU), Dindigul - 624302, Tamil Nadu, India.

D. Velmurugan

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. Ravichandran

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Groundwater pollution is hard to remediate in the Noyyal river region even after the implementation of Zero Liquid Discharge process. Hence, to study the status and extent of groundwater pollution in the Noyyal river region, Tiruppur district of Tamil Nadu was purposively selected and classified into 3 regions based on the distance from the river and 120 farms were selected. Tools of analysis viz., Cost benefit analysis, Resource use efficiency and decomposition analysis were undertaken to study the status of groundwater pollution and its effect on agriculture. The results showed that intensity and severity of pollution is high in the region closer to Noyyal river (less than 1 km). Income from agriculture is also low in that region due to the use of polluted groundwater for irrigation. The study revealed that Zero Liquid Discharge ensures stoppage of industrial effluents into the river and hence, river pollution is stopped. Similarly, a suitable policy is required to revamp groundwater. Hence, the suggested policy includes water storage structures like tanks, lakes, ponds etc are to be used for groundwater recharge purpose alone.

Keywords: Groundwater, pollution, agriculture, irrigation, Noyyal river, industrial effluents, groundwater

How to Cite

Prasath, G. Arun, D. Velmurugan, and S. Ravichandran. 2024. “The Scenario of Groundwater Pollution After Implementation of Zero Liquid Discharge: An Agricultural Economic Perspective”. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 42 (6):230-40.


Download data is not yet available.


Shiklomanov Igor. A. World fresh water resources. In Water in Crisis: A guide to the world fresh water resources, ed Peter H. Gleick, Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment and Security, Stockholm Environment Institute, New York. 1993:13-24.


Jain, Meha, Ram Fishman, Pinki Mondal, Gillian L. Galford, Nishan Bhattarai, Shahid Naeem, Upmanu Lall, Balwinder-Singh, and Ruth S. DeFries. Groundwater depletion will reduce cropping intensity in India. Science advances. 2021;7(9): eabd2849. Available:

Jain Rajni, Prabhat Kishore, Dhirendra Kumar Singh. Irrigation in India: Status, challenges and options. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2019;18(4):354-363. Available:

Malkani P, Sagar AKRA, Singh P, Kumar Y. Assessment of Physico-chemical Drinking Water Quality for Surface, Groundwater and Effluents of Industrial Cluster near Kashipur and Water of Kosi River. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019;38(6):1–12.


Lima ML, Romanelli A, Massone HE. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed. Science of the Total Environment. 2015;530:333-346.

Geetha A, Palanisamy PN, Sivakumar P, Ganesh Kumar P, Sujatha M. Assessment of underground water contamination and effect of textile effluents on Noyyal River basin in and around Tiruppur Town, Tamilnadu. E-Journal of Chemistry. 2008; 5(4):696-705. Available:

Teng Yanguo, Bin Hu, Jieqiong Zheng, Jinsheng Wang, Yuanzheng Zhai, and Chen Zhu. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China. Hydrogeology Journal. 2018;26(5): 1591-1607. Available:

Wang, Dan, Jianhua Wu, Yuanhang Wang, and Yujie Ji. Finding high-quality groundwater resources to reduce the hydatidosis incidence in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China: Analysis, assessment, and management. Exposure and Health. 2020;12(2):307-322. Available:

Su, Zhenmin, Jianhua Wu, Xiaodong He, and Vetrimurugan Elumalai. Temporal changes of groundwater quality within the groundwater depression cone and prediction of confined groundwater salinity using Grey Markov model in Yinchuan area of northwest China. Exposure and Health. 2020;12(3):447-468. Available:

Tatti, Fabio, Marco Petrangeli Papini, Vincenzo Torretta, Giuseppe Mancini, Maria Rosaria Boni, and Paolo Viotti. Experimental and numerical evaluation of Groundwater Circulation Wells as a remediation technology for persistent, low permeability contaminant source zones. Journal of contaminant hydrology. 2019;222:89-100. Available:

Li, Peiyue, D. Karunanidhi, T. Subramani, and K. Srinivasamoorthy. Sources and consequences of groundwater contamination. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2021;80 (1):1-10. Available:

Bhatia Deepika, Neeta Raj Sharma, Joginder Singh, and Ramesh Kanwar. Biological methods for textile dye removal from wastewater. A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;47(19):1836-1876. Available:

Bhatia, Deepika, Neeta Raj Sharma, Ramesh Kanwar, Joginder Singh. Physicochemical assessment of industrial textile effluents of Punjab (India). Applied Water Science. 2018;8(3): 1-12. Available:

Karthick V, Alagumani T, Amarnath JS. Resource–use efficiency and technical efficiency of turmeric production in Tamil Nadu—A Stochastic Frontier Approach. Agricultural Economics Research Review. 2013;26(1):109-114. Available:

Jeevan MN, Mukhopadhyay S, Dey G. Resource use Efficiency of Subsistence and Commercial crops- Comparative Economic Analysis of Ragi and Sunflower in Karnataka. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2018;10(22):7528-7531.


Pouchepparadjou A, Kumaravelu P, Lalith Achoth. An econometric analysis of green technology adoption in irrigated rice in Pondicherry union territory. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 2005;60(4):660-676. Available:

Yuvasakthi S, Dinesh Kumar. An economic impact of water pollution on value of crop land in Tiruppur District of Tamil Nadu. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017;6(5):788-790. Available:

Rastogi M, Kolur SM, Burud A, Sadineni T, Sekhar M, Kumar R, Rajput A. Advancing Water Conservation Techniques in Agriculture for Sustainable Resource Management: A review. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2024;28(3): 41–53.