https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/issue/feed Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2024-05-24T12:50:20+00:00 Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo contact@journalajaees.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN: 2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p><strong>NAAS Score: 4.73 (2024)</strong></p> https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2457 Knowledge Attitude and Practices of Food Handlers towards Food Hygiene 2024-05-07T10:06:26+00:00 Swechha Singh Rashmi Singh rashmi_csau@yahoo.co.in <p>Knowledge of food hygiene essentially entails the handlers’ awareness or things to be done or things to be put in place, in the course of either acquiring raw food materials, preparing food or serving food to the consumers, so that food safety is achieved. Food hygiene knowledge, attitude and practices are important because inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and poor sanitation practices have life-threatening danger to food safety. It is important to have an understanding of the interaction on prevailing food hygiene knowledge attitude and practices of food handlers in order to minimize foodborne outbreaks. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of food handlers regarding the aspect of food hygiene in Kanpur. One hundred ten food handlers from fifty food establishments of Kanpur were involved in this study. The data was collected from the street food vendors with the help of structured questionnaire and extensive observation. Analysis of data revealed that Knowledge and attitude towards food hygiene was satisfactory among food handlers, where most of the food handlers have fair knowledge and attitude that was (50.0 %) and (40.90%) but fair practice was practiced by only (17.27%) whereas,&nbsp;&nbsp; majority of them had poor practice (46.36). About 53.6 per cent of food handlers always wash their hands before handling food and only (38.1%) of the food handlers had knowledge about hygiene and sanitation. Statistical testing with chi-square at p&lt;0.05 showed that there is no correlation between educational level of the food handlers and practice of food hygiene; like-wise attitude of the handlers towards food hygiene and work experience had no impact on food hygiene practices of food handlers.</p> <p>The present study concludes that practice regarding food hygiene is not satisfactory and therefore there is need to increase the practice level of food handlers towards food hygiene.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2458 Socio-economic Profile of Fruit Crop Growers of Karnataka and Their Relationship with Entrepreneurial Behaviour 2024-05-07T10:48:39+00:00 Anil Sidaray Chikkalaki chikki025@gmail.com B. Krishnamurthy Bharat Singh Ghanghas <p>The study was conducted in Vijayapura district of Karnataka during 2020 to study the socio-economic profile of fruit crop growers and their relationship with entrepreneurial behaviour. Forty each grape, lime and pomegranate growers were selected by use of simple random sampling technique. Thus, making a total sample size of 120. The statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage and chi square test were used to draw valid inferences. The findings revealed that more than two fifth (42.50%) of the fruit crop growers belonged to middle age group, one fourth of them had middle school education, nearly half (48.33%) were practicing crop production as main occupation, more than two fifth (43.33%) of them were found to have medium sized family, more than one third (37.50%) of them had medium experience in fruit crop cultivation, nearly half (49.17%) of the fruit crop growers were small farmers, 35.00 per cent of them were found under medium income category. More than two fifth (43.33%) of them were found to have medium level of social participation, 40.83 per cent of them had medium level of mass media exposure, extension participation and deferred gratification, 45.00 per cent of them had medium level of value orientation, two fifth (40.00%) had medium level of self-reliance and more than one third (35.00%) of them belonged to medium level of cosmopoliteness.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2459 Assessment of Safe Vegetable Cultivation at Jashore in Bangladesh: Evidence from Country Bean, Cucumber and Pointed Gourd Cultivation 2024-05-14T10:55:33+00:00 Pradip Hajong pradip.hajong@gmail.com Suchana Paul Md. Hafijur Rahman Md. Shahriar Kobir Md. Babul Anwar Kawsar Uddin Ahammad Anup Ghosh <p>The study was designed to assess the present status and methods of safe vegetable production at farm level in selected areas of Jashore during January-May, 2023. For the study ninety sample farmer were selected by stratified sampling from three sub-district of Jashore. Average farm size was 0.79 ha in study area. Farmer doing different agronomic management such as weeding, irrigation, spraying, de-topping, stalking, earthing up etc. Farmer used different methods simultaneously such as insecticide spray, bio-pesticide, sex pheromone, yellow trap, white trap, hand picking etc. for controlling insect pest. About sixty-four percent farmer sprayed synthetic pesticide and rest of them used bio control method such as bio-pesticide (bio-chamak, eco-mac, bio-envir, bio-cin), sex pheromone trap, yellow trap and hand picking for control insect pest in their fields. About fifty-eight percent farmer used bio-fertilizer along with organic fertilizer (manure, vermin compost) and seventy-eight percent farmer used chemical fertilizer for vegetable cultivation. Total production cost of country bean was Tk.3,36,579 ha<sup>-1</sup>, cucumber was Tk.3,25,915 ha<sup>-1</sup> and pointed gourd was Tk.4,40,106 ha<sup>-1</sup>. Among the cost item labor cost was highest. Average yield of country bean was 30.60 tha<sup>-1</sup>, cucumber was 30.08 tha<sup>-1</sup> and pointed gourd was 41.60 tha<sup>-1</sup>. Highest benefit cost ratio was cucumber (2.13) followed by pointed gourd (2.07) and country bean (1.50), that means safe vegetable cultivation also profitable. Farmer awareness, havoc attack of pest and insect were the main problem for safe vegetable cultivation. Market facilities, demand, value chain, proper price for organic vegetable, and farmer motivation can promote and enhance safe vegetable cultivation.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2460 Beyond "Blind Spots": Illuminating Financial Pathways for Thriving Agrotourism as a Family Business 2024-05-14T11:11:22+00:00 Kishor Baburao Dalve dalvekishor96@gmail.com Pravin Govind Shastri Ashok Maruti Korade Abhishek Anant Motdhare <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This scientific research study aims to highlight the management of blind spots in agrotourism with the clear goal of helping farmers by offering them useful financial ratio analysis.</p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>Conducted in-depth interviews with agrotourism owners and conducted a comprehensive review of existing academic literature, industry reports, and government publications on financial management in family-run businesses and agrotourism.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>By acknowledging and addressing core "blind spots," family-run agrotourism businesses can cultivate a culture of financial awareness and proactive planning. The project appears to have a benefit-cost ratio (1.478) that is positive, meaning that benefits exceed expenses. Given the high internal rate of return (45.56%), the investment may out to be quite beneficial. The project's financial viability is further supported by the profitability index (1.37), which is higher than 1.</p> <p><strong>Practical Implication: </strong>We have analyzed financial ratios, such as profitability index, benefit cost ratio, payback period ratio, current ratio, net profit margin, fixed turnover assets ratio, Internal rate of return, working capital turnover ratio, return on investment, gross margin etc. to assess the profitability and performance of the agrotourism. In order to maximize revenue from agrotourism, we monitored a number of factors before calculating break-even analysis. These included financial risks, profitable revenue streams, and seasonal variations in demand and income during off-peak seasons, off-farm income, and operating costs. This type of all analysis useful for avoid blind spots in agrotourism.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value: </strong>Offering concrete strategies and frameworks tailored to family agrotourism business can directly benefit practitioners,&nbsp;enhancing their financial resilience and contributing to business success.</p> 2024-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2461 Training Impact Assessment: Evaluating PAMETI's Programs for Punjab's Extension Personnel 2024-05-14T11:15:27+00:00 Jyotishree Anshuman 1997j.anshuman@gmail.com Rupinder Kaur Vipan kumar Rampal Shreya Kar Badigi Pavan Naik <p>The study was undertaken with the objective of finding the level of effectiveness of the training programmes for extension personnel. The sample consists of trainees from various competency development training programmes organised by Punjab Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institute (PAMETI) in 2017–2018. In total 5 trainings and 24 trainees from each trainings were selected by purposive and random sampling respectively. Thus, a sample of 120 trainees from PAMETI, Ludhiana were taken for the study. Most of the trainees belonged to the high category of ‘applicability and utility’, ‘knowledge, attitude and skill’ and conviction of the training programmes whereas most belonged to medium category of relevance, timeliness and ‘improvement in job performance and satisfaction’ of training programmes. It was found that average training effectiveness index is highest for applicability and utility of the training programmes whereas lowest for job performance and satisfaction. Most of the trainees perceived to lie in the medium category of the overall training effectiveness index followed by high and low category.</p> 2024-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2462 Impact of COVID – 19 on Frequency of Food Purchase in Families of Andhra Pradesh 2024-05-14T11:24:05+00:00 Y. Monica ymonica21@gmail.com M. Aruna K. Lakshmi K. Dhanasree K. Kiran Prakash <p>The study was undertaken to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the frequency of food purchases in families in Andhra Pradesh. An ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. The study comprised a 360-person sample of families covering both urban and rural areas of three districts of Andhra Pradesh in all three time periods (before, during, and after the pandemic). The frequency of food purchases was used to assess whether there was any change in purchasing patterns in all three time periods among families. The frequency of purchasing food groups was also studied. The results showed that purchasing frequency varied among the families. Comparison of purchasing pattern between the three time periods showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the purchasing pattern of millets. Non-significantly correlated food groups were pulses, fresh fruits, green leafy vegetables, vegetables, milk and milk products, chicken, meat, eggs, fish, sugars, dry fruits, sweets and savories and coffee powder, during three time periods. During the pandemic period, an increase in frequency of purchase was seen in millets and pulses was seen while there was no change in purchasing pattern of cereals and nuts. A decrease in consumption of chicken and sugars was observed. In the post-pandemic period, an increase in frequency of purchase in meat and eggs was noted, and a decrease was noted in purchase of millets and fruits.</p> 2024-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2463 Determinants of Profit Efficiency among Rice Farmers in Kilombero Valley, Morogoro, Tanzania 2024-05-14T11:29:41+00:00 Mariki, Anna marikiannaw@gmail.com Philip, Damas <p>Farmers in the Kilombero Valley are experiencing a growing trend towards commercialization seen through the expansion in the cultivated land area rather than agricultural intensification. There is a modicum of information on whether the observed increase in commercialization in the area is associated with an increase in profit. This study used the stochastic profit frontier function to estimate the profit efficiency of rice commercializing farmers and the respective determinants. The study used data collected from 377 rice farmers who were selected by using a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Results indicate that rice commercialising farmers' mean profit efficiency level was 75.65%. This indicates that rice farmers can improve their efficiency levels by 24.4% without increasing the level of inputs used. Maximum likelihood estimates indicated that wage, price of fertilizer, rice area in hectares, and production assets value were significant in determining the profit efficiency of rice commercializing farmers in Kilombero. The study concludes that commercializing farmers in the study area was profit efficient. The study recommends that more emphasis on early formal education in farmers’ society be emphasized for the literate group is more profit-efficient than the illiterate. With the present national educational policy to support education, farming households should strategically take advantage of it as education has exhibited a positive impact on their efficiency. Different services (marketplaces and inputs dealerships) in the area should be improved further to create more room for rice farmers to improve their productivity and profitability.</p> 2024-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2464 Benefits Availed and Constraints Faced by Beneficiaries of Jalasamrudhi, Project, Thiruvananthapuram 2024-05-14T11:35:26+00:00 P, M, Anjana paultlazarus@rediffmail.com Lazarus, T P Vijayan, A Raj, S K Gopinath, P P <p>The study analysed the benefits availed and constraints faced by beneficiaries of Jalasamrudhi Project, Thiruvananthapuram. A systematic sampling technique was adopted for the data collection and information was collected from 80 beneficiaries of the project, thus making the total sample size 80. The farmers responded to the benefits availed and the constraints were ranked using Garrett ranking technique. The respondents benefitted from increase in ground water table level, market and non- market benefits. The major constraints faced by the beneficiaries were crop loss due to high speed wind, pests and climate change, followed by non-availability of inputs and non- availability of subsidy on time, lack of technical guidance. The primary suggestion from beneficiary farmers was to ensure continuity and follow-up, increase the project period from 5 to 10 years and ensure better infrastructure facilities to improve the effectiveness of the project.</p> 2024-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2465 Growth and Marketing of Banana in Tamil Nadu 2024-05-14T12:08:19+00:00 C. Velavan velavanc@tnau.ac.in <p>Banana is an important fruit crop cultivated in India and Tamil Nadu ranks third in production in the country and the area under the banana is also increasing over the years in the state. However, high post-harvest losses were reported in banana due to improper development of marketing channels. Hence, this paper aimed to study marketing of banana and perform stakeholder analysis. Three districts namely Tiruchirappalli, Erode and Coimbatore were selected for the study based on the areaunder banana. The results of the study revealed that the growth rate of area was the highest in Vellore - Tiruvannamalai production centre with 7.75 per cent per annum and production and productivity growth were the highest in Cuddalore-Villupuram production centre with 8.39 and 7.23 per cent per annum respectively. Three banana marketing channels were identified in the study area. Pre- harvest contractor was the popular mode of sale by banana producers. The post-harvest loss of 8.5 to 14.5 kg/tonne was reported in selected banana cultivars. No packing method of banana was followed in the entire marketing channel and one third of market intermediaries did not have storage facility for banana. Hence, the marketing channels of the banana have to be improved on handling, storage and packing to reduce the losses.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2466 Constraints Faced by the Tribal Goat Farmers of Kandhamal District in Odisha, India 2024-05-14T12:15:15+00:00 Bhabesh Chandra Das drbdas1@rediffmail.com Abinash Sahoo Rajesh Kumar Vandre Suman Sant <p>Goat rearing is one of the important supplementary activities in tribal areas of our country. It provides emergency income security to the vulnerable tribal farmers besides social status in the community. However, this occupation is associated with many problems at present and the tribal goat farmers are mostly affected. The present study was undertaken to find out the problems encountered by the tribal farmers in goat rearing which affect their livelihood. Kandhamal district of Odisha was purposively selected for the study as this district is highly concentrated with local goats. From randomly selected four blocks of the district, four villages were also selected randomly from each block. Thereafter, seven goat farmers from each village were selected randomly which constitute the sample size of 112 goat farmers for the study. The data for the study was collected personally by the researcher with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. The study employed ex-post facto research design to capture field data. The constraints were ranked by using Garrett's ranking technique. The study revealed that insufficient subsidy and support from government, unavailability of good quality kids to start a farm, tribal farmers lack of exposure to successful goat farms in the nearby area, goat farming as a low caste activity and facing difficulty to sell the goats at door step as major constraints perceived by the tribal goat farmers in rearing goats for their livelihood. The State Animal Husbandry Department may take up the awareness programme to address these issues related to the financial, operational, extension and marketing constraints faced by the tribal goat farmers to support their livelihood as they are most vulnerable section of the society.</p> 2024-05-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2467 A Scale to Measure the Perception of Graduates towards Student READY Programme 2024-05-15T08:21:41+00:00 P. Vaishnavi p.vaishnavi1997@gmail.com D. A. Nithya Shree Sunil V. Halakatti <p>A scale was developed to measure the perception of graduates towards Student READY Programme (SRP). The Likert’s summated rating scale was followed in the construction of scale. Based on the review of literature and discussion with the expert’s, 49 statements were enlisted. The relevancy rating were sent to 160 scientists and extension specialists working in research institutes of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and State Agricultural University (SAU) for critical evaluation of statements on a 5 point continuum. Out of 160 judges 66 responded within a period of one month. Based on their judgment 40 statements were isolated in the first stage of screening by finding the relevancy weightage scores. Statements having relevancy weightage of more than 0.70, relevancy percentage of more than 70 per cent and mean relevancy score of more than 3.70 were considered for final selection. By this process, 32 statements were isolated in the first stage of screening, which were suitably modified and rewritten wherever applicable. Eight statements were added as per the comments of experts. Thus finally 40 statements were selected for item analysis. In item analysis the selected statements were administered to 80 agriculture graduates of non-sample area of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Finally a total of 28 statements were selected for the study based on ‘t’ values (&gt; 1.75) resulted from the item analysis and were included in the final scale. The ‘r’ value of the scale was found to be 0.922, which was highly significant at one per cent level indicating the high reliability of the scale. Hence, the scale developed was found to be reliable and valid. The instrument developed to measure the perception of graduates towards Student READY Programme (SRP) can be used by the researchers.</p> 2024-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2468 Financial Performance of Kerala State Co-operative Coir Marketing Federation Ltd. No.679 2024-05-16T10:38:38+00:00 Neeraj S Nair sreenee1999@gmail.com Misha Davis A <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Established in the year 1979 as the Apex Federation of primary coir co-operatives functioning in the State, COIRFED plays a pivotal role in the coir sector of the country. It enjoys the unique status of dealing only in biodegradable and nature friendly products. With its headquarters located in the coir capital of the country, Alappuzha, COIRFED is one of the premier organizations in the coir Industry. COIRFED runs 11 factories for producing various coir related products. COIRFED runs around 50 signature shops throughout the country. Due to lack of operational efficiency, underutilization of production capacity, and lack of timely access to labour and raw materials, COIRFED and coir cooperatives are currently in a declining stage (Annual Report of COIRFED, 2019-20). COIRFED's overall performance and operation were based on the marketing of COIRFED products. Improvement is made possible by identifying the causes of loss or ineffective performance. Considering this, the study aimed to analyse the financial performance of COIRFED.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> For the secondary data, past 10 years data from 2010-2011 to 2019-2020 was collected from the annual reports, websites and publications of COIRFED. Statistical tools like the Ratio analysis were used for the analysis. The study was conducted during the period August to September 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> COIRFED has been incurring losses for the past decade, reflecting poor financial performance. Solvency ratios indicate an unstable financial position, posing long-term stability risks. While liquidity and inventory turnover ratios are favorable, the net profit ratio remains consistently negative. Despite sales, COIRFED operates at a loss due to high production costs and debt burdens. As a cooperative, it prioritizes member welfare over profits. The Kerala State Cooperative Coir Marketing Federation struggles with financial challenges despite being the apex coir marketing authority.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> COIRFED's financial analysis reveals a decade-long streak of operating losses, signaling poor financial health. Solvency ratios highlight an unstable position with negative implications for its future stability. Though liquidity and inventory turnover ratios are positive, the net profit ratio remains persistently negative. Despite sales revenue, COIRFED struggles with overall losses, prioritizing member welfare over profits due to its cooperative ethos. Heavy debts and high production costs compound its financial woes. The Kerala State Cooperative Coir Marketing Federation, the leading authority in coir product marketing, grapples with financial challenges despite its prominent position.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2469 Consumer Satisfaction with Food Grains Distributed through Public Distribution Systems in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh- An Economic Analysis 2024-05-16T13:25:31+00:00 Vasipally D vasipallydhanaswi7754@gmail.com Lazarus, T P F Thasnimol Chandran, A C Gopinath, P P <p>The study analyzed consumer satisfaction with food grains distributed through the public distribution system in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for the data collection and information was obtained from 240 respondents. Percentages and Likert’s Scale Technique were used to analyze the level of consumer satisfaction. The survey in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh gauges public perceptions and satisfaction with the Public Distribution System (PDS). Key findings revealed that a notable satisfaction rate in both states regarding the quality of food grains, the helpfulness of PDS dealers, and the functioning of local outlets. While uncertainties persist regarding accessibility, regularity, and quantity sufficiency, the majority of the respondents in both states opined that PDS is significantly contributing to household food security. Respondents express contentment with billing systems, with slightly higher satisfaction in Kerala, and commend the E-POS and biometric systems. Security measures, such as biometric authentication, receive positive feedback. Overall, the survey indicates positive sentiments towards the PDS in both states, highlighting its pivotal role in ensuring food security and meeting public expectations.</p> 2024-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2470 A Study on Socio-economic Profile of Paddy Growers in Milkipur Block of Ayodhya District of Uttar Pradesh, India 2024-05-19T10:23:07+00:00 Anurag Dixit anudixit9451@gmail.com N. R. Meena R.K. Doharey Aman Verma Yash Pateriya Arvind Kumar <p>The study was conducted in five villages of Milkipur block in Ayodhya district, selected purposively based on proximity to the researcher and accessibility. A complete list of all paddy growers in each selected village was prepared. From this list, a total of 120 farmers were selected using a proportionate random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents exhibited various socio-economic characteristics, such as being in the age category of 39-62 years (61.67%), being literate (84.16%), belonging to the general caste (39.17%), living in nuclear families (85.83%), having a family size of 4-8 members (62.50%), being marginal farmers with land holdings below one hectare (43.33%), and having agriculture as their main occupation with subsidiary agricultural labor occupations (90.83% and 21.66%, respectively). A mixed housing pattern was observed in 56.66% of the respondents. In terms of material possessions, diesel engines (53.33%) and chaff cutters (85.83%) were the main farm power and agricultural implements, respectively. For transportation, bicycles (98.33%) were predominant. In terms of communication media, household materials such as coats (100%) and mobile phones (100%) were reported as main possessions. Additionally, 57.50% of respondents had no participation in any organizations. The majority of respondents (52.50%) reported an annual family income of up to 50,000. Gram pradhan (05.57%), family members (06.00%), and mobile phones (06.00%) were identified as the main formal, informal, and communicational sources of extension contact, respectively.</p> 2024-05-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2471 Impact Evaluation and Adoption of Climate Resilience and Nutrition Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Burundi: A Case Study of the Rural Bujumbura Province 2024-05-23T07:53:49+00:00 Ndayitwayeko Willy Marcel willy-marcel.ndayitwayeko@ub.edu.bi Nkengurutse Melance <p>The new orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties have been adopted with the aim of increasing production, farmers' welfare, and combating chronic malnutrition. This study analyzed the impact of orange-fleshed sweet potato adoption on production in Gihanga commune using the propensity score matching method. A survey of 385 households was carried out on April 2023, including 161 orange-fleshed sweet potato adopters and 224 non-adopters. The determinants and rate of adoption of orange-fleshed sweet potato were also analyzed using the logit model and the Average Treatment effect on the Treated (ATT) method respectively, while Kendall's Concordance Coefficient was used to determine adoption constraints. Thus, unpredictable weather and climatic conditions, lack of capital, unavailability of PDCO cuttings, insufficient arable land as well as high labor costs are the main constraints to orange-fleshed sweet-potato adoption. The adoption rate for orange-fleshed sweet potatoes is estimated at 42%. Adoption of PDCO was positively and significantly influenced by the household head's level of education, family labor, access to credit, access to extension services and membership of producer organizations, while the household head's age and household size had a negative impact on adoption. The ATT revealed that the adoption of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased production per adopter household by an average of 369.88 kg, although the difference was not statistically significant. The government and other players in the agricultural sector should do their part to raise awareness, disseminate, facilitate access and mobilize farmers to adopt sweet potato varieties in order to improve their productivity.</p> 2024-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2472 A Comparative Study of Fertilizer Prices Purchased by Farmers from Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) and Other Agencies in Andhra Pradesh 2024-05-23T09:39:07+00:00 B. Maheswar Reddy mahesworreddy@gmail.com K. Gurava Reddy K.S. Purnima P. Lavanya Kumari <p>Rythu Bharosa Kendras - a one stop solutions for all agriculture &amp; allied issues, was launched by state government of Andhra Pradesh in 2020. It addresses various issues and provide services to the farmers at the village level. Fertilizers are one among the services offered at Rythu Bharosa Kendras. The current study was carried out during the year 2022 and 2023 to find any significant variation in the average price of the fertilizers purchased by the farmers from Rythu Bharosa Kendras versus other agencies in Tirupati and Chittoor districts of Andhra Pradesh. A representative sample of 120 farmers in two districts of Andhra Pradesh <em>i.e</em>., Tirupati and Chittoor were selected for the study. Through a pre-structed interview schedule, prices of fertilizers purchased by the farmers from Rythu Bharosa Kendras vs other agencies were collected. In the study area, other agencies from where farmers purchased fertilizers included private fertilizer wholesalers, retailers, fellow farmers, non-institutional financers, etc. To study the average price comparison, the set of fertilizers that were commonly purchased at Rythu Bharosa Kendras and other agencies were selected. They were Urea, Diammonium phosphate (DAP), Muriate of Potash (MOP), N20:P20:K0:S13 (N:P:K:S fertilizer grade), N10:P26:K26 (N:P:K fertilizer grade). From the data collected and through descriptive statistical analysis it was clear that for all the common fertilizers the average amount of fertilizer per bag at Rythu Bharosa Kendras was comparatively lower than that of fertilizers purchased at other agencies. The average price variation of fertilizer per bag at Rythu Bharosa Kendras to other agencies for Urea, DAP, MOP, N20:P20:K0:S13 grade, N10:P26:K26 grade were Rs. 27.5, Rs. 40, Rs. 33, Rs. 44 &amp; Rs. 92 with a variation in percentage by 10.3%, 2.96%, 2.84%, 3.26% &amp; 6.31% respectively. By ensuring the prompt availability of required set of fertilizers in line with the cropping pattern of the farmers and by streamlining the supply chain aspects of fertilizes, especially from fertilizers hub to Rythu Bharosa Kendras, will be beneficial &amp; results in cost optimization to the farmers.</p> 2024-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2473 Evaluation of Soil Health Card Scheme on Productivity & Income Generation of Wheat in Kymore Plateau Region 2024-05-23T11:56:44+00:00 R K Dubey A A Raut Veena Rathore Venkteshwar Jallaraph Prashant Namdeo prashantnamdeo@jnkvv.org <p>An attempt has been made to analyze the impact of Soil Health Card Scheme (SHC) on productivity, fertilizer consumption, and farmers’ income in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh. The data were gathered from 66 SHC holders, and the impact of SHC was assessed based on the farmers’ use of SHC. It was observed from the study that the majority of farmers have a positive opinion regarding SHCs. They were found to have reduced the use of urea, DAP and MOP and increased the SSP, and organic manure in cultivation of wheat after adoption of the SHC recommendations. Due to Soil Test Value (STV) based nutrient application net income increased by 9.38 per cent after adoption of SHC. The benefit-cost ratio revealed that for an investment of ₹ 1.00, an average SHC holder received a return of ₹ 1.98 in wheat cultivation. The SHC Scheme is highly beneficial to the farmers in terms of increasing crop production and farmer’s income. However, there is a need to generate awareness about the benefits of this Scheme in terms of cost saving through STV based nutrient application among the farmers and strengthen soil testing services / laboratories for a wider adoption of SHC recommendations.</p> 2024-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2474 Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Sugarcane Growers in Shahpura Block of Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh, India 2024-05-24T11:58:08+00:00 Shivpal Singh shivpal.jnkvv@gmail.com Suresh Barde Girish Patidar Jinendra Birla Rajkumar Nargave S. K. Agrawal <p>The aim of the research, which took place in the Shahpura block in the Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh in the period 2015–16 was to examine the entrepreneurial practices of sugarcane farmers. 120 farmers who were chosen using proportionate random sampling from ten villages in the Shahpura block of the Jabalpur district were interviewed in order to get the data. According to the survey, a greater proportion of sugarcane growers (60.84%) exhibited medium levels of entrepreneurial behavior. Only age was found to have a non-significant relationship with the entrepreneurial behavior of sugarcane growers, while the other independent variables—education, size of land holding, area under sugarcane crop, material possession, social participation, annual income, information source utilization, extension contact, economic motivation, and scientific orientation—had positive and significant relationships with the entrepreneurial behavior of the growers.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2475 Diversity & Economic Dynamics Impact on Women in the Workforce: A Literature Review 2024-05-24T12:50:20+00:00 Swati swatikhatkar02@gmail.com Kavita Dua <p>The discussion revolves around understanding the interplay between diversity, especially regarding gender, and the economic forces affecting women in the workforce. It aims to analyze how the complexities of a diverse workforce interact with economic dynamics, shaping women's roles, opportunities, and impacts within organizations. The focus is on managing diversity effectively while navigating the economic environment to foster inclusivity, innovation, and success in professional settings. This review paper delves into the complexities of balancing work and personal life, addressing disparities in workforce participation, highlighting the transformative potential of diversity, and examining the evolving economic landscape. Through a comprehensive analysis of scholarly research, empirical studies, and real-world examples, the paper aims to provide valuable insights into the interplay between gender, diversity, and economic dynamics in contemporary workplaces.</p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.