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Aims: This study aimed to determine factors influencing rural families’ migration to urban areas in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Place and Duration of Study: Data were collected in different neighbourhoods of Kabul, Afghanistan during the July-September period of 2019. Data analyses and manuscript preparation were completed in the October-December period of 2019.
Methodology: First, the most populated neighbourhoods of Kabul, particularly those areas where the majority of families migrated from rural areas were determined. The data of the study were collected from 400 rural-urban migrants in Kabul city. The questionnaires were filled during face to face informal meetings with households. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages, and means. The questionnaire included socio-economic characteristics of rural-urban migrants, pushing and pulling factors which affected rural migration, reasons for insecurity in rural areas, and satisfaction and reintegration of migrants in Kabul city.
Results: The results show that unemployment with 9.53 and fear of terror with 9.15 are the most effective pushing factors for rural families to migrate. However, the most important pulling factors which make Kabul city attractive for rural families are the issues regarding rights (women rights with 8.82, having right to vote with 8.73 and human rights with 8.71).
Conclusion: In the last five years Afghanistan had huge number immigration internally (1.1 million person) and internationally (1.7 million people) Results of this study suggest that to slower rural-urban migration in Afghanistan, rural development programs should be implemented, and the priority of these programs should be given to the creation of employment opportunities and eliminating gender inequalities in rural areas. Otherwise, either rural-urban migration or dissatisfaction of being in Kabul and preferring not reintegrating back to their villages will make rural-urban migrants seek international migration.
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