Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2320-7027 Extent of Crop Diversification across Different Farm Size Groups in the North Bank Plains Zone of Assam <p>Crop Diversification is a strategy to optimize the use of land, water and other farm resources particularly for risk reduction, stabilization of farm income, augmenting farm employment and overall agricultural development in general. The study was undertaken to find out the extent of crop diversification across different farm size groups in the North Bank Plains Zone (NBPZ) of Assam. To find the extent of crop diversification of farmers across different farm size groups two districts <em>viz.</em> Lakhimpur and Sonitpur were selected randomly with a sample size of 160 farmers (80 belonging from Lakhimpur district and 80 belonging from Sonitpur district) administered with the Simpson Index of Diversity [1]. The statistical techniques employed were frequency (<em>f</em>), mean (X), percentage (<em>%</em>). The findings suggested that in the pooled sample of farmers, majority of the respondents (64.37%) were in medium crop diversification category followed by 20.00 per cent in high and 15.63 per cent in low crop diversification category. Similarly, majority of the respondents were in medium crop diversification category in all the individual categories of farmer i.e., marginal, small and medium farmers respectively. This study will be useful to the extension functionaries, agriculture and allied departments to modify and quantify their ways and means to educate the farmers for adoption of diversification.</p> Akhoy J. Bharadwaj Pabitra K. Das Dipankar Saikia Manisha Barman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 1 7 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830931 Comparative Study of Paddy Cultivation in Ghaggar River Belt and Salt Affected Micro Farming Situation in Zone 1b of Rajasthan <p>The present study was conducted to analyze the comparative calculation of the cost and returns and resource use efficiency of paddy crop in Ghaggar river belt and Salt affected micro farming situations in zone 1b of Rajasthan. In zone Ib Sriganganagar district Suratgarh tehsil selected for Ghaggar river belt and in Hanumangarh district Rawatsar tehsil selected for Salt affected micro farming situation. Two villages from each tehsil were selected randomly. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for the present study for each tehsil. The farmers were divided into small, medium and large farms on basis of following criterion; Small (≤2ha), Medium (&gt;2ha ≤4ha) and Large (&gt;4ha). A sample of 25 farmers from each village was selected according to probability proportional to farm size. Primary data were collected on pre-structured schedules for agriculture year 2017-18. In study area overall cost of cultivation per hectare of paddy ₹ 46110.02 and ₹ 37750.44 in Ghaggar river belt and Salt affected micro farming situations respectively. Gross return in Ghaggar river belt micro farming situation was ₹ 100852.50 and Salt affected micro farming situation was ₹ 79772.50 per hectare. Coefficient of multiple determinations (R<sup>2</sup>) in Ghaggar river belt micro farming situations found 0.75 per cent and Salt affected micro farming situation 0.62 per cent.</p> Pradeep Kumar I. P. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 8 20 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830932 Analysing the Growth Prospects of Agribusiness Input Sector in India <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Agribusiness is undergoing huge transformation. Seed, fertilizer and pesticide sector plays a vital role in agribusiness. The aim of this paper is to study about the overview of agribusiness system in Indian and to analyze the growth prospects for agribusiness in India.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Secondary data was collected from various government websites and reports. The data was organized and analysed to fulfil the objective of the study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) was used to analyse the data. Secondary data was collected from 2010 to 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results revealed that the production, sale and consumption of major agricultural input-based agribusiness are growing with a CAGR of 2 per cent on an average. This revealed the scope for input-based agribusiness in India.&nbsp;</p> Darsi Pradeep Kumar K. R. Ashok C. Karthikeyan P. Flowrine Olive ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 21 25 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830933 A Study on the Consumer Perception towards Organic Food Products in Punjab <p>As the population is increasing all around the world, and to have good quality food is now becoming a challenge for everyone. On another side food that is grown with unhealthy practices is also paving the way towards an unhealthy body prone to diseases. There is a huge gap between customers’ expectations and market supply, especially in terms of quality and their price. This study aims to investigate the influence on buying decisions and challenges towards healthy food accessibility. We have used cross-sectional survey data and analytical methods used in the study were Pareto analysis and Garret ranking method. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for the study, and to segment the organic consumers, we have used factor analysis. The study found that Demand and supply have a massive gap and this gap is an opportunity for other farmers that is why new producers can serve and cash benefits.</p> Anubhav Beniwal Chidanand Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 26 38 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830934 Information and Communication Technologies for Marketing of Horticultural Crops in India <p>In most developing countries, including India, agriculture is moving away from traditional self sufficiency goals (subsistence) to commercialization. In this changing scenario, an efficient marketing system is central to future growth of the sector. Horticultural crops are highly vulnerable to market fluctuations. Problems due to perishable nature of the crop are compounded by lack of storage facilities, weak infrastructure, and poor transport. This often leads to market glut and distress sale at low paying outlets. In the context of developing countries, it has been suggested that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can play a significant positive role by improving arbitrage and reducing information asymmetries. The Market Information Centre (MIC) in Kerala was established to provide vital market information to the state’s fruit and vegetable cultivators. This paper describes the use of price information provided by MIC to banana cultivators for making market transactions. The study was conducted in Wayanad district of Kerala, India. Data was collected using structured schedule and in depth interviews. Information on price realized by the farmers was collected from both users and non users of information provided by MIC centres.</p> R. L. Anoop V. L. V. Kameswari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 48 56 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830936 Structural Breaks, Growth and Instability Test in Onion Cultivation: A Case of Saurashtra Region of Gujarat <p>Onion is one of the most important commercial vegetable crops grown in India. Among the bulb crops onion is the only member grown to a great extent in this country. The historical data on area, production and yield of onion from Gujarat were collected for 26 years from the year 1992-93 to 2017-2018 and analysis was carried out using compound growth rate, Cuddy- Della Vella index and Structural break analysis (Chow test). This study was conducted on onion cultivation in Gujarat for the study period of 1992-93 to 2017-18. To capture the impact of NHM (National Horticulture Mission), the study period was re-categorized into: Pre- NHM Period (1992-93 to 2004-05); Post- NHM Period (2005-06 to 2017-18) and Overall Period (1992-93 to 2017-18). Major onion producing districts of Gujarat were selected for analysis. In case of growth rate and instability the yield was showed negative during study period so, more emphasis should be given to enhance the yield level with the help of innovations and technology in onion cultivation. structural break points plays a vital role regarding the forecasting purpose. For, structural break chow test was carried out, the results revealed that occur of structural break in particular district due to area and yield components used in this study.</p> S. Hemagandhi V. D. Tarpara K. M. Vasavada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 57 65 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830937 Estimating the Elasticity of Demand for Some Sources of Animal Protein in Egypt <p>Red meat, white meat, and fish are the most important sources of animal proteins and fats needed for human food, and they are also commodity substitutes for each other. Average daily per capita amount of protein obtained from animal sources reaches 26.2 grams/day during the period (2015-2019), which is lower than the minimum agreed upon by nutrition scientists in the United Nations recommended by the World Health Organization, which is estimated at 29 grams/day of protein. The local production of red meat, white meat, and fish cannot be fulfilling the growing local demand for it, as the food problem in Egypt is the weak ability of local production to meet the population's needs for food commodities In general, Egypt suffers from a food gap in red meat, white meat, and fish, estimated at 662, 76, and 321 thousand ton, respectively, on average during the period (2015-2019).</p> <p>The research aims to analyze the current situation of the most important economic indicators related to the local demand for red meat, white meat, and fish, and study the impact of these factors on local demand, price measurement, and spending relationships on animal protein alternatives with changing prices and spending on them. The research also aims to predict the future domestic demand for red meat, white meat, and fish.</p> <p>The study relied on the methods of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis in the interpretation and description of the economic variables subject of the study, and the "Almost Ideal Demand System" (AIDS) model was used, which is one of the important models used in the study and analysis of the system of demand for goods in order to estimate the price elasticity, cross elasticity and expenditure elasticity. And using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Box-Jenkins model to predict the local demand for red meat, white meat, and fish.</p> <p>The results show that an increase in the population by 1% leads to a statistically significant increase in the total demand for red meat, white meat, and fish by about 1.41%, 2.58%, 2.31%, respectively during the study period as about 74%, 83%, 93% of the total changes in the total quantity required of red meat, white meat and fish respectively are reflected by the increase in the population during the study period. And an increase in real national income by 1% leads to a statistically significant increase in the total demand for red meat, white meat, and fish by about 0.47%, 1.012%, and 0.82% respectively, and this is due to about 58%, 75%, and 84% of the changes in the total quantity required of red meat, white meat, and fish due to the increase in real national income during the study period.</p> <p>An increase in the real retail price of red meat, white meat and fish by about 1% leads to a decrease in individual demand for these commodities by about 0.73%, 0.17%, and 0.11%, respectively, and from the price elasticity of demand for the commodities under study, it turns out that they are all commodities with inelastic demand, meaning that the commodities under study are essential commodities. The Cross elasticities indicate the consumer's inability to purchase both red meat and fish sufficiently in case of the current prices, while the consumer can buy the right amount of white meat under current prices.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite the continuous increase in the local production of red meat, white meat and fish, there is an increase in consumption rates that is greater than the annual increase in production, which negatively affects self-sufficiency rates and average annual per capita share, due to the continuous increase in the population, as well as The continuous increase in the demand of red meat, white meat and fish negatively affects the Egyptian trade balance as a result of import and the rise in international food prices.</p> Mohamed Fathi Mahmoud Afifi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 66 80 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830938 Constraints Related to Production and Marketing of Freshwater Fish Rohu (Labeo rohita) in Cuttack District of Odisha <p>Aquaculture can be considered as a rapidly growing sector in many Indian states including Odisha. The impressive overall upward trend in fish production is likely to continue in future years as there are plenty of unutilized or underutilized fishery resources in the state. In spite of the growing popularity of aquaculture in the state, fish farmers have been experiencing financial, social and technical constraints in fish farming and in marketing practices. Cuttack district of Odisha was selected for the study.98 respondents from 4 villages were selected based on the population of the villages. The present study was conducted in the year 2021-2022 years.This paper examines the constraints faced by the fish farmers while producing and marketing of the freshwater fish Rohu (<em>Labeo rohita</em>) which reveals that damage due to natural calamities in production and frequent price fluctuations in marketing are the major constraints expressed by the farmers.</p> Biswajit Samal Sanjay Kumar Vikas Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 81 85 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830939 A Study on Customers Preferences towards Landscape Features of Agri-tourism in Tamil Nadu <p>The agricultural landscape is the base for agri-tourism development. This paper focuses on customer preferences for agricultural landscape features when participating in agri-tourism. The prime objective of the study includes identifying the attractive features of agricultural landscapes and comparing those features across a category of customer's annual family income, family size, tour frequency and levels of farming and linkage. Data were collected in farm resorts located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Forty customers were randomly selected as respondents in ten resorts with total arrival of 400 sample customers using a well-developed questionnaire. General characteristics of respondents and customers preferences towards landscape features were collected. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) were conducted to know about the comparison of selected variables with landscape features in agri-tourism. Results show that customers liked mostly natural features followed by agricultural and cultural features. MANOVA shows significant differences across selected segments such as annual family income, family size, tour frequency and levels of farming and linkage. Imparting customer-preferred features like more natural features will increase the customer visit to agri-tourism. By this study, agri-tourism farms can increase their customer level of satisfaction by knowing the desired needs of the customer.</p> S. Sarath S. D. Sivakumar N. Venkatesa Palanichamy D. Suresh Kumar E. Somasundaram ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 86 95 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830940 Performance of Cluster Front Line Demonstrations on Integrated Crop Management in Red Gram (Cajanus cajan) Using Variety PRG-176 in Peddapalli District under North Agroclimatic Zone of Telangana State in India <p>The present study was conducted under CFLD at the farmers’ fields under the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Ramagirikhilla, Peddapalli District operational area for three kharif seasons during 2016-17 to 2019-20 covering 169 locations. The demonstrated technology delineated the practices of improved selection (PRG-176), seed treatment with <em>Rhizobium</em> @ 250 g acre<sup>-I</sup>, soil application of <em>Trichoderma viridii</em> @ 2kg acre<sup>-I</sup> mixing with FYM @ one hundred kilo acre<sup>-I</sup> and plant protection measures with installation of pheromone traps @ four per acre, spraying of neem oil @one liter acre<sup>-I</sup> and Profenofos 50 EC @ 400ml acre<sup>-I</sup>. The result of demonstration showed higher productivity notably as 15.91 q ha<sup>-I</sup> compared to the farmers practice (13.42 q ha<sup>-I</sup>) with a mean increase of 19.50%. Technology index and technology gap values were 59.57 per cent and 4.08 q ha<sup>-I</sup> respectively. The results conjointly unconcealed that the typical increase within the net return with demonstration was 55248 Rs. ha<sup>-I</sup> and 40651 Rs. ha<sup>-I</sup> over farmers practice respectively. Similarly, mean benefit cost ratio was recorded with demonstration as 2.63 compared to farmers practice (2.18) throughout the years of trial. Adoption of improved technology as well as new selection, timely supply of essential inputs with correct steering by the human, frequent watching visits to fields diagnose the issues and take applicable corrective measures, field days etc., can be the contributive factors for prime yield with smart quality in all told demonstration plots.</p> Y. Venkanna B. Bhaskar Rao A. Srinivas R. Vinayak B. Naresh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 96 103 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830942 Correlates of Rural Youth's Socioeconomic Attributes and Attitude towards Rural Development Activities <p>Young people in rural areas are a crucial segment of the rural society, and they contribute greatly to agriculture and rural development. The research study was conducted in Majholi block of Jabalpur district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh during the year 2019-20 to comprehend the attitude of youth towards rural development activities. The primary data were collected from 120 rural youth across seven villages by conducting personal interview. A scale constructed by Radhakrishnan and Arunanchalam [1] is used compute the attitude of youths regarding rural development activities. The results indicated that the majority of the youth had favourable attitude towards rural development activities. The education, family type, annual income, source of information achievement motivation, extension contact and social participation of youths were found to be positively and significantly correlated with their attitude towards rural development activities. Hence, the study suggested that there is need to promote rural-based developmental activities and create scope for enrolling and involving youth in developmental activities.&nbsp;</p> Siddharth Namdeo Seema Naberia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 104 109 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830943 Extent of Knowledge and Adoption of System of Rice Intencification (SRI) Cultivation Practices among Rice Growers in Kohima District of Nagaland, India <p>Rice is life for millions of people in the world, particularly in developing countries. Unfortunately in India, the productivity of rice is already very low and the area for growing rice cannot be increased further. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed by Fr. Henri de Laulanie during eighties in Madagascar, offers opportunities for improving rice production in a variety of situations around the world. SRI was promoted under the “Integrated Cereal Development Programme-Rice”. Rice is also the main staple food of people in the North Eastern Region of India. The demand for rice is growing with ever-increasing population. It is the most water intensive crops and requires about 3000-5000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of rice. Nagaland is also one of the states where SRI is cultivated by the rice farmers. It is one of the most important crops of the North Eastern states and SRI has been highly cultivated by farmers in Kohima district of Nagaland. It has the highest production and area.</p> <p>The present study is an effort to study the profile of farmers’ already practicing SRI method of rice cultivation which would certainly help to develop suitable extension strategies to reach the slow adopters thus reducing the time gap and increasing the adoption rate. While worldwide SRI started three decades ago, its knowledge is still evolving and several issues with regard to various components that are involved in its implementation still need some investigation. The finding of the study can help to analyze the factors influencing it and the constraints faced by the farmers thus enlisting strategies to the rice farmers to overcome it.</p> <p>The study was conducted in Jakhama, Kohima village and Kezocha block of Kohima district of Nagaland. A total number of 120 respondents from 4 villages were selected through random sampling based on maximum area under system of rice intensification production. Data was collected with the help of pre-structured interview schedule. The descriptive research design was used for the present research study. The socio-economic variables selected for the study were age, education, family size, family type, land holding, annual income, farm experience, extension contact, social participation, mass media exposure and sources of information utilization resources</p> <p>The study revealed that majority of the system of rice intensification cultivators belonged to middle aged group, had medium level of annual income with medium size of land holding. Majority of them had medium year of farming experience, use of sources of information and medium level of extension contact. It was observed that the majority of the respondents had medium level of knowledge and adoption of recommended system of rice intensification practices among rice growers.</p> Sanenjungla Kichu . Jahanara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 110 123 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830944 Knowledge of Farmers towards Hathei Chilli Production Practices in Sirarakhong Village of Ukhrul District, Manipur <p>A study is conducted in Sirarakhong Village, Ukhrul district, Manipur. A total of one hundred twenty respondents were selected for the study. The primary information were collected through pre-tested interview schedule. The finding shows that 46.67 per cent of the respondents were having medium category of knowledge towards improved Hathei Chilli production practices. Age, education, occupation, land holding, farming experience, innovativeness, and economic motivation were found positively correlated with their knowledge categoryof the respondents.</p> Themshang Khapudang Dipak Kumar Bose ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 124 129 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830945 Empirical Analysis on the Development of Ecological Agriculture under the Initiative of "Sustainable Development" <p>As a large agricultural country, China is promoting the development of agriculture in the direction of modernization and ecology. There are still some problems in the process of vigorous and coordinated development of regional resources. In order to narrow the temporal and spatial differences in the development of ecological agriculture and solve relevant development problems, this study puts forward targeted measures and policies from 18 cities in Henan Province, an important grain producing area in China. The comprehensive evaluation index system including economy, society, environmental and ecology calculated by U-EBM model is constructed for the first time, and the grey weighted clustering model based on improved entropy weight method is used to analyze and evaluate the overall development of ecological agriculture in each city for the first time. This method provides a new evaluation angle, and uses the idea of "less data and grey information" in grey theory to test the development trend and influence mechanism of regional ecological agriculture. It is found that fixed asset investment accounts for a large proportion in water-saving irrigation rate, total power of agricultural machinery and ecological agriculture efficiency, which is the key factor affecting the sustainable development of ecological agriculture. The results of data-driven clustering show that there are significant differences in the development of eco agriculture in various regions of Henan Province, which can be roughly divided into three gray levels. The model conforms to the actual situation of unbalanced development of ecological agriculture in various regions of Henan Province, verifies the reliability of the model, and provides accurate evaluation direction and relevant policies and strategic deployment for the research of agricultural ecological development in the future.</p> Huang Yaru Ye Yaojun Zhou Mengling ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 130 142 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830946 Assessment of the Utilization Pattern of Mass Media for Agricultural Production among Farmers in Haryana,India <p>In this present era, information and communication technology (ICT) has an impact on every element of human life. They are essential players in the workplace, business, education, and, most crucially, agriculture. Furthermore, many people see ICT as a catalyst for change in working conditions, information management and exchange, learning methods, and access to information communication technologies. The present study was conducted in Haryana state. One district viz. Hisar were selected randomly as they are present in two different zones of Haryana. Further two blocks were selected randomly. Hisar II and Adampur block were selected from Hisar district. Analysis revealed&nbsp; that about 70.00 % of the respondents always utilized mass media for gathering information and near about one-fourth of the respondents 24.20%&nbsp;&nbsp; sometimes utilized mass media followed by a few of respondents (09.17%) were never utilized mass media for gathering weather information. More than three-fifth of the respondents (77.50%) never utilized mass media and near about two-fifth of the respondents (18.33%) sometimes utilized&nbsp; mass media followed by a few respondents (04.17%) always utilized mass media for the inputs. Annual income of the respondents found highly significantly associated with level of utilization of mass media. The analysis revealed that 66.70 per cent of the respondents, who earned annual income i.e. up to Rs.1,00,001 to 2,00,001,sometimes utilized mass media. Contrary to that 45.10%&nbsp;&nbsp; of the respondents, who earned annual income above Rs. 1,00,000/-, sometimes and 41.20%&nbsp;&nbsp; had never utilized mass media.</p> . Kiran Rashmi Tyagi Jatesh Kathpalia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 143 152 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830947 Knowledge and Attitude Level of the MGNREGA Respondents in Nalanda District of Bihar <p>Population wise Bihar is third populated state in India. In the state more than 85% of population stays in rural area and the state is the least urbanized state of the country and have a low source of income which leads to increase in poverty. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA, later renamed as the “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”, MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘right to work’. The present study aims to analyse the knowledge and attitude level of MGNREGA respondents. The study was conducted in Nalanda district of Bihar which was selected purposively as the MGNREGA scheme is currently running in the district. Hilsa block was selected by purposive sampling&nbsp;&nbsp; for the study as the block has the largest number of MGNREGA beneficiaries. Total six villages were selected for the study by purposively considering the fact that these villages have greater number of MGNREGA beneficiaries. A total of 120 respondents were taken randomly. The data were collected by pre- structured interview schedule and appropriate statistical analysis was done to find out the meaningful results. The finding of the study reveals that the majority (47.50 per cent) of the respondents had medium level of knowledge about MGNREGA scheme followed by 32.50 per cent and 20 per cent of the respondents having high and low level of knowledge, respectively. It also reveals that 40 per cent of the respondents had medium level of attitude of MGNREGA scheme followed by 33.33 per cent and 26.67 per cent of the respondents having high and low level of attitude.</p> Vineeta Chandra Syed H. Mazhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 153 158 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830948 Income and Employment Generation Activities among Farmer Beneficiaries through a Crop-based Module of Farmer First Programme <p>This paper is concerned with analyzing the impact of the Farmer First Programme in generating the income and employment of the farmers through a crop-based module of the farmer first Programme in Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh State, the Farmer First Programme (FFP) is a concept of&nbsp; Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) where the farmer plays a centric role for research problem identification, prioritization, and conduct of experiments and its management at farmer’s conditions. Its focus is on Farmer's Farm, Innovations, Resources, Science, and Technology (FIRST). A sample of 129 farmers from the Lalbarra block of Balaghat district was purposively selected because it's having a maximum area under Farmer First Programme. A total of five modules are going on in the Lalbarra block. out of which only Crop Based Module was selected because it consists of a high number of Beneficiaries. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of the Farmer FIRST programme on the farming community in terms of income and employment generation during 2020-21, for finding the research issue, Ex- post facto research design was used. We employed absolute changes for assessing the Impact of the Crop Based Module of the Farmer First Programme by gaining the additional income of individuals which were computed by ascertaining pre and post-income and employment generation of individuals through FFP. It may be concluded that there is a significant and positive difference found in income and employment generation among the farmers through Farmer First Programme.</p> Kapil Maran M. K. Dubey Sanjana Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 159 163 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830949 Scale to Measure Performance of Extension Personnel in Promoting Sustainable Dry Farming <p>The scale was developed to measure the performance level of extension personnel in promoting sustainable dry farming in central dry zone of Karnataka. Dry farming areas are the areas which receives an annual rainfall of 750 mm or less than that and there is no irrigation facility for raising crops. Dry farming is the scientific management of soil and crops under dry lands without irrigation. In total 38 statements were framed in scale with review of literature, experts’ suggestion and the role &amp; responsibilities prescribed by State Department of Agriculture, Karnataka to their staff. The edited statements in form of questionnaires were sent to 109 judges to rate the relevancy of statements with the help of online platform ‘Google Forms’. Out of 109, 21 completely filled questionnaires were received in the span of 3 months with many reminders through mail and phone calls. In total 20 statements were selected out of 38 which were having mean relevancy score more than 4.00 and relevancy percentage more than 80. Then t-test has been administered for item analysis and all the 20 selected statements were found to have t-value more than the standard value i.e., 1.75 and hence all 20 statements were retained to the final scale. The r-value was found to be 0.78 and hence the scale was found to be reliable and valid to use in future for the similar investigations.</p> V. R. Sachin Prasanta Mishra Shridevi Valamannavar Hemanta Saikia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 164 170 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830950 A Study on Farmers’ Perception about Uzhavan App in Select Districts of Tamil Nadu <p>ICT provides more facilities to farmers by introducing agricultural mobile apps and encourage the farmers for effective farming. These mobile apps provide agriculture related information to farmers in timely and cost effective manner. The present study is carried out to find the farmers perception on uzhavan app which is developed by Government of Tamil Nadu. More than 5 lakh farmers have registered in this app and get various benefits. The uzhavan app has been used by many farmers in gaining more information about agricultural activities. Respondents revealed that dissemination of information through the uzhavan app is valuable and user friendly. The major challenges faced by the farmers were network problem mainly during the ATMA training registration, lack of price details of few commodity and in minor problem time consumes to use all services, app is quite difficult to use due to poor content visibility. From the study, it has been found that majority of farmers had good perception about the uzhavan app and they are satisfied with the features that support them in farming and they also expect some other features need to be integrated in uzhavan mobile app. The uzhavan app provides real time market price of some agricultural commodities and it has greater impact in selling farmers produce at fair price in mandis. Meanwhile, the features of e market online platform helps farmers to connects directly with traders and sell their produce at good price. The availability of farm guide in app provides information regarding fertilizer recommendations practices where most of sample respondents adopted recommended usage level and has positive impact in farming by increasing the yield of farmers.</p> S. Nandhini A. Rohini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 171 178 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830951 Strategy to Improve the Marketing Behaviour of Turmeric Farmers in Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh <p>The present study was carried out purposively in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh as it is having the maximum area under turmeric cultivation. The main objective of the study was to develop a suitable strategy to improve the marketing behavior of turmeric farmers. The study followed <em>Ex post facto</em> research design. The purposive sampling technique was administered and two mandals namely Mydukur and Duvvur were selected on the basis of maximum area under the turmeric cultivation. Data was collected from 90 respondents by following a randomly drawn sample technique with the help of a well-structured interview schedule. The study undertaken comprises of analyzing the profile, marketing behaviour and relationship between the profile and marketing behaviour of turmeric farmers. Apart from this, the study was also concerned with the problems encountered in the marketing of produce and their suggestions to overcome these problems by developing a suitable strategy that helps in improving the marketing behaviour of turmeric farmers. The major findings of the study revealed that, the marketing behaviour of a farmer is influenced by various different factors <em>viz</em>., time of sale, location of sale, marketing channels used, and market prices. The government interventions through the provision of direct marketing/linkages with their marketing firms are highly useful to enhance the marketing behaviour of the farmers. Apart from this, making aware of market prices across the nation through e-sources (mobile apps) by the government may also be helpful to improve the markeing ability of turmeric farmers. Further, it is essential to create awareness regarding the market potential of a produce by field-level marketing professionals under the guidance of the Directorate of Agricultural Marketing can be helpful for afflicting the marketing ability of the farmers.</p> Settipalli Sravani S. V. Prasad P. L. R. J. Praveena G. Karuna Sagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 179 183 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830952 Adaptability of Farmers to Climate Change in North Bank Plains Zone of Assam <p>The study was carried out to assess the adaptability of farmers to climate change in North Bank Plains Zone of Assam. A household level survey was carried out with the selected farmers to obtain the primary data. For this, total 120 farmers were selected from 6 different villages through proportionate random sampling. The adaptability was assessed by following the procedure of Shankar et al<em>.</em> [1]. Adaptation Index for each management practice was calculated and the score ranged from 0 to 100. Findings revealed that adaptation practices such as use of organic manure, summer deep ploughing, conservation tillage, bunds and change in variety were followed by most of the farmers to cope up with the climate change. The adaptation practices such as water harvesting, use of ITK, bird perched, intercropping and protected cultivation were followed by least number of farmers to cope up with climate change. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents (67.67%) belonged to medium adaptability category followed by 19.17 per cent of respondents in low adaptability category and 14.17 per cent respondents in high adaptability category. The mean adaptability score was 11.71 indicating that, on an average, respondents had medium adaptability.</p> Trilochan Karki Chetri Pabitra Kumar Das Dipankar Saikia M. Misha Madhavan Eleza Baro Manisha Barman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 184 189 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830953 Are Remittances of Migrants from Rural Households Improving Investment in Agriculture: Empirical Evidences from Tamil Nadu State of India <p>A study was conducted in seven villages of Peddanayakenpalayam block of Salem district in Tamil Nadu to understand the impact of remittances of migrants on the Agricultural Well being of their families. The sample size consisted of 100 migrant farm families and the respondents were selected using proportionate random sampling method. A vast majority (87%) of respondents of this study replied that using the remittances of their migrant family members they could able to purchase cows, goats and chicks. Another conspicuous impact on agriculture due to remittances of migrant family members were purchase of new agriculture field/ land and laying of irrigation channels/pipe lines. Nearly three – fifth (59%) of respondents told that they brought un cultivated land to in cultivation using the remittances of their migrated family members. Type of family duration of migration and average pay per month had shown a positive significant contribution for impact of remittances of migrant family members on agricultural well-being at one Percent level of probability. Multiple regression analysis was resorted to find out the contribution of Independent variables on the dependent variable, Impact of Remittances on Agricultural Well-being of Migrant Househols. Working Conditions was found to significantly contributing to impact of remittance of migrant family members on agricultural well-being at five Percent level of probability. Number of destination was found to have a negative significant contribution towards the impact of remittance on agricultural well-being at one Percent level of probability</p> M. Bhuvaneshwari M. Ramasubramanian D. Puthira Prathap N. Anandaraja M. Senthilkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-07 2022-05-07 190 200 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830954 Costs, Returns, Profitability and Resource use Efficiency of Chickpea Production in Rain-fed Micro Farming Situation in Irrigated North Western Plain of Rajasthan <p>An investigation on cost, returns, profitability and resource use efficiency of chickpea production was conducted in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan, India in 2018-19. A sample of 50 farmers from Nohar tehsil of Hanumangarh district were interviewed to collect relevant information related to various expenses incurred in the cultivation of chickpea. In all 50 cultivators were selected for present study with equal distribution in small, medium and large groups.&nbsp; The techniques like cost concept of cost-A, cost-B and cost-C and Cobb-Douglas production function used for resource use efficiency. The results revealed that cost total cost of per hectare was small, medium and large farms Rs.17911.68, Rs.18982.34 and Rs.19990.89 respectively. The output-input ratio on C<sub>3</sub> cost was 2.35 on small farm followed by that of 2.55 and 2.72 on medium and large farm, respectively. Coefficient of multiple determinations (R<sup>2</sup>) in the fitted Cobb-Douglas production function was use for resource use efficiency, R<sup>2 </sup>was found 0.665 indicating the included variables explained 66 per cent variations in dependent variable.</p> Pradeep Kumar I. P. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-09 2022-05-09 201 208 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830955 Adoption Behaviour and Constraints Faced by Farmers Regarding Recommended Plant Protection Practices in Pigeon Pea in Khunti District of Jharkhand <p>Plant protection practices is an important aspect to get healthy plant, healthy seed and maximum crop yield. Less knowledge and adoption of recommended plant protection practices is one of the important reasons for low yield of the crop. Hence, the study was undertaken to determine the level of adoption of the recommended plant protection practices that would help farmers to increase the yield. The study was conducted in Khunti district of Jharkhand. A total of 120 respondents were selected randomly from six villages (two each) under three blocks namely, Khunti, Torpa and Arki because area had less productivity than production. The data were collected by interviewing respondents with the help of pre-structured interview schedule and appropriate statistical analysis was done. Descriptive research design was used for the study. The study revealed that majority of respondents (57.5%) belong to middle age group, 71.70% of the respondents were marginal farmers with less than one hectare land as they had fragmented lands, majority of the respondents (56.7%) had low annual income and majority of the respondents mainly interacted with each other on a personal level. The findings also revealed that majority of respondents (46.67%) had low level of adoption towards recommended plant protection practices followed by 35.83 % and 17.5 % medium and high level, respectively. Age, occupation, family size, land holding, annual income, material possession, extension contact and rate of utilization of sources were positive and significantly correlated towards adoption level of the plant protection practices. The study also enlightened the major constraints faced by the farmers of the study area. Some of the major constraints were lack of trainings of scientific cultivation, poor extension contacts, high cost of insecticides and pesticides, unavailability of information and lack of good quality insecticides and pesticides.</p> Nupoor Sitara Kandir Syed H. Mazhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 209 214 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830957 Studies on Relative Economics of Apple Nursery Production under Different Weed Management Practices in Kashmir Valley, India <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The purpose of this study was to assess the relative economics of various weed management practices in apple nursery in Kashmir valley, India.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A Randomized Complete Block Design with seven treatments and three replications was employed as the experimental design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experiment was laid out at the Experimental Farm, Division of Fruit Science, Faculty of Horticulture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India during the year 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Seven weed management treatments (manual weeding, pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup>, pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1</sup> + manual weeding, paddy straw mulch-6 cm thick, black polyethylene mulch-200 micron), weed-free and weedy check) were tested in apple nursery (cv. Silver Spur grafted on M9-T337). The input costs and output in terms of monetary values were calculated under different treatments at prevailing market rates. The net return and benefit-cost (B:C) ratio was worked out based on input and output values under each treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The treatment paddy straw mulch showed the highest input cost (₹9543725.90) while black polyethylene mulch resulted the maximum output (17113252.80). The maximum net returns of ₹78,02,726 from grafted apple nursery plants were recorded under black polyethylene mulch with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.83 followed by pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ manual weeding with net returns of ₹71,60,541 and benefit-cost ratio of 1.77.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Black polyethylene mulch resulted highest net return and B:C ratio, hence it found to be most profitable weed management practice in apple nursery. Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha<sup>-1 </sup>+ manual weeding can also be considered as alternative weed management option.</p> Asrar Ul Haq Angrej Ali Amit Kumar F. A. Khan S. A. Mir B. A. Alie Fazal M. Mir Fasil Fayaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 215 221 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830958 A Study on Motivational Factors and Economic Activites of Shg’s in Andhra Pradesh, India <p>To Empower women and to alleviate poverty in the society SHGs are considered as an important strategy. The present study is exclusively about the empowerment through their entrepreneurial activities of women in East and west Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh through the self-help groups is the objective of this paper. SHG’s play a very important role in improving the socio-economic conditions of women by developing savings and thrift habit, by providing them micro finance at the time of needs and also encouraging micro entrepreneurs. SHGs Bank Linkage Programme is one of the several alternative channels of financial inclusion which help extensively to strengthen the poor specially women folk. Through SHGs, women in rural areas are able to feel financial secured. They come forward by doing economic activities with self-employment like petty shops, tailoring, flower vending, embroidery work etc. The results of the analysis revealed that Economic activities like tailoring and selling of ready- made garments and sarees are mostly carried by women of SHG’s. SHGs have organized many programmes relating to awareness of health and hygiene issues, importance of education for their children, acts pertaining to the safety of women etc.</p> Maddi Harshitha . Jahanara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 222 227 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830959 A Pilot Study on Career Aspirations of Post-Graduate Students at Assam Agricultural University <p>The study was conducted during COVID-19 pandemic through online mode to determine aspiration status of post-graduate students (2020 batch) of Assam Agricultural University and to identify their perceived problems. A sample 50 respondents was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collected via questionnaire were analyzed through frequency and percentage method. Results showed that despite the students aspiring to pursue higher education, majority of them had higher affinity towards getting a government officer level job. Further, they were underprepared for various competitive examinations. Their major perceived problem was lack of guidance. Thus, this pilot study suggests a broader study on much larger sample. Further, career counseling should be provided to the students so that they can decide and select a better career for themselves.</p> Bidisha Bora U. Barman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 237 242 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830961 Impact of COVID 19 on Women Agripreneurs: A Study on Unveiling the Constraints <p>COVID 19 is a humanitarian crisis that has created both a supply and demand shock to the global economic system. As most women’s businesses are younger and smaller, it has also disproportionately created a strong impact on women businesses. While other businesses were seizing new opportunities and reducing risks, this situation is especially difficult for women entrepreneurs, whose businesses are concentrated in the agriculture sector most severely affected by the economic shutdown. The present article tries to address the constraints faced by women agripreneurs during the COVID 19 pandemic. The study was carried out using a structured interview schedule with a total of 140 women agripreneurs in the Western and North Western zones of Tamil Nadu. The findings revealed that the COVID 19 pandemic has had a devastating influence on women-owned businesses, and that women volunteered for the loss of hours spent at work by working at home and also caring for family members. This article not only tries to provide policy recommendations indicating women entrepreneurship but also address larger questions on reducing gendered issues across social groups and building a sustained market participation for women.&nbsp;</p> K. Dhanya K. R. Ashok ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 243 249 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830962 An Empirical Study Based on Consumer’s Apparel Purchase Behavior during COVID <p>COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 was reported in December 2019, which equitably brought the entire world to a standstill, affecting the market, consumer demand, purchase decisions, and the global supply chain. A critical situation pushes human behavior in different directions, and COVID 19 is one such situation that is not normal. To control the spread of disease, all the countries, including India, imposed the lockdown, resulting in market stagnation, economic instabilities, and changes in consumers' purchasing patterns related to various products. The present study investigates the consumers’ behavioral intentions amid COVID-19 in the context of apparel. The present study attempts to identify the clothing preferences of consumers during the pandemic by exploring the factors playing a crucial role while buying clothing during the COVID pandemic, by examining the links between consumer buying behavior of apparel during normal times and in crisis by elaborate literature as well as consumer survey. The research helped understand consumers' clothing type preferences as well as their sources of information on the latest fashion trends during Covid. The researcher also explored other factors that play a crucial role in buying clothing during COVID. The results revealed that online shopping had a positive influence during the pandemic, with social media being the most significant influencer for the latest fashion trends. During the lockdown, “work from home” leads to the comfort factor playing a substantial role while purchasing apparel. Consumer sentiments were also explored in the study, and it was found that consumers visit less to malls and prefer online purchases due to contactless shopping. They enjoy online shopping because of its ease and convenience.</p> Shefali Massey Ruchi Kholiya Arshia Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 250 261 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830963 Present Status, Role and Challenges of Farmer Producer Organization <p>Farmers can increase their income by increasing the productivity, decreasing the cost of cultivation in their field, ensuring the competitive price for their product with a transparent price discovery mechanisms, and also by integrating allied activities in farming, organizing the farmer producer organizations (FPOs) will be the best solution for attaining our target goal. Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) consist of many collective Producers, especially small and marginal farmers to form an effective association to collectively address many challenges in agriculture practices, such as improved access to investment, technology, inputs, and markets availability. Farmer producer organization ensures better productivity and income for the member producers through an organization of their own. Its main purpose is to enhance the productivity of the farmer by providing linkage to the farmers, where the members will get more benefits. This review article throws light on the various dimension of the FPOs based on the review of available literature. As literature related to FPOs is scarce in the Indian situation, more reviews from global studies are included for a better understanding of various dimensions of FPOs.</p> Sanjana Shrivastava Mangi Lal Jat Kalpna Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 39 47 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830935 Crop Prediction Methods: A Comparative Study <p>In India 58% of the population depend upon agriculture and agriculture contributes about 18% of the gross domestic product. But the farmers face numerous challenges in agriculture due to various reasons. The farmers’ crop selection criteria generally depended upon their traditional base and testimonials of the success stories. The failure of selecting appropriate crop for a particular area makes them vulnerable to other vagaries also. Scientifically crop selection depends upon various factors like soil parameter (Ex: Soil moisture), weather parameters (Ex: Rainfall, temperature, Humidity), Geographical parameters (Ex: Slope) etc. Farmers and those who are venturing into farming requires a crop prediction model or a technique for the best crop selection decision in order to cope up and tide over exigencies like climate change, flood, drought etc which occur globally. The model will be accurate to tackle the issues arised by the climate change and also gives reasonable results to the farmers. This paper review on the existing crop prediction model and also their implication on the farming community.</p> I. L. Shahana V. P. Nijth Kamal R. L. Anoop Ancy Francis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 228 236 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i830960