Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2021-10-26T13:32:43+00:00 Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> An Empirical Analysis of Timber Trade in India 2021-10-14T02:00:27+00:00 R. Shobika S. Selvanayaki N. Deepa R. Vasanthi <p>Forests are renewable resources that contribute significantly to economic growth. The economic contribution by forest is through the valuable commodities including wood, paper and non-timber forest products. One among this is timber, it has been the primary material for house construction and furnishings of all kinds over the years. Timber plays a vital role in international trade in India. This study was focused on finding growth pattern in export and import of timber using Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR). Over the period of 2005-2019, the production of timber has been increased at the rate of 0.07%. The import performance was dominant over the export due to over requirements of raw materials. Although export showed positive growth rate at 0.15%, import of timber shot up at 4.09% from 2005-2019. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce adequate due diligence system to meet domestic demand of timber production in India.</p> 2021-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socio-personal and Communication Characteristics of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) Beneficiary Farmers in Uttarakhand 2021-10-15T01:55:34+00:00 Babita Adhikari S. V. Prasad P. L. R. J. Praveena G. Karuna sagar B. Ravindra Reddy <p>Water is a critical resource in agriculture &amp; allied sector and it is estimated that globally, on average, agriculture accounts for 70 percent of global freshwater withdrawals. Consequently, the management of water in agriculture (irrigation) becomes important and in this context, programmes on irrigation and water conservation have been playing pivotal role. At present, this task at central level is performed by Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY). So, the research objective was formulated to study the socio-personal and communication characteristics of beneficiary farmers of PMKSY and it was undertaken during 2020-21. Uttarkashi and Dehradun districts were selected purposively and two blocks were selected in each district by simple random sampling. Three villages from each block and twenty farmers from each village were selected by following simple random sampling. Thus, the sample constituted to a total of 240 respondents. The findings revealed that majority (35.84%) of beneficiary farmers belonged for middle age group, more than two-fifth (40.00%) of the beneficiary farmers had education up to intermediate, almost two-fifth (39.17%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium farm, nearly half (49.59%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium farming experience. Moreover, beneficiary farmers (100.00%) had agriculture as their primary occupation, half (50.83%) of the beneficiary farmers had medium extension contact, more than half (56.67%) had medium level of mass media exposure followed, three-fifth (61.25%) beneficiary farmers had high innovativeness, 51.67 per cent PMKSY beneficiary farmers had low level of training exposure, majority (47.50%) had low social participation, 60.83 per cent beneficiary farmers had medium achievement motivation, majority (67.50%) had medium scientific orientation and majority (66.67%) of beneficiary farmers belonged to medium risk preference group. Interventions on focusing on small and marginal farmers, providing more trainings, improving extension contacts and social participation were suggested as the suitable measures for success of micro irrigation under PMKSY.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Constraints in the Diffusion of E-NAM and the Policy Measures 2021-10-15T01:56:10+00:00 Baljit Kaur K. K. Kundu Nitin Sharma <p>The study's major goal is to look at how prices and market arrivals have changed before and after the installation of e-NAM, as well as the challenges that stakeholders experience in adopting this technology. Based on the facilities gained from the designated APMCs linked with e-NAM through personal interviews, data from randomly selected farmers and dealers, cum commission agents, and committee officials was collected. Several users were interviewed in order to achieve this goal relating to various challenges faced by e-NAM stakeholders while participating in the process of selling and buying through the e-NAM site. Farmers in the selected APMCs faced significant challenges due to the complicated and time-consuming method of trading in the e-NAM system, a lack of knowledge about e-trading (farmers frequently do not understand the meaning displayed in the machine), and frequent visits to the bank for payment realisation.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Economic Analysis on Production of Grapes in Theni District of Tamilnadu 2021-10-18T05:37:33+00:00 K. Keerthana A. Rohini D. Murugananthi R. Vasanthi <p>This study was mainly concentrated on grape production. The results of analysis would throw light on the extent of cost and returns of grape cultivation, constraints faced by farmers ranked using Garett’s ranking technique. The cost and return of the grape farm per acre were analyzed and the average total cost was worked out to Rs.73,815.45 per acre and the average gross return was Rs 1,20,290 per acre.The result of the study indicates that grape cultivation is highly profitable and the benefit cost ratio was more than one (1.6). The major constraints faced by the sample farmers in the cultivation of grapes were pest attack followed by weeds, water shortage, credit availability and lack of input availability. The results would help the policy makers in formulating suitable programs and devising strategy for increasing production of grapes in Tamil Nadu.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inter-collaboration Network among Institutional Actors of Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS): A Comparative Study between Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri Districts of West Bengal, India 2021-10-21T05:21:14+00:00 Golam Torab Ali Ganesh Das Prabhat Kumar Pal <p>Agricultural extension institutions play different roles at village level. There is always a need of inter-collaboration network between different institutions. Information exchange among these organizations is important for technology generation, information dissemination and adoption. So, it is imperative to know the inter collaboration network among the institutional actors which requires proper investigation and analysis. A few works were found in India on inter-collaboration network among the institutional actors of Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS). The objective of the study was to find out the inter-collaboration network among institutional actors of AKIS of two different districts of West Bengal and their comparative evaluation. The data were collected from 84 respondents from 19 different institutions employing a random sampling technique. The data were analysed through UCINET 6 and Netdraw software. It was found from the study that <em>Krishi Vigyan Kendra</em> (KVK), Comprehensive Area Development Corporation (CADC), Agricultural line department through Assistant Director of Agriculture (ADA), Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) and Farmer Producers’ Organisations (FPO) play a pivotal role in this network. It was found also from the study that Cooch Behar district had stronger inter-collaboration network among its institution’s actors than Jalpaiguri district.</p> 2021-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenges in Designing and Development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) as Perceived by Instructors across India 2021-10-21T05:04:33+00:00 Rohini Anand <p>The study aimed to explore the challenges perceived by the instructors during the designing and development of MOOCs in India. The data was collected through a mailed questionnaire with the help of Google form. A total of 79 respondents were involved across India. Descriptive research design was used for this particular study. The study revealed that content development (2.48) was perceived as a big challenge by the instructors because most of the content was available in video form. Learners’ engagement (2.33) was found as the second most important challenge perceived by the instructors. Other important challenges were time pressure during the development of MOOCs (2.20); moderating discussion forum (2.11) and technical competency (2.06). It can be concluded that among all parameters content development is hectic and the most challenging. One can be more effective in content development when others parameters like technical competency, discussion forum etc. are tackled properly so that more time and energy can be given in content development.</p> 2021-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of Tomato Growers' Marketing Behaviour in The Dindigul Area of Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-22T02:05:16+00:00 G. Kowsalya K. Ramakrishnan K. Prabakaran A. Janaki Rani <p>The present study was carried out in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu, India by using random sampling method with 120 respondents and data collected by well structured interview schedule. There are 8 blocks of Dindigul district (Tamil Nadu, India) out of which 4 blocks were selected on the basis of maximum area (1568 ha) and production (18002 MT). Objective of this research is to study the Marketing behaviour of tomato growers. Consumers' marketing behaviour when looking for, buying, selling, using, evaluating, and discarding products and services that they believe will meet their requirements. According to the findings, the majority of respondents (64.16 per cent) had a medium level of overall marketing behaviour, followed by 23.34 per cent of them having high and only 12.5 percent of them having low level of marketing behaviour.</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relevance of Customized Agricultural Extension Services for Social Inclusion and Food Security: A Showcase from Ethiopia 2021-10-22T02:06:31+00:00 Tewodros Tefera Remko Vonk Mulugeta Diro Dawit Alemu <p>For the last six decades, Ethiopia has been implementing different agricultural extension approaches. These approaches range from area focused comprehensive package programme which selectively targeted high potential areas to modified Training and Visit extension and the recent nationwide participatory extension System.&nbsp; One thing in common in all these approaches is standardized advisory system characterised by ‘one size fits for all’ approaches which pushes selected package of technologies and extension messages to all classes of smallholder farmers. The study followed a comparative analysis of baseline and post interventions assessment using ‘one-timad extension package’ customised advisory service. One -timad extension package is exclusively designed for land constrained poor farmers on a quarter of a hectare land size with farmers preferred crop varieties, recommended fertilizer rate, practical training and Integrated Pest management. The pilots were implemented in four regional states of Ethiopia to get an insight for further engagement. The finding shows the need for advisory service to be inclusive; technology supply and services tailored to the multiple capacities and demands of different classes of small farmers. Hence, further piloting to new clients and areas is recommended for institutionalization of the approach.</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Trend and Instability Index Analysis in Paddy Crop Area, Productivity and Production across District in Andhra Pradesh, India 2021-10-22T02:07:09+00:00 Katha Reddy Baswanth Kumar M. Anji Reddy K. R. Karunakaran K. B. Shafeer <p>Paddy is the important, food grain, cereal crop, and staple food crop of India. India ranks second in production of paddy after China. This establishes the pressing need for the study of vulnerability and trend of paddy cultivation and productivity in India. Andhra Pradesh being one of the largest producers of paddy, the compound growth rate and instability in area, productivity and production of paddy in Andhra Pradesh was assessed after the remainder of the state of undivided Andhra Pradesh after bifurcation in 2014 with the jurisdiction of four Rayalaseema and nine Coastal Andhra districts. In this study, we have analyzed the trend &amp; carried out instability index analysis in paddy crop area, productivity and production across district of Andhra Pradesh to explicate the trend in extent paddy cultivation and paddy productivity, district wise Cuddy-Della Valle-Instability Index (%) for the paddy cultivating area from 1991-92 to 2018-19, using the data collected from Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Andhra Pradesh. We assessed district wise Cuddy-Della Valle-Instability Index (%) in paddy productivity from 1991-92 to 2018-19 and found that in Andhra Pradesh, the area of paddy cultivation, paddy productivity output has changed in the study area over the time. Between 1991-92 and 2018-19, the overall paddy growth rate of the area showed a decline of 0.5%. And growth rate of paddy productivity was 1.31% while the increase of production was 0.74%, which can be attributed to the negative impacts arising out of changing weather patterns.</p> 2021-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Non-Tariff Measures (NTM) and Their Significance in Agricultural Trade of India and European Union 2021-10-25T02:29:16+00:00 M. B. Niranjan K. M. Shivakumar M. Prahadeeswaran A. Rohini <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The research study aims to study the decadal growth in agricultural trade of top five agricultural commodities between India and the European Union and also the quantification of Non-Tariff Measures (NTM) of select agricultural commodities to give trade policy suggestions to the concerned commodity sectors</p> <p><strong>Study Design and Methodology: </strong>A decadal growth in top five agricultural commodities were studied for 28 European Union Countries (EU-28) and India using Compounded Annual Growth Rate and NTM of three subsections of WTO were quantified using inventory-based approaches; coverage ratio and frequency index.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>In terms of quantity exported, positive annual growth rate of 0.24, 0.48 and 0.76 per cent in marine products, coffee and castor oil is noticed. A negative growth of 0.67 and 2.6 per cent in spices and tobacco unmanufactured is witnessed during the study period. Export value recorded the positive annual growth rate of 2.96, per cent in marine products and spices and a negative growth of 1.7,0.16 and 2.8 per cent in coffee, castor oil and tobacco unmanufactured respectively. Export value per unit showed annual positive growth of 2.7,2.2 and 0.94 per cent in marine products, coffee and spices and negative growth of 0.91 and 0.22 per cent in castor oil and tobacco unmanufactured respectively. Both Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Measures had a greater impact in the agricultural export form India to EU-28 during 2010-11 to 2019-20.</p> 2021-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Local Production and Commercialisation of Milk from Holstein Cows in the Grassfields of Cameroon: Contribution to Improving Living Conditions in Rural Areas 2021-10-25T02:27:52+00:00 Moluh Njoya Hamza Fon Dorothy Engwali Mfewou Abdoulay Ould Ahmed Pepita <p>The role of livestock farming is no longer to be demonstrated in rural areas. Livestock provide income and facilitate access to food in rural areas. The aim of this article is to analyse the local production and marketing of milk from Holstein cows in the Grassfield (North West and West regions) of Cameroon in order to understand how much Holstein farming contributes to the rural economy. The data was collected using a questionnaire administered to 325 households producing milk from Holstein cows only. These households were selected on the basis of the existence of milk production units in the study area The data were analysed using SPSS version 20 software and Excel. Analyses of the data collected reveal that; the average milk production of cows in Grassfields varies from one lactation stage to another (7.75 liters/ day in the beginning of lactation to 17 liters / day at the end of lactation) with a daily average of 12.83 liters per day. The milk production of Holstein cows in the study areas is higher in Noun division (10 to 20 liters / day) than in Mezam division (5.5 to 14 liters per day). The profit margin generated by large producers is 230,100 CFA francs per month. On the other hand, the small producers have a profit margin of 33,800 CFA francs per month. The chi-square test of independence showed that X² = 5.756 and the probability (sig) = 1.6% which is less than 5%, which implies that the result is significant at 5%. The rotating saving groups contribute to the improvement of incomes. They therefore play a role in financing production. The evaluation of the contribution of rotating saving and credits association in improving the standard of living of households producing Holstein milk has shown that rotating saving association contribute significantly to the financing of the production of milk in production units, the education of children in breeding households. Rotating saving groups facilitate access to household food and healthcare. This economic activity of production and commercialisation of milk from Holstein cows certainly makes it possible to meet the daily needs of households, but it remains an informal activity in view of the production environment. The strong involvement of the public authorities is therefore necessary to make milk production a sector of the economy, although production and marketing activities are currently impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Attitude of Sericulture Beneficiary Farmers towards the Activities of Technical Service Centres (TSCs) in Karnataka State of India 2021-10-25T02:28:37+00:00 N. Harisha B. Mukunda Rao T. Gopi Krishna K. Uma Devi S. K. Nafeez Umar <p>Sericulture in Karnataka is in the process of modernization in many phases through new demand driven extension approach called Technical Service Centres (TSCs) located at the grass-root level (Hobli and Taluka level). These centres mainly involved in the dissemination of the technologies developed by the Research Institutes and also in supply of mulberry cuttings/saplings, monitoring mulberry cultivation, silkworm rearing and providing &nbsp;&nbsp;information about loan facilities and subsidy schemes. There is a need to study the attitude of sericulture beneficiary farmers towards activities of TSCs. The study was conducted during 2018-20 in the Karnataka state of India. The Karnataka state was contributing 35.00 per cent of silk production in India. An ex-post facto research design was used or the study. An attitude was measured by Likert scale construction. The Ramanagara and Mandya districts were selected because these district having highest number of TSCs in Bangalore and Mysore division respectively. Mandya, Malavalli and K.R Pet taluks from Mandya district on the other hand Ramanagara, Channapatna and Kanakapura taluks from Ramanagara district were purposively selected for the study. Above taluks were selected based on top 3 taluks in TSCs in district. The four TSCs from each taluk leads to twelve from each district, Totally, 24 TSCs were selected for the study. Ten sericulture farmers under each TSC, collectively 240, were selected by using random sampling method. The study revealed that just little more than half (50.42%) of the sericulture farmers had medium favourable attitude towards activities of TSCs followed by high favourable attitude (35.00%) and only 14.58 per cent of the sericulture farmers had low favourable attitude. The probable reason might be majority of the sericulture farmers participated in trainings at Sericulture Training Institute at K.R Pet of Mandya District and Channapatna of Ramanagara district and also they were undergone for study tour to Kolar district. They were supplied subsidized mulberry saplings, bed disinfectants, growth promoters among sericulture farmers.</p> 2021-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Adoption Level of Black Gram VBN 8 among Farmers of Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu 2021-10-26T02:18:18+00:00 M. Muthulakshmi R. Premavathi <p>Pulses are important in Indian agriculture because of their high protein content (17–25%) compared to grains (6–10%), as well as their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and to enhance soil fertility. Black gram (<em>Vigna mungo</em> L.), also known as Urd bean, Urid, or mash, is a major pulse crop. The study on adoption of Black gram VBN 8 was conducted in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. Out of 13 blocks in the district, three blocks were selected based on the area under black gram VBN 8 cultivation. The data collected were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics. The results of the study revealed that three fifth (60.80%) of the respondents belonged to medium level of adoption category, followed by 20.00 per cent and 19.20 per cent of the respondents in low and high level of adoption categories.</p> 2021-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Profile of Girl Students Studying in Higher Agricultural Education 2021-10-26T02:17:37+00:00 Yousra O. Osman Angad Prasad M. Deepa Devi Krishna P. Chaudhary Narendra K. Soni <p>Present study was conducted during the academic session 2020-21in the College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur, India taking 139 girl students randomly studying in B.Sc.(Ag.), M.Sc.(Ag.) and Ph. D. programmes. In this investigation, ''Ex-Post-Facto” research design was used. Socio-personal, communicational-situational, economic and psychological variables were independent variables to study the attitude (dependent variable) of girl students<strong>. </strong>Different empirical measures and structured schedule were used to know the variables of the study. Scale developed by Heatherton and Polivy [1] for assessment of level of confidence and scale adopted by Ajit [2] and further, used by Hallar (1963) were applied for reckoning the occupational aspirations. Results of the study indicate that majority (77.70%) of the respondents was under 22 years having OGPA between 7.00 to 8.00. Leaving 3.60 per cent of illiterate mothers, all students’ parents were literate. Data also reveals that nearly one third (33.81%) of the students belonged to high family income group whereas, 23.74 per cent belonged to low and 42.45 per cent belonged to medium family income group.&nbsp; Most of them (74.10%) were from OBC, SC/ST categories and nearly two-third of them (63.31%) had medium to very high participation in extra-curricular activities. Majority (64.75%) was from rural background and 54.68% of the respondents used to visit the library either twice or once in a week. More than one third students (35.25%) under study were found using internet at medium level. More than three-fourth (75.54%) of the students’ parents had agriculture, animal husbandry and service as their occupation whereas majority (63.31%) of them was small and marginal farmers. On further analysis, it was seen that 49.64 per cent of the responding students had high level of confidence whereas, majority (79.86%) had medium to high level of occupational aspiration.</p> 2021-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Awareness, Knowledge and Adoption of Sugarcane Technologies Popularization through AICRP - A Case in the Theni District of Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-26T02:16:53+00:00 R. Velusamy J. Prabhakaran <p>The study was conducted to know the knowledge and adoption level of demonstrated sugarcane technologies among the AICRP sugarcane farmers in Madurai, Sivagangai, and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted in Sivagangai, Madurai, and Theni districts with 120 AICRP and 120 Non AICRP sugarcane farmers. Among the 120 AICRP sugarcane farmers, the knowledge level and adoption of demonstrated technologies were assessed. The study concluded that Cent per cent of AICRIP sugarcane farmers adopted the component of Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative namely transplanting young seedlings, maintaining the wider space and drip irrigation. None of the AICRIP sugarcane farmers adopted the pit method of sugarcane cultivation in the subsequent years after the demonstration conducted through AICRIP. Half of the AICRIP farmers increased the sugarcane area in the next year due to the additional yield from the demonstration of sugarcane technologies. An overall 56.66% of farmers expressed that the pit method of sugarcane cultivation technology is very difficult to understand and it leads to non-adoption of technology after the demonstration.</p> 2021-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role of Key Communicators in Disseminating Agricultural Information in Nilayur Village of Thiruparankundram Block in Madurai District 2021-10-23T03:17:43+00:00 P. Rajapandi C. Karthikeyan M. Nirmala Devi <p>The present study was taken up to identify the role of key communicators in the dissemination of agricultural information. The study area was Nilayur village of Thiruparankundram block located in Madurai district. A total of 60 respondents were sampled randomly for the study. Sociometric technique was used to identify the role of key communicator. The responses were noted and the identified six key communicators were classified as low, medium and high using the sociogram scores and cumulative percentage. Among the six key communicators, only one key communicator was identified as high levelcommunicator with a cumulative percentage of 100 per cent. Thus, the key communicator should be identified and they can be a handholding support for the extension personnel for dissemination of the technology to reach large farmers.</p> 2021-10-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Empirical Study on Forecasting Production and Price of Tea in India 2021-10-25T11:59:43+00:00 M. Priyadharshini D. Murugananthi A. Rohini R. Vasanthi <p>Tea is a very indispensable beverage for Indian population as we rank the world’s largest consumer of black tea. Indian tea industry had been facing many downfalls for the past few years in terms of low price, excess supply, losing flavour and all this as a whole had affected the performance of the tea industry in India. With India being the second largest producer of tea globally, the production of tea in India can be subdivided into North India and South India. The current study focuses on the comparative analysis between North India, South India and India in terms of their trends in area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea. Compounded Annual growth rate (CAGR) was the tool used to find the trends of various variables. This study also focuses on the forecasting the production and auction prices of tea in India till 2023using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The results of the present study areindicating that all the variables like area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea had shown a positive trend annually, except for that of North India’s export quantity. Production and auction prices were forecasted till 2023 using different ARIMA models amongst which ARIMA (1,1,0) proved to be the best fit model for study period.</p> 2021-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perceptions of Fisheries Professionals with Reference to Change in Minimum Qualification for Agricultural Research Services 2021-10-25T12:08:31+00:00 Suchismita Prusty Arpita Sharma <p>A study is done with the objective of assessing perceptions of fisheries professionals with reference to revised notification of minimum qualification being Ph.D. for Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Information has been collected from 50 Masters and 50 Doctorate fisheries professionals/students of ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai, using an online Google form and adopting quantitative and qualitative methods. Non parametric Mann Whitney U test is used to check if there is any difference between perception of Masters and Doctorate students. Study reveals that before the notification becoming a ‘Scientist’ was the first career choice of fisheries professionals, followed by ‘Assistant Professor’ and ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’. However, after the notification, the first choice has changed to becoming ‘Assistant Professor’ followed by ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’ and then ‘Scientist’. Students also perceive advantages and disadvantages of this revised notification. Acceptance of the notification is relatively lower among Masters Students, with a statistically significant difference between the two student groups.</p> 2021-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hybrid Statistical Models for Forecasting Yield of Mango and Banana in Tamil Nadu, India 2021-10-26T02:53:37+00:00 P. Sujatha <p>Horticulture sector plays a prominent role in economic growth of India. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world next to China. Among the horticultural crops, fruit crops are cultivated in majority of the area in India. Fruit crops play a significant role in the economic development, nutritional security, employment generation, and total growth of country. India is major producer of mango and banana, among fruit crops. The objective of this research paper is to predicate the yield of mango and banana in Tamil Nadu using different models such as linear and nonlinear, parametric, and non-parametric statistical models. In this research, a hybrid model had been proposed, which consists of linear and nonlinear models. In this hybrid model, combination of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Regression model were used. The present study was conducted in Tamil Nadu. Since, area and production of Mango and Banana are higher in Tamil Nadu. Based on results obtained production and yield of Mango and Banana were predicted for next four years.</p> 2021-10-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Investigation into the Impact of COVID-19 on the Performance of a Non-profit Microfinance Institution 2021-10-26T12:51:05+00:00 B. Zaneta Prarthana K. R. Ashok K. Mahendran Srivara Buddhi Bhuvaneswari <p>This article deals with the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of a non-profit microfinance institution operating in the Nilgiris and Perambalur districts of Tamil Nadu in India. The primary focus of the paper is on the microfinance institute’s financial performance in terms of outreach and portfolio quality before and after the coronavirus outbreak. The most worrisome factors that were encountered in due course of the study include a decline in loan portfolio and clientele, and an increasing trend in portfolio at risk (PAR) percentage due to a surge in client overdues, outstanding loan amount and rise in number of delinquent clients. These negative impacts on performance were further investigated by establishing a connection to the clients’ repayment ability. A survey was conducted among the women clients of the microfinance institution by enlisting 120 respondents, 60 from each district to identify the various constraints faced by them in loan repayment as a result of the government-imposed lockdown that affected their livelihood and curbed their source of income. Therefore, an attempt has been made to bring out the ground level realities that played an important role in disrupting the normal functioning of the microfinance institution during the pandemic outbreak. This will prove useful in setting guidelines for future crises of like nature to enable microfinance institutions to keep functioning efficiently without any drastic changes to their performance.</p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth and Economic Profitability of Rice Cultivation in Haryana 2021-10-26T13:14:32+00:00 K. Abdulaziz K. K. Kundu D. P. Malik <p>An investigation on the growth and economic profitability of rice production was conducted in Karnal district of Haryana, India in 2019-20. A sample of 30 farmers from Karnal district were interviewed to collect relevant information related to various expenses incurred in the cultivation of rice and output attained as well as constraints encountered in production of rice. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) results revealed an increasing trend in area, production and yield of rice in Haryana. Large instability suggests that there was more variability in area, production and yield in Haryana than in India during the period under study. Highest cost was incurred in variety Basmati CSR-30 (Rs. 763kg<sup>-1</sup>) cultivation. Similarly, highest net profit was realized in the cultivation of Basmati CSR-30 (Rs. 202kg-<sup>1</sup>). Lack of remunerative prices was the main constraint in rice cultivation. Thus, cultivation of rice could be made more profitable by upward review of per unit price of rice and looking into other avenues to incentivize the rice farmers. Similarly, research should be reoriented to reduce the production cost and improving yield which have direct effect on profitability.</p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Content Analysis of Farmers’ KVK WhatsApp Group of Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu 2021-10-26T13:24:56+00:00 S. P. Mahesh Narayanan M. Senthilkumar <p>The penetration and use of smart mobile phones with internet connectivity paved way to the increased use of social media tools and among them, WhatsApp is widely used by farmers for personal and group use. The efforts made by public institutions, development departments in reaching farmers and general public through WhatsApp has led to a creation of number of farmers WhatsApp groups for sharing of agricultural knowledge and information. The present study was carried out to analyse the content shared through KVK WhatsApp group. Viluppuram KVK WhatsApp group was purposively selected and the content shared was analyzed by non-participant observation method for 30 days. Data analyzed using frequency and percentage analysis. It was found that majority (83.97%) of the content shared by the farmers were related to agricultural activities. Farmers preferred to use text communication (37.18%) over other mode of messages. Farmers were actively engaged during morning hours in WhatsApp group due to their free time rather than later hours. Farmers opined that WhatsApp positively impacted them in obtaining timely information as well as personalized information.</p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Input Demand and Output Supply Elasticities of Coarse Cereals in India: A Translog Profit and Sure Approach 2021-10-26T13:32:43+00:00 Radha R. Ashrit <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The aim was to estimate the output supply and input demand elasticities of maize, jowar and bajra production, using the restricted normalised translog profit function, for the major producing states of India (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A stratified multi-stage random sampling design was adopted for carrying out the sampling.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study pertains to cross sectional plot level data for the period 2013-14 and 2017-18. The study is based on secondary data, collected from Directorate of Economics &amp; Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For the present studied crops (maize, jowar and bajra), those states were selected which covered maximum area, i.e, 85% of the total area under the cultivation. Socio-economic data of farmers such as age, sex, level of education, occupation, size of landholding were collected. The translog profit function approach was used as the econometric technique to estimate output supply, and input demand functions. Labour, fertiliser and seeds are taken as variable inputs. Statistical software STATA version 16 was used for the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results suggest that the changes in market prices of inputs and output significantly affect the farmers’ profits, crop produce supply and the use of resources in the cultivation of these crops. The supply elasticities of maize, jowar and bajra with respect to its own prices are positive and statistically significant indicating that increase in support prices can boost the supply of these nutri-grains and farmers profits. Labour demand for these crops in the country is elastic and significant to its own price.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>During both the periods, 2013-14 (typical monsoon year) and 2017-18 (drought year), the elasticities derived are statistically robust as almost all of them carried compatible signs and in line with the theory. Promoting these crops can contribute to labour absorption.</p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Digital Transformation on Food Retail Industries-A Review 2021-10-25T02:27:12+00:00 S. Manjula P. Balaji N. Deepa A. Vidhyavathi <p>Digital Transformation is defined as the use of technology to radically improve performance or reach of enterprises (Westerman et al., 2018) The existing literature on digitalization in the food industry is limited. Meanwhile, the literature suggests that digitalization is an issue that is unavoidable at some point in all industries and that companies must adapt in order to maintain their competitive position. The purpose of this research is to look into the digital technologies that are commonly used in the food industry in order to identify the challenges and opportunities that exist in digital transformation. In this study more than twenty five articles collected and reviewed. Recent published articles were collected from high impact journals which consist of the review related to digital transformation in food industry. When this study was completed, it was discovered that the food industry is lagging behind other sectors in terms of digitalization. The industry is confronted with enormous challenges and one of the most important challenges, as well as resistance to digitalization in the food industry, is its profitability. Digital transformation has increased traceability throughout the food industry and has also reduced labour costs and production time.</p> 2021-10-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##