Main Article Content
Aims: Sesame productions are constantly bedeviled with menace because of inadequate supply of quality seed, extension services, credit facilities, presence of inefficiencies among others. The capacity of sesame producers to accept new innovation and achieve sustained production relies upon the level of profit efficiency, generally dictated by variable input and output prices including the cost of fixed factors of production. Physical profitability contemplations such technical, allocative and economic efficiency are significant in improving production proficiency but profit efficiency will result to higher profit to sesame farmers. This paper examined the profit efficiency of sesame production in Yobe State, Nigeria.
Research Methods: Multistage sampling procedure is utilized to choose the farmers. A structured questionnaire is administered to 180 respondents spread across 12 Local Government Areas to acquired essential information. Descriptive statistics used includes mean, frequency and percentage. The inferential statistic used is stochastic translog profit function.
Findings: The result of levels of profit efficiency shows the mean profit efficiency of 0.8828. The result of the translog profit function indicates the sigma square to be 0.249 and variance of 0.909. All the cost variables has negative coefficients and significant at one percent level except for cost of farmlands. The inefficiency variables levels of education, Access to Extension Services, Access to credits among others reduce inefficiency while off-farm income and access to market information increase inefficiency.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that inefficiency exist in the utilization of resources. All the input cost variable decreases profit efficiency and all the socioeconomic characteristics decreases profit inefficiency with the exception of, off-farm income and access to market information which were found to increase profit inefficiency.
Chemonics International Inc. Overview of sesame industry. The United State agency for international development (USAID)/Nigeria RAISE IQC contract No PCE-1-00-99- 00003-00. 2002;8-20. FAO.; 2018 Available:http://www.fao.org/ faostat/en/data/QC/visualize
Nigeria Export Promotion Council (NEPC). Expanding Nigeria’s exports of sesame seeds, sheanut/butter through improved capacity building for the private and public sector. 2014;1-37.
Proshare, sesame seeds - A diamond in the rough; 2018.
Nigeria Export Promotion Council (NEPC), Promising Markets – Sesame Seed. 2018; 1.
Oladimeji YU, Sidi AG, Damisa MA, Yusuf O. Value chain analysis of sesame in bade and Jakusko Local Government Areas of Yobe State, Nigeria. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment. 2014;5(3):1-13.
Sharon OA. Economic analysis of Sesame production among small-holder farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. M.Sc Agricultural Economics Thesis. Ahmadu Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 2016.
Ali M, Flinn JC. Profit efficiency among basmati rice producers in Pakistan Punjab. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 1989;71:303 – 310.
Emokaro CO, Erhabor PO. Technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Edo State: A stochastic frontier approach. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research. 2006; 20:16-19.
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMA and WR). National programme for food security. Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Abuja. 2008;107.
Spencer D. The future of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: Whither the small farm? sustainable food security for all by 2020; Proceedings of an International Conference, September 4-6, Bonn Germany. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C., USA. 2002;107-109.
Adole SO. Economic analysis of sesame production among small-holder farmers In Benue State, Nigeria, M Sc Dissertation Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology. 2016;50-63.
Nwaru JC. Rural credit market resource use in arable crop production in Imo State Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria. 2004;1–130.
Amaza PS, Olayemi O. Analysis of technical efficiency in food crop production in Gombe State of Nigeria. Nigeria Applied Economics. 2002;9(13): 146–152.
Mohammed T, Alidu AF. Profit efficiency of small scale yam production in Northern Ghana. International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability. 2017;5(1):69-82.
Rukwe DT, Zubairu EA. Determinant of technical efficiency of sesame production in Kurmi Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2019;12(1):43-51.
Adamu T, Bakari UM. Profit efficiency among rain-fed rice farmers in Northern Taraba State. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2015;5(8):113-119.
Saysay JL, Gabagambi DM, Mlay GI. Profit Efficiency among smallholder rice farmers in Central Liberia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2016;7(14):2222-1700.
Dang NH. Determinants of profit efficiency among rice farmers in Kien Giang Province, Vietnam. Proceedings of the 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance and Business Management (AP17Thai Conference) Bangkok-Thailand. 2017; Paper ID: T748. ISBN: 978-1-943579-72-3.
Ogundari K. Economic efficiency of food crop production in Ondo State of Nigeria. An M.Sc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, FUTA, Akure; 2006.
Oladeebo JO, Oluwaranti AS. Profit efficiency among cassava producers: Empirical evidence from South western Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development. 2012;1(2):46–52.
Dia YZ, Gwandi O. Determinant of beniseed (Sesanum indicum L.) production among beniseed farmers in Mubi Region of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Crop. 2015;1(4):44–49.
Umar HS, Okoye CU, Agwale AO. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 2011;14:405-411.
Umar HS, Okoye CU, Mamman BD. Resource use efficiency in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Keana local government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2010;6(4):466-471.
Nyiatagher ZT, Ocholi A. Gross margin analysis and resource use efficiency in sesame production among small- scale farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2015; 8(7):15-23
Dzer FA. Evaluation of the production efficiency and profitability of sesame production in Gwer East and Konshisha local government areas of Benue State of Nigeria. An M.Sc. Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. 2015;41-56.
National Population Commission (NPC). A publication of national population commission, Nigeria, FGN Official Gazette for Yobe State, Nigeria; 2006.
Yobe State Government Home Page (YSGHP). Online Nigeria; 2011. (Accessed on 3rd August 2011. Available:http://www.onlinenigeria.com/map.
Yamane T. Statitics, an introductory analysis. New York: Harper and Row. 1967;2.
Shaikh SA, Hongbing O, Khan K, Ahmed M. Determinants of rice productivity: An analysis of Jaffarabad District- Balochistan. Pakistan European Scientific Journal. 2016;32(12):41-50.
Rahman S. Profit efficiency among Bangladeshi rice farmers. Food Policy. 2003;28:483–503.
Hyuha TS, Bashaasha B, Nkonya E, Kraybill D. Analysis of Profit Inefficiency in rice production in Eastern and Northern Uganda. African Crop Science Journal. 2007;15(4):243–253.
Ojo MA, Mohammed US, Ojo AO, Yisa ES, Tsado JH. Profit efficiency of small scale cowpea farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2009; 2(2):40-48.
Ettah OI, Kuye OO. Analysis and Determinants of Profit Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB). 2017;2(1):225–229.
Wadud IKMM, Rashid HA. Profit efficiency and farm characteristics: Evidence from the rice farmers in Bangladesh. Paper Presented at the Barcelona European Academic Conference, Barcelona, Spain. 2011; 1053–1062.
Okoruwa VO, Akindeinde AO, Salimonu KK. Relative Economic efficiency of farms in rice production: A profit function approach in North Central Nigeria. Tropical and subtropical Agro Ecosystems. 2009;10 (2):279 – 286.
Ogunniyi LT. Profit efficiency among cocoyam producers in Osun Stae, Nigeria produced by IJAERD press - Nigeria, International Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2008; 1(1):38–46.
Tuffour M, Oppong BA. Profit efficiency in broiler production: Evidence from Greater Accra Region of Ghana. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics. 2012;2(1):23-32.
Jude AK. Technical efficiency of upland rice producers in South Western Uganda. Msc. Thesis, Makerere University, Uganda. 2012;84.
Abdulai A, Huffman W. An Examination of Profit Inefficiency of Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana. Iowa State University, Department of Economics. 1998;296.
Galawat F, Yabe M. Profit efficiency in rice production in Brunei Darussalam: A stochastic frontier approach. Journal of International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. 2012;18(1):100–112.
Lockhedd ME, Jamison DT, Lau LJ. Farmers education and farm efficiency: A survey. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 1980;29:37–76.
Ali M, Byerlee D. Economic efficiency of small farmers in a changing world: A survey of recent evidence. Journal of International Development. 1991;3(1):1–27.
Adeleke OA, Matanmi H, Ogunniyi LT. Application of the normalized profit function in the estimation of the profit efficiency among small-holder farmers in Atiba local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Economic Theory. 2008;2(3):71-76.
Mango N, Makate C, Hanyani-Mlambo B, Siziba S, Lundy M. A stochastic frontier analysis of technical efficiency in smallholder maize production in Zimbabwe: The post-fast-track land reform outlook. Cogent Econ. Fin. 2015;3(1): 1117189.
Latruffe L, Balcombe K, Davidova S, Zawalinska K. Determinants of technical efficiency of crop and livestock farms in Poland. Appl. Econ. 2004;36(12):1255-1263.
Assa MM, Edriss AK, Matchaya GC. Unexploited profit among smallholder farmers in Central Malawi: What are the Sources? International Journal of Applied Economics. 2012;9(2):83-95.
Dwi R, Arief D, Mangara T, Dedi BD. Impact of infrastructure on profit efficiency of vegetable farming in West Java, Indonesia: Stochastic frontier approach. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Science. 2014;20(1):77–92.
Sadiq MS, Singh IP. Application of stochastic frontier function in measuring profit efficiency of small-scale maize farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2015;3(1):229–239.
Mohammed ST. Supply response and profit efficiency of castor seed production in Yobe State, Nigeria. An Unpublished Ph.D desertation, University of Maiduguri. Maiduguri. Nigeria; 2012.
Kolawole O. Determinants of profit efficiency among small scale rice farmers in Nigeria: A profit function approach. Research Journal of Applied Sciences; 2006;1(1):116–122.
Nwachukwu IN, Onyenwaku CE. Economic Efficiency of fadama telfairia production in Imo State, Nigeria: A translog profit function approach. Munich Personal RePEc Archive. 2007;1-11.
Tan S, Heerink N, Kuyvenhoven AQ. Impact of land fragmentation on rice producers’ technical efficiency in South-East China. NJAS-Wageningen J. Life Sci. 2010;57(2):117-123.
Hyuha T. Profit efficiency among rice farmers in Uganda. Thesis for Award of PhD Degree at Makerere University, Uganda. 2006;146.