Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2020-08-11T11:16:17+00:00 Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Pro-Agripreneurial Factors for the Formation of Agri-startups in India 2020-08-11T11:16:17+00:00 Bhagya Vijayan P. Sethuraman Shivkumar <p>India has one of the largest Startup ecosystem in the World catering to approximately 10,000 Startups spanning from IT, finance to services. Since 2015, India’s startup ecosystem has steadily matured with the startups diversifying their focus across a myriad of economic segments and has embraced technological innovation to meet the country’s unique challenges. Indian ease of doing business ranking is 63<sup>rd</sup> in the World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index Report 2020. The Agriculture in India is witnessing a massive transformation with the focus on shifting to&nbsp; creating sustainable businesses to support the farmers. With the business focus, the agri-startups are leveraging opportunities in areas such as increasing crop production, improving the&nbsp; nutritional value of the crops, reduction in input prices for farmers, improving the overall process-driven supply chain, and reducing wastage in the distribution system, among others.&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;They are also creating market linkages through retailing, B2C (Business to customer) and B2B (business to busines) market place management. This work reflects upon the deciding or the proactive factors contributing to the formation of Agri-startups spearheaded by youth in India.</p> 2020-07-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Agricultural Credit, A Critical Input on Farmers Income: A Study From Nayagarh District of Odisha 2020-08-11T11:16:17+00:00 Surya Sidhant Rath Rajkishore Mishra Upasana Mohapatra <p>In order to protect agriculture and other allied sectors, credit is indispensable for a farmer to expand and run his business more efficiently and properly which may not otherwise be possible on his savings. In this perspective, an investigation was made to show the weightage of farm credit on the farmers’ income which was designed through a random sample survey of hundred credit availed farmers in the diverse agriculture terrains of Nayagarh block of Nayagarh district and analyzed by statistical tools like regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The statistical analysis indicated that the farm credit per household, land holding have positive and significant relationship with the household income while family size and farm expenditure are negatively related to the household income. The R<sup>2</sup> value is 0.74 that indicated 74 per cent of the variation in dependent variable is explained by the independent variables. There is decreasing returns to scale (0.766). The average per acre farm expenses and income from sale of the crop of a sample respondent of the pooled category was Rs 15753 and Rs 31606 respectively. The farmers efficiently utilized the agricultural credit, but at the same time there should be provision for procurement of perishable goods by the government or bank agencies that would secure the income of farm borrowers. In addition, a timely and need based support in creation of quality asset will lead to the overall economic growth of the block as well as the district and ramify business of the banks.</p> 2020-07-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Search for Suitable Growing Environment for Sesame Production in Nigeria 2020-08-11T11:16:16+00:00 A. Hussaini M. Usman J. Y. Falgore S. S. Sani Y. Zakari H. D. Muktar <p>The economic relevance of farm management practices to the production of sesame crops in Nigeria includes preventing and combatting food crises, actualization and realization of national food security as well as enhancing gross domestic product. This research seeks to examine the edaphology of some soil types in relation to the productivity of sesame crops in Nigeria. The experiment was conducted in statistical farm of Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria during 2019 growing season. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design with one hundred replications. There were three types of soils investigated; Clay, Sandy, and Loamy were compared with one another. The soils were made free of any nuisance factors effects. The chlorophyll content of the plants was read using Konica Minolta chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 plus, and the data analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The result of the analysis indicates a higher significant effect of Sandy soil <em>(M = 11.20, SD = 2.37)</em> on the yield of sesame crops in this region as compared to the effects of the Clay <em>(M = 3.60, SD = 0.89)</em>, and Loamy <em>(M = 6.86, SD = 3.39)</em> soils. The overall ANOVA test indicates that growing environment does have effect on sesame production, <em>F </em>(2, 27) = 6.70,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.00. However, the result indicates insignificant chlorophyll mean difference between Clay and Loamy soils. It is therefore evident from these results and the reviewed literatures that the suitable growing environment for sesame production in Nigeria is fertile Sandy soil that is deep, light textured, well-drained and that is exposed to an average temperature of 25<sup>o</sup>C to 37<sup>o</sup>C. The crop is also tolerant to draught, but not at the germination and seedling stages, water logging, and excessive rain fall while it requires 90–120 frost-free days to achieve optimal yields in cold regions. The challenges which stand in the way of increasing the productivity and quality of sesame crops need to be overcome. As with other crops, which is a major export crop in many countries, these crops should be given more research attention.</p> 2020-08-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Funds of Usha Martin for Socio-economic Development in Ranchi District of Jharkhand 2020-08-11T11:16:16+00:00 Mayur Gauta Virendra B. Shahare <p>The impact of Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) funds was studied in Hutup village in Ormanjhi Block of Ranchi district of Jharkhand, where CSR sponsored project was implemented by KGVK under the guidance of Usha Martin Ranchi for improving the quality of life of the work fore and their families as well as of the community and society at a large. Out of total 270 beneficiaries 30 farmers were selected as respondents in the study. It was observed that 27.40 percent of farmers come below the socio-economic status group, whereas 61.1240 in medium and 11.48% comes from a high socio-economic status group. Due to the creation of water harvesting structure in the village overall 38.21% assured irrigation has been increased. The productivity of cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetables has been increased 76.47, 116.66, 125 and 88.23 percent respectively, resulting thereby 24.56, 52.94, 60.86 and 83.33 percent income of farmers has been increased through cultivation of Cereal, Pulses, Oilseeds and vegetables respectively. Result reveals that development of water harvesting structure is an important intervention for enhancing production and productivity of agricultural crops in Jharkhand. The results also suggested that demonstration of improved production technologies coupled with capacity building of farmers through trainings of improved package of practices of different crops and vegetables as well as timely input support services increase the production and availability of local market for selling of produce at remunerative price enhance the income of farmers.&nbsp;</p> 2020-08-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Sesame Seed Driller Machine Rental Service in Kafta-Humera District, Western Tigray, Ethiopia 2020-08-11T11:16:15+00:00 Yemane Hailu Gebre <p>The use of row planter in Ethiopia for sesame production is almost at the infant stage, and most seeds were typically sown through manual broadcasting as the tariff of imported agricultural machinery (row planter) is high. This shows that poor and small-scale farmers are unable to purchase row planter/sesame seed driller machine/ as its cost is expensive and their land is small. Hence, this study has assessed farmers' willingness to pay to rent sesame seed driller machine service by conducting a survey of 124 farmers in Kafta-humera district, western Tigray, Ethiopia. A survey questionnaire related to CVM was designed and face-to-face interviews were made to collect the data. The descriptive result showed that 85.48% of the farmers were willing to rent the Sesame seed driller machine with a mean of ETB 911.37 per hectare. The Probit regression results confirm that the educational level, access to extension service, the income of the household, and access to credit were the factors that affecting the farmers’ level of willingness to pay positively. However, the cultivable land size was negatively influencing willingness to rent sesame seed driller machine by the farmers. Regarding the perception of farmers, majority of the respondents were perceived positively particularly with the statements of “sesame seed driller machine decreases weed occurrence and makes easy to control weed, increases sesame grain yield and it makes farmers financially profitable". However, they perceived negatively on that it drills a higher seed rate and missed plant to some extent. The study, therefore, recommends encouraging well educated and better off people to engage in sesame farming, overhauling agricultural extension services. Moreover, it is suggested that investors, cooperatives or private companies should introduce sesame seed driller machine not only for themselves but also to rent service at a fair price.</p> 2020-08-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socio-economic Status of the Livestock-rearers in the Flood-prone Districts of Odisha 2020-08-08T14:46:52+00:00 Jeebanjyoti Behera Sujeet Kumar Jha Maneesha Bhuyan Aditya Kumar Malla <p>Flood has been found to be the most frequent to Odisha among all-natural calamities. Flood affects in same way to both humans as well as animal’s life. Animals, those who survived from these floods are threatened by the non-availability of feed and shelter. Fodder fields are also completely destroyed like other agricultural crops. These feed deprived and shelter less animals are stressed and immune-suppressed, thus become susceptible to contagious diseases. The present study was conducted to know the socio economic status of the livestock-rearers under the given resources viz. demographic, physical, economic, flood-related information and social. Ex-post Research Design was followed for the present study.A total of 120 livestock-rearers were selected, using simple random sampling method from 8 villages of 4 blocks from the 2 Districts of the Odisha for the purpose of the study. The respondents of the study area were marginal farmers having average operational land holding of 0.11 hectare. It was found that 31.74 percent of the average income of respondents was earned from crop cultivation, 26.00 percent from livestock. All the respondents of the studied area had experienced flood events during the last 10 years, which means the flood is a regular annual event in studied district. This study throws light on the existing conditions of the farmers of the flood-prone districts of Odisha, which is very fragile and needs immense care.</p> 2020-08-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Influencing the Buying Behavior of Hybrid Paddy Seed Growers 2020-08-10T13:24:53+00:00 Rashmi Pandey Senthil Vinayagam M. Krishnan K. Akhila <p>This study was on factors influencing buying behavior of the hybrid paddy seed growers among selected districts of Bihar with following objectives source and level of awareness, buying behavior of farmers and promotion of sales at retail level. The 155 farmers were selected from 27 blocks of six sample districts of Bihar state which includes Banka, Bhagalpur, Katihar, Munger, Purnea and Samastipur. Structured interview schedule was used for collection of data. The Ex-post facto research design was used in this study. By using frequencies, percentages, garrets ranking and factor analysis, the results was carried. Majority of the farmers were aware of hybrid paddy seeds due to promotion of dealers/retailers. Promotional events and trainings were conducted by the company personnel to spread awareness among farmers about hybrid seeds. Plant height, grain size, water logging tolerance are the important factors to influence the farmers for purchase of hybrid paddy seeds. Due to loyalty of dealers they purchase from same outlet and the farmers expect provision of credit facility from the companies. ‘6444’ brand was chosen by the farmers due to better grain quality among all the brands from same outlet.</p> 2020-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical Study of Plastic Mulching in Tuberose and Melons in Dharmapuri District of Tamilnadu 2020-08-11T08:53:37+00:00 K. Indhumathi P. S. Shanmugam M. Sangeetha <p>Dharmapuri is a versatile district with a wide variety of crop diversity from millets to vegetables under protected cultivation. Tuberose and melons are livelihood crops for small and marginal farmers with limited irrigation water source. About 80% of the cost of cultivation is spent on weed management in tuberose. Productivity in melons is affected due to soil-borne diseases and fruit flies.&nbsp; Front line demonstrations for the use of plastic mulching was conducted to address the issues. The demonstrations were conducted in farmers’ fields and each farmer field is considered as one location. Results of the demonstrations were analysed in various perspectives including economic benefits so as to showcase the positive outcome of the plastic mulching technology.&nbsp; There was about 15 – 20% increase in the melons and 18 - 22% in the case of the tuberose. Though the increase in productivity cannot be correlated only to plastic mulching, the improvement in the fruit quality (95% of first grade fruits) attributed by plastic mulching especially in melons. Weed management cost was reduced in tuberose by 80%. In melons the reduced crop duration by 6 – 8 days indirectly reduced the cost of cultivation and added to the net returns of the crop. The economic benefit of the technology were realised by farmers.</p> 2020-08-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Constraints Faced by Women Entrepreneur in India: An Overview 2020-08-11T11:16:15+00:00 Anjali Chunera <p><strong>Background:</strong> Women entrepreneurship is essential for societal as well as country development. But women entrepreneurs in India come across multiple challenges which obstruct them from working.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study aims to investigate the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in India. The paper engages in a comparative literature review of constraints from several states in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross selection survey.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The major constraints faced by women entrepreneurs in India are the social constraints like gender inequality and discrimination, family discouragement, lack of social acceptance and male dominance, etc. Personal constraints include lack of self-confidence, motivation and risk-bearing capacity, dual role performance at home and job, fear of failure and criticism and many more, financial constraints were inadequacy of working capital, lack of awareness of sources of finance, lack of credit facility and lack of knowledge about finance etc., and environmental constraints like inadequate institutional support, non-availability of good workers/employees, lack of managerial education etc. hamper the pathway of women entrepreneurs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendation:</strong> This study makes certain recommendation such as constraints faced by women entrepreneurs need to be addressed as top priorities to have unhampered women development by conducting gender-specific training, awareness workshops, vocational skill courses, utilization of social media for information dissemination, skill development should be done by government and policymakers should come up with various policies and programmes focusing on creating a conducive environment for the success of women entrepreneurs.</p> 2020-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##