Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES <p><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN: 2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p><strong>NAAS Score: 4.73 (2024)</strong></p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2320-7027 Factors Influencing Success of Incubatees of ANGRAU POSHAN Agribusiness Incubator in Tirupati https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2407 <p>The ANGRAU POSHAN Agribusiness Incubator was purposively selected for the research study (conducted in the year 2023) because it has a specific goal of nurturing agri-startups that are working towards improving the farming communities in the state of Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states. Ten successful incubatees trained at ANGRAU POSHAN agribusiness incubator was purposively selected for the study in the year 2023, based on category, product, service, R&amp;D and achievements and case studies were recorded. The findings demonstrated that personal factors such as entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial capacity, social skills, alignment with personal values and achievement motivation play significant role in the success of agribusiness ventures and received mean scores of 3.0,2.9,2.9,2.9,2.9, respectively. Additionally, resilience, education level, passion for work, experience in the agriculture sector and access to formal and ICT sources of information contribute to entrepreneurial effectiveness and received mean scores of 2.8,2.7,2.7,2.6,2.6,2.6, respectively. The perception of agri-incubatees regarding the personal factors influencing their success is positive. While half of the incubatees (50.00%) rated these factors as moderate, nearly one third (30.00%) also considered them good.</p> <p>The participants in this study highly valued psychological factors such as innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk-taking ability and the need for affiliation in their agribusiness endeavors. These factors received higher mean scores of 3.0,2.9,2.9,2.9, respectively when compared to resource mobilization, need for power and pro-activeness. These findings highlighted the significance of personal traits and motivations in driving success in the agri-business sector. The perception of incubatees regarding the psychological factors influencing their success is positive. While half of the incubatees rated these factors as ‘moderate’ (50.00%), a significant proportion also considered them high (40.00%).</p> P. Hanumanth Reddy A. Lalitha P. Bala Hussain Reddy K.S. Purnima S.K. Nafeez Umar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 42 5 1 10 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52407 An Economic Analysis of Tuberose Marketing from Akola District, Maharashtra, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2408 <p>The present study was conducted in Akola district of Maharashtra state for the period 2018-19. For the study of marketing data was collected from 10 village traders, 10 wholesalers and 10 retailers, thus overall 30 trader were selected randomly about price spread, labour charges, transportation costs, commission charges, other charges if any and also the price received by them during the year 2018-2019 based on primary data. In tuberose marketing channel, producer, wholesalers and retailer were selected for collecting the information on marketing. Producer – wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer was the important channel through which maximum quantity was sold by the cultivators. In case of tuberose, the producer’s share in consumer’s rupee was highest in channel-I i.e., 96.31 per cent. The channel-I was most profitable than channel II and channel III. The price spread was observed highest in case of channel III i.e., Rs 17.40. The major constraints faced by tuberose cultivators overall level was Low rate of flower in the market, High commission charges, Lack of organized market and transportation.</p> A. S. Gadakh R. V. Shedge Y. R. Nikam Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 42 5 11 16 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52408 A Study on Savings Behaviour in Households of Small Farmers in Raipur District, Chhattisgarh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2409 <p>Every economy relies heavily on the savings generated by the household sector to expand. They are the primary driver if capital accumulation and the determinants of economic investment possibilities. Numerous factors, both internal connected directly to a certain household and external unrelated to it influence how families behave financially in terms of conserving money. The aim of this paper was to analyse savings behaviour of households of farmers in Raipur district (Chhattisgarh) in 2019, 2020 and 2021. Analyses were conducted on saving ability, saved, Extent able to survive to event to no income, Objectives and Forms of savings accumulation by households of various socio-economic groups. Analyses showed that in saving ability of household was maximum in year 2021, compared to year 2019, 2020. Most people were saved between 20-40% of their total income. Most of people can survive for over 6 months up to annual without any income using their saved income. Presents the savings preferences of different categories of farmer households. The analysis concludes that the primary savings objectives for households were covered. Households that had savings often declared that they deposited it as fixed expenditure, medical bills and Purchase for durable goods. Most people were like to save in banks. This may be because households find banks safer than other savings options.</p> Sarita Ghidode Sanjay Kumar Joshi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-21 2024-03-21 42 5 17 28 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52409 Assessment of the Knowledge Level of Pomegranate Production Technologies in Maharashtra, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2410 <p>China is the world's top fruit grower, with India ranking in second. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh are the main fruit-growing states in India. The present study was conducted in Maharashtra with the specific objective of determining “Knowledge Level of the Pomegranate Growers”. Nashik, Sholapur and Ahmednagar districts were purposively selected for the study, as they are some of the maximum pomegranates growing districts in Maharashtra state. A Total of 180 pomegranate growers were selected from six talukas of these districts. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The study revealed that more than four fifth (83.34 %) of the pomegranate growers had medium level of knowledge about pomegranate production technologies, followed by 12.77 per cent and 03.89 per cent of the pomegranate growers having low and high level of knowledge, respectively.</p> Ramesh Jadhav Pravin Gaikar Vikram Anap Kiran Gonte Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-22 2024-03-22 42 5 29 35 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52410 From Field to Feed trough: Examining the Drivers of Feed and Fodder Technologies Uptake among Pastoral Beef Farmers in Kenya https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2411 <p>Adoption of technologies and effective management practices in the pastoral beef systems are necessary for improved productivity and resilient agricultural systems. This study examined the factors influencing the adoption of Technology Innovations and Management Practices (TIMPs) among pastoral beef farmers in Isiolo and Kajiado counties. Employing a cross-sectional approach and utilizing the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SURe) model, the research explores the intricate dynamics that shape farmers' decisions regarding three key TIMPs; planted fodder, feed supplementation, and fodder conservation. Using a systematic sampling technique, a sample size of 619 pastoral farmers was adopted. This research seeks to uncover the underlying motivations and barriers, understanding the complex relationships between resource accessibility, socio-economic considerations, and the role of extension services in facilitating technology adoption. The research underscores the importance of addressing specific barriers, including limited access to resources and socio-economic constraints faced by these farmers. The evidence-based strategies derived from this research paves the way for scientifically informed interventions to propel the livestock sector in Kenya towards a sustainable future. The study's recommendations emphasize the need for targeted policies that prioritize market accessibility, technology awareness and information access, thus effectively supporting the adoption of TIMPs among pastoral beef farmers. Implementing these recommendations contributes to strengthening of resilience of the livestock sector and the advancement of sustainable agricultural practices in Kenya.</p> Purity Kaburu Veronica Metto Tura Isako Gideon Muriithi David Njenga Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-22 2024-03-22 42 5 36 47 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52411 Anger Levels of Employees Working in Government and Non- Government Organizations https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2412 <p>The research was undertaken to study the anger levels of adults working in government and non- government organizations. The study was carried out in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents. A total of 60 adults aged between 24 – 45 years working in government and non- government organizations were selected. Anger levels of adults were measured with the help of 23- items anger scale developed by T.L. Alaka <em>et.al</em> 2018. The data was analysed through frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation and t-test. Study reveals that majority of the government employees belonged to middle adults (72.22%) whereas non- government employees were young adults (83.33%). With regard to education majority 66.67 per cent of the government employees and 86.67 per cent non-government employees educated up to degree. Majority 86.67 per cent of the government employees and 80.00 of non-government employees belonged to medium level of anger. The results in the study also revealed that there was no significant difference between government and non-government with respect to experience, lie detector, verbal, mental dimension and behaviour dimensions respectively.</p> Bojjagani Babitha Bilquis Bojjagani Jhansi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-22 2024-03-22 42 5 48 52 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52412 A Study on Groundwater Irrigation Expansion in Bihar, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2413 <p>Water use has increased by more than twice the rate of population growth over the past century. Although, there is worldwide water scarcity, an increasing number of areas are chronically short of water. There has been a substantial increase in irrigated areas in the last thirty -five years. The Net Irrigated Area (NIA) in Bihar has increased from 2808 thousand hectares in 1985 to 3083 thousand hectares in 2021. The total annual replenishable groundwater potential of Bihar has been estimated as 33.15 billion cubic meters (bcm) with an annual extraction of 13.50 bcm. The share of surface water is declining while groundwater is increasingly being used in crop production. A total of 11754 thousand hectares have been estimated as the ultimate irrigation potential in the state, including major, medium and minor irrigation schemes, utilizing both surface and groundwater. If the available potential is fully exploited, it can cover more than the total cultivated area of the state. Considering the interests of both present and future generations attention needs to be directed towards the sustainable use of groundwater and promoting various sources of surface water.</p> Yogita Sharma Meera Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-22 2024-03-22 42 5 53 60 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52413 Growth and Instability Analysis of Coconut in Kerala and India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2414 <p>The present study was carried out to analyze the growth trends and to observe magnitude of variations in area, production and productivity of coconut in India, Kerala and two major coconut growing districts (Kozhikode and Malappuram) of Kerala. This study is based on secondary data on area, production and productivity of coconut in India, Kerala and two districts of Kerala state collected from the website of Coconut Development Board (CDB) for a period of 20 years, i.e., from 2000-01 to 2019-20. The study used averages, coefficient of variation, instability index and compound annual growth rate for the analysis of the data. The growth trend was estimated using Compound Annual Growth Rate while the instability was measured using Cuddy Della Valle Instability index with the aid of coefficient of variation. The entire study period was further divided into two sub-periods: Period I (2000-01 to 2009-10) and Period II (2010-11 to 2019-20). The results of the growth rate analysis indicated that the highest growth rate was observed in production (3.85 %) followed by productivity (3.07 %) and area (0.75 %) at one per cent level of significance in the overall period in India. Whereas in Kerala, the area (-1.05 %) and production (-0.49 %) registered negative growth in the overall study period, but the productivity (0.57 %) showed a positive growth rate which was significant at five per cent level of probability. The results of the instability index reveal that the production of coconut in India experienced a highest variation of 10.59 per cent, followed by productivity (9.89 %) and area (3.36 %). Similarly, in Kerala, the instability index was found to be highest in production (11.12 %) followed by productivity (7.57 %) and area (5.71 %).</p> Athira S. S. S. Guledagudda Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 42 5 61 67 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52414 The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education and Curriculum on Student Entrepreneurial Intention moderated by Student Entrepreneurial Mindset https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2415 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to analyze the impact of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship curriculum on entrepreneurial intention among students, moderated by entrepreneurial mindset in Vocational High Schools.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This research employs a quantitative research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted among students of the Center of Excellence Vocational High School in Banyuwangi, with a population of 7249 students (N). The sample size was determined using a Sample Size Calculator, resulting in a sample of 365 participants.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The research instrument utilized in this study was a questionnaire employing a Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique implemented through SmartPLS version 3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Entrepreneurship education provides practical knowledge and shapes students' entrepreneurial mindsets, whereas the Entrepreneurship Curriculum offers theoretical foundations and stimulates entrepreneurial enthusiasm. Although the Entrepreneurial Mindset does not moderate the impact of Entrepreneurship Education, it moderates the effect of the Entrepreneurship Curriculum, highlighting the need to align the Curriculum with the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. These findings serve as a basis for improving entrepreneurial education strategies at the vocational high school level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study concludes that Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurship Curriculum, and Entrepreneurial Mindset positively contribute to Entrepreneurial Intention among outstanding Vocational High School students in Banyuwangi. These findings illustrate the moderating role of the Entrepreneurial Mindset in mitigating the negative impact of the Curriculum on students' entrepreneurial intention.</p> Siska Purwanti Puji Handayani Henny Kusdiyanti Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 42 5 68 81 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52415 Structure Analysis and Growth Trends the Economy of Bali Province-Indonesia Post COVID-19 Pandemic https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2416 <p>The 2020-2021 world economic downturn due to the Covid-19 pandemic has reduced tourist visits to Bali. The G-20 conference in 2022, which be followed by foreign tourist visits to Bali, have a positive influence on Bali's economic growth. The research objectives are to Analyze Bali's economic structure post-COVID-19 pandemic and make a trend for Bali's economic growth post-COVID-19 pandemic. Research location in Bali Province. The type of data collected is quarterly secondary data for the 2018-2023 period (21 points) where Y=quarterly Bali economic growth, and X=quarterly foreign tourist visits. The main data source is the Bali Province Central Statistics Agency and several other related agencies in Bali. Data analysis methods are descriptive statistics, qualitative descriptive, and linear trend analysis. The research results show that, although in 2020-2021 Bali's economy experienced a significant contraction due to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, post the pandemic, tourist visits to Bali began to recover in 2022-2023, Bali's economic structure remains the same as before the pandemic, which was dominated by the tourism sector. The results of the linear trend analysis show that tourist visits have a significant effect on Bali's economic growth. This means that the increase in tourist visits after the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on Bali's economic growth. If in the first quarter of 2024, tourist visits reach 1,500,000 people, then Bali's economic growth will be 6.59%. However, if in the second quarter of 2024, tourist visits reach 1,600,000 people, then Bali's economic growth will be 7.03%. The novelty of the research is that after COVID-19, Bali's economy continues to be driven by tourism, and tourist visits have a significant influence on Bali's economic growth.</p> Made Antara Made Sri Sumarniasih Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 42 5 82 98 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52416 Impact of Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme on Grape Beneficiary Farmers https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2418 <p>Agriculture in India is extremely vulnerable to incidence of extreme weather events which leads to agrarian distress. Farmers are sensitive to agricultural risks and, as a result require insurance. Climate variability and extreme weather events have become a great threat to agricultural production in India. The projected increase in droughts, floods, heat and cold waves, cyclones, extreme precipitation events will result in greater instability in food production. Grape fruit crop is extremely sensitive to climate change; year by year many farmers are indebted due to very meager yields. Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (RWBCIS) is one such scheme which was recent crop insurance launch by Government of India to mitigate the hardship of the insured farmers against the likelihood of financial loss on account&nbsp; of&nbsp; crop&nbsp; loss&nbsp; resulting&nbsp; from&nbsp; adverse&nbsp; weather conditions. &nbsp;Grape fruit crop was taken into consideration to assess the impact of the ‘RWBCIS’ on beneficiaries.&nbsp; The study was conducted in the year 2021-2022 in Nasik district of Maharashtra state. The sample consists of total 150 farmers, 75 beneficiary farmers and 75 non-beneficiary farmers of RWBCIS. With the help of tools like Crop diversification, Cropping intensity and Incremental cost benefit ratio an attempt is made to find out the impact of the RBWCIS on beneficiary farmers in comparison to non-beneficiary farmers. The results showed that there is no significant difference in crop diversification and cropping intensity between the two groups. Also, there is no noticeable difference between the creditworthiness of beneficiary and non-beneficiary farmers of RWBCIS. Incremental Cost Benefit Ratio for beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries was more or less unity. There is no noticeable impact of RWBCIS on Grape beneficiary farmers.</p> Battu Preethi G.K. Sasane Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 42 5 112 119 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52418 Unlocking the Niche Market Potential of Organic Fertilizer: Evaluation and Projections for the Nigeria Organic Input Market Development https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2419 <p>Organic fertilizers have several merits in support of their usage, including environmental friendliness, waste conversion purposes, and human hygiene considerations. These lend credence to the objectives of this paper. The study evaluated firm performance and market orientation with a view to profiling market segments within the organic fertilizer niche market and consumers’ desire to use and willingness to buy organic fertilizers. Six organic fertilizer factories and fifty-eight farmers were sampled and described. Results showed that there were no significant obstacles or societal prejudice against organic fertilizer usage in Nigeria, rather patronage was hampered by a lack of awareness about it. Consumers exhibited a high level of willingness to buy organic fertilizer. It was concluded that there is growing coverage in adopting organic fertilizers in Nigeria. The study recommended product promotion, close collaborations between industry and academia, a paradigm shift in the use of organic fertilizer for farming, and market policies from the government as steps towards enhancing the marketability of organic fertilizer.</p> Victoria Adeyemi Tanimonure Olabisi Damilola Omodara Akinsola Temitope Oyebanji Abiodun Olutunde Babalola Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 42 5 120 127 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52419 Analysing Constraints Faced by Extension Personnel in Executing Kerala's Premier Agricultural Development Initiative, LEADS: A Comprehensive Examination https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2420 <p>This research explores the hurdles encountered by extension personnel during the execution of Kerala's primary agricultural development initiative, LEADS (Lead Farmer-Centered Extension Advisory and Delivery Services). Through thorough examination, it investigates several constraints, including insufficient funding, delayed salary distribution, restricted crop coverage, and climate change challenges. Proposed strategies to enhance LEADS' effectiveness involve improving funding mechanisms, streamlining administrative processes, and incorporating innovative technologies and climate-resilient practices. Addressing these challenges has the potential to promote sustainable agricultural development, enhance farmer livelihoods, and bolster food security in Kerala and beyond. The study involved 120 extension personnel across four Kerala districts: Kannur, Kollam, Palakkad, and Wayanad.</p> Sreekanth M S Bindu Podikunju Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 42 5 128 134 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52420 Socio-economic and Psychological Characteristics of KVK Trainees and Non-trainees in Selected Districts of Jharkhand https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2421 <p>This present study was conducted in Jharkhand, India, during 2021-2022, aimed to assess the socio-personal, and communication characteristics of trainee and non-trainee of Deoghar, Dumka, and Giridih districts of Jharkhand. The Data were collected from 200 trainee and 200 non-trainee respondents using stratified random sampling and analysed using appropriate statistical tests. The results indicate that the majority of farmers had limited education, with most living in semi-cemented or cemented houses. Marginal farmers were predominant in both groups, with low annual income levels. Trainee respondents exhibited higher levels of innovativeness and leadership ability compared to non-trainees, suggesting a positive impact of training programs. However, both groups showed a need for improvement in scientific orientation. The study underscores the importance of targeted interventions to improve education, infrastructure, and income levels among farmers in Jharkhand. Training programs should focus on enhancing not only technical skills but also innovativeness, leadership, and scientific orientation to enhance agricultural productivity and livelihoods in the region. The major sources of communication where radio ,television newspaper, magazine etc.</p> Sudhanshu Dipak Kumar Bose Jahanara Ahmad Samuel Deepak MeCarty Syed H Mazhar Ritesh Singh Abhinav Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 42 5 135 140 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52421 Is Agriculture Still the Mainstay of Rural Economies? Insights from Ultra-Poor Households in North-central Nigeria https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2422 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Nigeria may be facing aging and decline in the population engaged at food production nodes, posing huge challenge to agri-food systems with poverty at risk of deepening. Current trend in rural-urban migration and occupational mobility raises the open question of: “Is agriculture still a mainstay of rural economy, playing reliant roles in income and employment generation for the ultra-poor in Nigeria rurality?”. Understanding this is important because structural change to agricultural workforce in Nigeria has far-reaching implications on food security, welfare, and poverty. We sought to unfold the dynamics of agriculture as a business among ultra-poor rural households in North-Central Nigeria. First, we investigated engagements of ultra-poor rural households in agriculture. Secondly, we examined their level of commercialization. Lastly, we investigated determinants of ultra-poor’s market participation and its intensity.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This study used quantitative primary data collected in surveys and qualitative data generated from focus group discussions.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out in three states in North-central Nigeria viz: Kwara, Kogi, and Niger with data collected and analyzed between 2020-2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We randomly selected 1588 households (out of 60,427 households) from the “Single Register of the Ultra-poor” operationalized on a World-Bank-Assisted Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programme. We analysed data using descriptive statistics, Household Agricultural Commercialization Index, and Double-Hurdle Model.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Only about 18.7% of the ultra-poor households were primarily engaged in agriculture with the focus groups highlighting conflicts issues from indiscriminate grazing activities as primary reason for the abandonment. Determinants of market participation and intensification include: (-) household dependency ratio, distance to markets, (+) linkage to market agents, access to mechanization and input market, CCT-beneficiary status, and farm size (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Involvement in primary agricultural production is declining in Nigeria. We recommend a boost to infrastructural development of the rurality to support agricultural transformation and attractiveness to the next wave of youths.</p> Ajibade ET Ajibade TB. Omotesho OA. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 42 5 141 159 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52422 Seeds of Change: Assessing Wheat Knowledge and Socio-profile in Rural Areas of Kharar, Tehsil of Punjab, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2423 <p>This study investigates the socio-profile status, agricultural practices, and knowledge acquisition among farmers in rural villages of the Punjab region, India. Employing a cross-sectional survey design, data was collected from farmers residing in five villages through structured questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. The demographic analysis revealed a balanced gender distribution, with a significant proportion falling within the 40-60 years age bracket, highlighting the maturity of the farming population. Educational attainment varied, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions to enhance access to higher education and vocational training programs. Findings indicated a high prevalence of smartphone usage among farmers, presenting opportunities for leveraging digital technology in agricultural extension services. Family compositions leaned towards nuclear families, while landholding patterns showcased the varied socio-profile landscape within the farming community. Peer networks and institutional support emerged as significant sources of agricultural information, underscoring the importance of collaborative approaches in knowledge dissemination. A notable increase in knowledge was observed among farmers after video presentations on wheat varieties, highlighting the efficacy of multimedia approaches in agricultural education. The study aimed to assess the impact of a video presentation on wheat cultivation on farmers' knowledge. Data from 60 farmers showed significant improvements in various aspects of wheat cultivation knowledge, including identifying suitable wheat varieties, understanding sowing and harvesting timing, and recognizing common wheat diseases. The mean percentage increase in knowledge was 103%, indicating the effectiveness of the educational program. These findings underscore the importance of targeted educational initiatives in promoting sustainable agriculture and improving farmers' livelihoods. Continued support and education efforts are essential for sustaining and enhancing these positive outcomes. However, the preference for sowing previous year's seeds over newly released varieties indicates the persistence of traditional practices and the need for targeted interventions to promote varietal adoption. Overall, this study provides valuable insights for policymakers and development practitioners to design context-specific interventions aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity, promoting sustainable livelihoods, and ensuring food security for rural populations in the Punjab region and beyond.</p> Pushpalata Kshitij Singh Abhishek Badhan Gurshaminder Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 42 5 160 169 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52423 Study of Marketing of Milk in Hardoi District of Uttar Pradesh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2424 <p>The primary objective of this study is to thoroughly examine milk marketing dynamics within Shahabad Block, Hardoi District, Uttar Pradesh, focusing on the different channels used for milk marketing. The research aims to categorize cattle owners, investigate demographic trends among them, and understand how these factors correlate with milk marketing strategies and efficiency. This research employs a descriptive and analytical design to explore various aspects of milk marketing and cattle ownership. The study was conducted in the Shahabad Block of the Hardoi District, Uttar Pradesh, focusing on the current state of milk marketing and cattle ownership demographics. The methodology includes a survey of cattle owners in the Shahabad Block, classifying them into small, medium, and large-scale operations based on the number of cattle owned. The study also assesses the age, gender, education level, and social categories of cattle owners, alongside a comprehensive analysis of milk marketing channels, including costs, pricing spreads, marketing margins, and market efficiency.</p> <p>The survey found 250 cattle owners, with a predominance of small-scale operations (72%). A significant demographic of cattle owners is young, aged 18-35 (80%), with a notable distribution across male (140) and female (110) owners. Education level shows a correlation with the size of cattle operations, with lower education levels more common among smaller-scale operations. Socioeconomic analysis indicates that small-scale operations prevail across all social categories, including General, OBC, and SC/ST. Marketing analysis reveals a preference for the second channel involving producers, private dairy companies, retailers, and end users, providing insights into marketing efficiency and consumer preferences.</p> Harshit Pandey Nitin Barker Pranil Sunil Kale Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-01 2024-04-01 42 5 170 176 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52424 Assessment of Compound Growth Rate and Economic Analysis of Production of Cotton in Bemetara District of Chhattisgarh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2425 <p>The study was entitled compound growth rate and economic analysis of cost of production of cotton in Bemetara district of Chhattisgarh, India. Owing to maximum area under cotton cultivation in the district Bemetara were purposefully chosen for study. A multistage sampling was applied and a total 56 cotton farmers were selected for data collection in the year 2021-22. The appropriate tabular and percentage method were the statistical tools used for data analysis. To estimate the growth rate of area, production and productivity of the cotton in Chhattisgarh and Bemetara district was found increasing but non-significantly. The study revealed that average total operational area was 16.68 ha. the average cropping intensity was found to be 198.38 per cent. The total cost of cultivation of cotton was observed highest in case of large farms in compared to marginal farms. The overall cost of cultivation was Rs. 97887.50 per hectare. The overall cost of production was Rs. 3322.72 per quintal. Gross returns from cotton was found to be Rs. 274676 per hectare. The net returns of overall farmers was observed Rs. 176788.50 per hectare. Benefit-cost ratio was ranging from 1.73 to 1.83 with respect to the farm size.</p> Deepak Mukesh Kumar Seth Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 42 5 177 186 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52425 Perception and Utilization of Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) Services by the Farmers in Srikakulam District in Andhra Pradesh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2426 <p>Government of Andhra Pradesh has established 10641 RBKs in the state including 836 RBKs in Srikakulam district during 2019 to fasten the dissemination of technologies and timely distribution of inputs and appropriate services to the farming community. To know the status of the meant purpose, an Extension study has been taken up by DAATT Centre, Srikakulam during 2022, with an objective to study the <strong> </strong>perception and utilization of services of Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) by the farmers in the Srikakulam district. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Five farmers were selected for the study from each village and four villages from each mandal and six mandals in the district were selected randomly with a representation of three mandals from each revenue division. Total sample size was 120. Frequency, percentages and other appropriate statistical tools used for analysis.</p> <p>Results of the study revealed that, nearly 65 per cent of respondent farmers had positive and good opinion on the services rendered by the YSR Rythu Bharosa Kendras and 21 % farmers have negative opinion and undecided 14% (neutral opinion). Approximately 60 % of respondent farmers had utilized the services rendered by the YSR RBK, 40 per cent did not utilized the services provided by the YSR RBKs. In the services offered by YSR RBKs, 93.33 % farmers utilised Rythu Bharosa Scheme, 91.67% farmers utilised the e crop booking, 83.33 % farmers utilized the crop insurance scheme followed by 81.67% farmers utilised the polambadi and Agro Advisory meeting services. Up to 80 % farmers utilised the services pertaining to identifying beneficiaries for various government schemes. Cent per cent farmers not utilised the services pertaining to soil and water testing facilities and 65 % farmers not utilised the services particularly Smart TV for interaction with scientists and other experts through audio and video conferences and for dissemination of technology and 50% farmers not utilised the services of animal health cards.</p> <p>This study concludes that there is need to create awareness among the farmers about the services of YSR-Rythu Bharosa Kendras and include the services related to soil testing and more efforts are required to convert the unfelt needs into felt needs of the farmers related to new technologies in primary as well as secondary agriculture.</p> P.Venkata Rao S. Neelaveni G Chitti Babu P. B. Pradeep Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-03 2024-04-03 42 5 187 191 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52426 Demographic Characteristics of Members of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) in Effectiveness of Group Dynamics and their Perceived Constraints in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2427 <p>The present study to investigate demographic profile of FPOs members in the effectiveness of group dynamics and their perceived constraints was conducted in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone (LBVZ) of Assam comprising six districts viz., Kamrup, Bongaigaon, Nalbari, Chirang, Barpeta and Goalpara. In doing so, it utilized the descriptive research design following an ex-post-facto approach to fulfil the objectives of the study. A total of eight FPOs promoted by Assam Agricultural University through CBBO-AAU and World Bank supported APART project were selected purposively. From each FPO, 15 active members were approached for data collection through personal interview method during 2022, which made 120 as final size of sample. The analysis of profile characteristics of the respondents revealed that majority of the respondents (FPOs members) in study areas were middle aged (66.67%) between 29 to 50 years with education level from high school to graduate/ above (80.83%), 64.17 percent were from small family size upto 4 members, 90.83 percent of the respondents had medium level of annual income (i.e. Rs 33190-379866.6), 46.67 percent had medium level of socio- political participation and 38.33 percent low and 35.83 percent high levels of material possession. The study also found that lack of co-ordination for different group activities, ineffective linkage and ineffective monitoring, lack of professional management, non-availability of timely credit and inadequate access to credit, weak financial position, absence of adequate market linkage, lack of storage facilities, distance from existing markets, lack of market information, lack of marketing knowledge and skills and difficulty in getting skilled labour were the perceived problems faced by FPO members in effective functioning of FPOs. </p> Amrita Singha J.K. Sharma A.K. Singha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-05 2024-04-05 42 5 192 202 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52427 Extension & Technological Needs of South Goa District Vegetable Growers to Accomplish Socio Economic Development https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2428 <p>The objective of the present study was to elaborate a matrix for assessing the socio economic development for vegetable cultivators. To measure this prospect, a questionnaire was constructed up and used as provision for face-to-face interviews piloted at the level of the South Goa district. Along with sustainability approach, acquaintance objectives of present study were to determine the extension &amp; technological needs of vegetable growers in South Goa. The findings showed relations between different components of the dimensions deliberated, revealing their synergy in farm activity, later with the manifestation of certain variances in the levels of socio economic dimensions and sub-dimensions, which vary as a function of the precise types of vegetable production (conventional, ecologic, natural, mixed). Knowledge desires to be conveyed by vegetable growers have frequently been implicit as extension needs. Nevertheless, the obligation of extension services was more than just providing information about agricultural inputs and its supply chain. It was evident from the study that the foremost restraints like dearth of technical knowledge on IPM and INM, deficiency of innovativeness, absence of entrepreneurial ability, deprived marketing and storage services, less opportunity for post-harvest technologies, lack of operative supervision and monitoring by extension personnel were confronted by the vegetable growers of south Goa.</p> Shreyas Subhashchandra Jadhav Pragati Prasad Dessai Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 42 5 203 214 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52428 Farmer Perceptions on the Effects of Termites in Kwa Vonza Location, Kitui County, Kenya https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2429 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed to assess (i) the perception of Kwa Vonza farmers regarding the presence of termites in their land, (ii) the perceived importance of termites, and (iii) how they control termites in their properties.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This study is based on responses to a questionnaire sent to farmers.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study took place in Kwa Vonza Location, Yatta Sub County, Kitui County, Kenya, between April and November 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 60 questionnaires, each comprising 20 multiple-choice questions, were sent out to farmers. Out of these, 54 responses were received. Where the response did not require a Yes or No answer, it elicited a response from a standardized five-point scale to demonstrate agreement with the provided proposition. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, in which percentages were tabulated, and frequency tables were generated using Microsoft Excel.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 73% of farmers perceived their land as infertile, with the causes ranging from soil erosion, drought, and mono-cropping. 87% of farmers acknowledged termite infestation in their farms but perceived them as destructive. Termite infestation was attributed to deforestation, drought, and flooding. Chemical control was the method of choice to manage termites.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Kwa Vonza farmers do not perceive termites as of any agronomic significance but view them as destructive agents. Further research to address the complex issue of soil management at the farm-scale level that involves farmers is necessary to fill gaps in scientific knowledge and produce advice for practical use.</p> Bonface Ombasa Manono Tuikong Chelangat Derrick Isoe Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 42 5 215 221 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52429 Critical Analysis of Group Dynamics Effectiveness of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) Members in Assam, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2430 <p>Farmer Producer Organisation (FPO) is a legal entity formed by farmers with a major role in integrating both forward and backward linkages in the agricultural sector for enhancing farmers' income and their livelihoods through reduced cultivation and transaction costs. The present study to analyse the effectiveness of group dynamics of FPOs members was conducted in Lower Brahmaputra Valley Zone (LBVZ) of Assam. In doing so, it utilized the descriptive research design following an ex-post-facto approach to fulfil the objectives of the study and to collect the cross-sectional data from 120 FPO member respondents through personal interview method during 2022. The study reveals that majority of the FPO members had a medium level of group dynamics effectiveness in all selected 12 indicators. The study also shows that among the identified 12 indicators to measure group dynamic effectiveness (GDE) of FPOs, group atmosphere was found with the highest mean value closely followed by teamwork, participation and group cohesiveness. The other indicators in order of importance based on their corresponding mean values were achievement of FPOs, confirmation to group norms, task function, decision making procedure, interpersonal trust, empathy and group communication. As many as 70 per cent members of FPOs in study areas had reported medium level of achievement of FPO, still there is huge scope for their further improvement and achievement in agriculture and allied activities and thereby enhance their income on sustainable basis. The study further reveals that Manikpur Joha Rice Producer Company Ltd. of Chirang district had the highest total GDEI score of 91.027. While Aya Baikho FPO Co-operative Society Ltd. of Goalpara district had the lowest GDEI score of 60.441.</p> Amrita Singha J.K. Sharma A.K. Singha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-08 2024-04-08 42 5 222 232 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52430 Constraints and Improvements Suggestions Proposed in Adopting Recommended Cultivation Practices by Mandarin Growers https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2431 <p>The present study was conducted in Amravati district of Maharashtra. It was purposively carried out in two talukas i.e. Achalpur and Anjangaon Surji on the basis of maximum area under mandarin. From Achalpur and Anjangaon Surji talukas, 12 villages were selected purposively having area under mandarin. Again from each selected village, 10 mandarin growers were selected purposively having bearing orchard for the present study constituting a sample size of 120 respondents. An exploratory method of research design was used. The objective of the study was to to identify the constraints faced by mandarin growers and obtain suggestions. Findings revealed that majority of respondents (93.33%) faced the problem of unavailability of proper information about chemicals to control pests and diseases followed by the those (91.66%) who are facing the problem of fruit drop in recent years along with some other constraints. While in case of suggestions, guidance by concerned department to farmers at different levels by organizing field visits gained highest frequency followed by availability of inputs at affordable price and arrangement of training programes for the areas found with higher training need respectively.</p> Bhagyalaxmi Satapathy N.M. Kale R.T. Katole Ajay M. Todkar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 42 5 233 236 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52431 Constraints of Sugarcane Farmers During Cultivation and Marketing in Kerala, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2432 <p>The study analysed the constraints faced by farmers during cultivation and marketing of sugarcane in Kerala. A multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted for the data collection and information was obtained from 120 sugarcane farmers and 10 marketing intermediaries. The farmers ranked and used Garrett's ranking technique to analyze the main production and marketing constraints. The major production constraints identified were wild animal and rodent attack, followed by shortage of labour and high labour cost, high cost of inputs and delay in harvesting. Price fluctuations of sugarcane and absence of regulated markets were major marketing constraints. Valuable suggestions were implementing effective measures to mitigate wildlife damage, government should purchase farmers products at reasonable price.</p> Meena D F Thasnimol Lazarus, T P Vijayan, A Gopinath, P P Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 42 5 237 240 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52432 Study the Input Use Pattern and Cost and Returns of Hybrid Cotton Seed Production in Karnataka, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2433 <p>The cotton industry is a cornerstone of the global agricultural sector, contributing significantly to economies, employment, and trade. The improved situation regarding hybrid seeds made this investigation to undertake the present study on “Input use pattern and cost and return of hybrid cotton seed production”, with major objectives as to study the cost and returns in hybrid cotton seed production and to study the labour use pattern in hybrid cotton seed production in the study area and to suggest appropriate remedial measures. For this study multistage sampling method as well as snow ball technique was adopted to select districts based on highest area and 60 hybrid cotton seed growers. The per acre total labour utilised for the production of hybrid cotton seed was 2075.73 labour days. The per acre total cost incurred for hybrid cotton seed (cost C) stood at ₹ 1,78,204. Cost of production per quintal over the total cost (cost C) was ₹ 20,965 per quintal. Returns per rupee of expenditure results revealed that HCSG obtained ₹ 1.77 returns per rupee of expenditure. Overall, these findings underscore the potential benefits of hybrid seed production in terms of both net returns, overall type of costs and rate of return per rupee of expenditure, despite the higher initial cost.</p> Channamma D. G. Satihal Amrutha. T Joshi Basavaraj S Ganigara Vasudeva Naik, K Copyright (c) 2024 The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 42 5 241 248 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52433 Constraints Faced by the Farmers in Production and Marketing of Cauliflower in Haryana, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2434 <p>Cauliflower (<em>Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis</em>) is one of the most important remunerative vegetable crops grown on commercial scale in India. It is widely grown across India and is a popular vegetable among the people. It is known for its white, tender head or curd, which is used in curries, soups, and for pickling. Cauliflower is a crucial winter vegetable grown in India. A survey was conducted among a group of cauliflower growers to understand the challenges they encounter during cauliflower production and marketing. The objective of the study was to identify the production and marketing constraints faced by the cauliflower growers. Panipat and Sonipat districts were purposively selected due to their significant cauliflower cultivation areas in the state. A total of 200 cauliflower growers were conveniently chosen to gather the necessary data. In Panipat and Sonipat district, the study revealed that the major constraints in cauliflower production included the high cost of cauliflower seeds, expensive fertilizers, labour scarcity during peak periods, and other similar challenges. In terms of cauliflower marketing, respondents reported multiple constraints such as high transportation costs, numerous intermediaries in the marketing process, price fluctuations, lack of awareness about the Bhavantar Bharpayee Yojana (BBY) and its complex procedures, and the higher margins of middlemen. To address these constraints, it is recommended to establish sufficient storage facilities that enable producers to distribute their sales throughout the year. Efforts should be made to ensure the availability of quality seeds and protect producers from experiencing low prices during peak seasons.</p> Jyoti Pareek Amita Girdhar Mohit Kumar Nitin Goyal Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 42 5 249 254 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52434 Comparision of Consumer Preferences in Regards to Food Retail Formats in Tirupati City, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2435 <p>This study conducted in the year 2023 aimed to compare consumer preferences for various food retail formats in Tirupati city, focusing on organized and unorganized sectors, and to identify factors influencing their choices. A representative sample of 120 consumers was selected using simple random sampling, and primary data was collected through personal interviews. The findings revealed that 73.33 percent of the consumers in showed a moderate perception of both organized (62.50%) and unorganized (73.33%) food retail formats<em>. Kirana</em> stores (unorganized) and supermarkets (organized) were the preferred choices for purchasing food and groceries. The reasons for preferring organized retail formats included a wide range of products and better product presentation, while unorganized retail formats were favoured for more bargaining opportunities and locally sourced products. Income levels were found to influence retail format choices, with lower-income groups more likely to shop at unorganized formats. The SWOT analysis indicated that organized stores benefit from a wide range of products but face competition from unorganized formats and online platforms, while, unorganized stores build strong customer relationships but struggle with limited product variety and changing consumer preferences.</p> M. Vasanthakrishna Reddy A. Lalitha K.S. Purnima S.K. Nafeez Umar M. Venkata Ramulu Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 42 5 255 265 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52435 Navigating the Honey Markets Across Europe and Africa https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2436 <p>India ranks fourth globally in terms of honey export but the Indian honey was mainly exported to American and Asian continent consisting of over 85 per cent of total honey exported by India leaving huge untapped potential in Europe which is second largest importer of honey worldwide as well as Africa. Keeping this in mind an analysis of European and African honey market was done using secondary data and results were interpreted in excel sheet. It was found that European honey production was primarily led by Spain. The continent accounted for approximately 45 per cent of global honey imports, with Germany being the largest importer with imported value of 306674.7 thousand USD (2023). India shared less than 0.1 per cent of total European honey imports. It was also observed that Africa contributed to 10 per cent of the world's total honey output. The continent’s honey import was considerably lower than global imports. In terms of export, Egypt led African honey exports. India shared only 12 per cent of total honey imports to Africa. It was noted that both Europe and Africa presented huge untapped potential for Indian honey. It was suggested to improve post harvest management of honey for maintaining quality standards and government support for increasing exports to the continents.</p> Ashutosh Kumar Dilip R. Vahoniya Alvira Rajwadi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 42 5 266 275 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52436 Development of Scale to Measure Perceived Impact of Grape Beneficiary Farmers towards Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2437 <p>.</p> <p>For the progress of our nation, our farmers need to be progressed. Driven by the motivation Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance scheme (RWBCIS) has been introduced in India. As agriculture is effected by disasters and consequences are beyond our control, it is very essential to take precautionary measures to mitigate from unforeseen events. Crop insurance assists in stabilization of crop production and reduces the negative impact on lives of the farmers. Grapes are susceptible to changes in weather and cause losses to the farmers. An attempt is made to develop a scale to measure perceived impact of Grape beneficiary farmers towards Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme. With the help of Likert’s Summated Rating technique perceived impact scale was constructed. The process started with selecting 39 statements after calculating Relevancy percentage, Relevancy weightage and Mean Relevancy score. Later for item analysis step, 30 farmers from non-sample area were selected and the test was administered having 39 statements on five point continum. After computing t value, 29 statements were retained. The Reliability and validity of the scale was computed for precision and accuracy. The scale developed was found reliable and valid. Hence, the scale was finalized and administered to 75 Grape beneficiary farmers of RWBCIS farmers in the sample area ie. Nashik district of Maharashtra state. The overall perceived impact of beneficiary farmers towards Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme was low. Hence it can be inferred that the farmers perceived that there is low impact of the scheme on their lives. Therefore co-ordination between the concerned authorities and regular auditing of the insurance companies is required for the scheme to run efficiently.</p> Battu Preethi G.K. Sasane Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 42 5 276 282 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52437 Seasonal Patterns in Cumin Arrivals and Prices in Indian Markets: A Post-COVID 19 Analysis https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2438 <p>Cumin known as jeera in India, holds significant economic and cultural importance in the country's spice industry. My research paper explores the seasonal dynamics of cumin arrivals and prices in selected Indian markets, considering the profound impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing data from the Agmarknet portal spanning from January, 2006 to December, 2021, this study employs rigorous statistical techniques to analyze the patterns. The study reveals distinctive characteristics in cumin arrivals and prices across different markets. Notably, markets like Unjha, Jamnagar, Gondal, Merta City and Mumbai witnessed significant seasonal price fluctuations in August (102.40), January (103.23), July (105.37), August (104.49) and October (108.17) respectively. Mumbai, characterized by stable supply and demand, exhibited moderate price variation (CV = 17.81%), whereas Mandore experienced substantial fluctuations (CV = 43.55%) due to seasonal factors exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This research provides invaluable insights into the altered seasonal patterns of cumin arrivals and prices following the pandemic, offering vital information for farmers, traders and policymakers. Informed decisions about cumin production, marketing and pricing can be made, aligning with the dynamic post-COVID-19 landscape of the spice market in India.</p> Gadhe Kiran A. S. Shaikh Mohit Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 42 5 283 289 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52438 Adoption of Management Tools by Farmers in the Context of Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services in Menoua Division, West Cameroon https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2439 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to analyze the challenges under the adoption of management tools provided by the Program for the consolidation and sustainability of agro-pastoral Counseling (PCP-ACEFA) to farmers in the Menoua Division, West region of Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> 60 farmers were surveyed using a stratified random sampling technic and 5 advisors were interviewed. The data were processed and analyzed with Excel 2013 and SPSS software version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results shows that a variety of management tools are available to farmers in the Menoua division. The calculation of gross margin (utilization rate 62.96%), Balance sheet (utilization rate 60%) are the most widely used, especially for farms generating large financial flows. Concerning the factors influencing the adoption of management tools, the study revealed several categories: social, economic and institutional. Social factors, for example with the level of education, show that those who adopt the most (50%) have at least secondary education. Furthermore, with the help of the advisors, farmers who adopted these tools have been experiencing changes in their activities as they can now evaluate their activities to know their economic performances which will further permit them to make better decisions. The study also shows that farmers faced difficulties in adopting the use of management tools and it is mostly (33, 33%) due to a lack of finance to expand their exploitation and Implementation difficulties (20.8%). Concerning strategies for a better adoption of tools, farmers mostly propose that the program help increasing their farm size by financing their activities and simplification of tools to the least level that everyone can use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The recommendations formulated at the end of this study are to increase farmers' awareness and training in the use of management tools to guarantee good yields on their farms.</p> Guillaume Hensel Fongang Fouepe Marceline Fien Mbunda Martial Melachio Nguedia Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 42 5 290 300 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52439 Extraneous Shocks Affecting Agribusiness Loans Default Rate in Agricultural Finance Corporation, Mount Kenya Region https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2440 <p>Agro-shocks create stochastic disturbances to agribusiness performance, which spills over to the performance of credit markets. Farm loan beneficiaries domiciled in the Mount Kenya Region of the Agricultural Finance Corporation (AFC), have recorded a poor loan repayment rate of 20.33% versus 10%, which is the Central Bank of Kenya benchmark for all types of loans in Kenya. Given that agribusiness is a priority sector for addressing food and employment concerns, the performance of agri-loans is sacrosanct. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraneous shocks on the default rate of agribusiness loans disbursed by AFC in the Mount Kenya Region. The region has 11 branches with a population of 3,002 agribusiness borrowers. A sample of 300 respondents was drawn using systematic random sampling with an interval of ten. In a descriptive design using a structured questionnaire, primary data were collected on the effect of extraneous shocks on the default rate of AFC loans. To analyse the data, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V.27) was used. The effect of variables in predicting the default rate was estimated using regression analysis. To derive the F-statistic to test the adequacy of the regression model, ANOVA was performed. A multiple regression model was used to determine the statistical relationship between extraneous shocks and AFC loan default. The model estimates revealed that the three indicators (agroclimatic extremes, market volatility and biological hazards) of extraneous shocks explained 23.90% of the AFC loan default rate. The findings revealed that the statistical significance of the extraneous shocks was positive and significant at 5% (p values=0.00&lt;0.05), implying that their occurrences presented performance challenges to the funded farming projects, thus plunging the loan beneficiaries into repayment challenges. The level of association of each of the indicators with the default rate is as follows: agroclimatic extremes (21.7%), market volatility (30.6%) and biological hazards (17.3%). This study contributes to the existing body of facts in agricultural finance and risk management by bringing to the fore that agro-shocks are sources of far-reaching menaces that constrain the sustainable production process further hindering the repayment of agricultural loans. The study recommends the need for strategic imperatives pointing to interventionist policies through protectionism, partnerships and the mitigation strategies to internalize the resultant negative externalities; loan actors should provide for contingencies and be alert to absorb risks emanating from shocks; penultimately, credit players should collaborate in pursuit of bespoke insurance schemes that can suitably cover farmer projects; ultimately, credit stakeholders should adopt coping strategies to cushion the societies from emerging distresses and devastating constraints.</p> M’Muruku Salesio Miriti Gathungu Geofrey Kingori Mwirigi Rael Nkatha. Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 42 5 301 315 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52440 Evaluation of Biofortified Sweet Potato Varieties for Their Growth, Yield and Economic Performance under Assam Condition https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2441 <p>An on-farm trial under Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baksa was undertaken to evaluate the performance of two biofortified sweet potato varieties (Bhu Sona and Bhu Krishna) against a check variety Dergaon Red. The trial was conducted in eight different locations of Baksa and Dhubri district of Assam following scientific cultivation practices. Assessing the novel varieties for performance and economic return were taken as primary objectives while designing the experiment. Randomised Block Design was used to lay out the design and statistical analysis of the growth and yield characters shows significant differences between the three varieties. The variety Bhu Sona exhibited the highest vine length (214 cm), tuber length (18.6 cm), tuber weight (152.3 g), and average yield (16.7 tonnes/ha). In some significant yield characteristics like marketable tuber yield per plant and tuber yield per plant, the two biofortified varieties were at par with each other. And with respect to days taken for harvesting from planting, Bhu Sona and Dergaon Red were at par with each other with 109.3 days. The economic analysis reflected a maximum gross income of Rs. 253500 per hectare in Bhu Sona which was 26.8% more than the check variety. The variety Bhu Krishna also exhibited a 14% increase in gross return from the check variety. The trial indicated that the cultivation of varieties Bhu Sona and Bhu Krishna is feasible under Assam conditions contributing higher economic return to the farmers.</p> Rocktim Baruah Nishita Pathak Manoranjan Neog Utpal Jyoti Sarma Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 42 5 316 322 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52441 Socio-Economic Profile of Onion Growers of Kanpur Nagar of Uttar Pradesh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2442 <p>The study was conducted in 5 villages block in Kakwan block of Kanpur Nagar district was selected purposively for the study because of the criteria of nearness to researcher’s village and their accessibility. To ensure comprehensive coverage, a complete list of all onion growers in each selected village was compiled. Using a proportionate random sampling technique, 120 farmers were selected for the study. The majority of respondents exhibited various socio-economic characteristics: most fell within the age category of 32-51 years (62.50%), were literate (71.66%), belonged to other backward castes (50.00%), resided in nuclear families (60.84%), had family sizes ranging from 5 to 8 members (66.66%), were married (95.00%), and were marginal farmers with land holdings below one hectare (52.50%). Agriculture was observed as the primary occupation, with subsidiary agricultural labor occupations being prevalent (89.16%). Housing predominantly followed a kaccha type pattern (43.34%). Regarding income distribution, the highest proportion of respondents (44.17%) reported an annual income of 1 to 2 lakh. Material possessions varied among the respondents, with the majority owning farm power equipment such as diesel engines (79.16%) and agricultural implements like khurpi (84.16%). Transportation means mainly consisted of bicycles (88.34%), while household items such as gas cylinders and crockery were ubiquitous (100%), along with coats (99.16%). Economic motivation and scientific orientation were found to be at a medium level across the surveyed population.</p> Arvind Kumar R.K. Doharey Gaurav Kumar Aman Verma Atul Kumar Verma Anurag Dixit Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 42 5 323 332 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52442 A Case Study on Brand Personality and Consumer Loyalty in India's Booming Dairy Industry https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2443 <p>India's dairy industry is witnessing significant growth, driven by factors such as rising disposable incomes, evolving consumer preferences, and the emergence of foreign brands. As the market expands, establishing a strong brand image becomes essential. This research focuses on assessing the brand personality of AMUL, a prominent player in the Indian dairy market, and its influence on consumer loyalty. Utilizing a structured questionnaire administered to respondents in Coimbatore District, this study measures consumers' attitudes towards AMUL, its brand personality. Through exploratory factor analysis, four key dimensions of AMUL's brand personality <em>viz.,</em> activity, simplicity, responsibility and emotionality are identified. The findings reveal a positive correlation between brand personality and consumer attitude, indicating the importance of personality in brand perception. The study underscores the importance of aligning branding efforts with consumer preferences and suggests strategies for AMUL to enhance its brand image and brand personality. By leveraging these insights, AMUL and other dairy firms can effectively engage consumers, strengthen brand equity, and sustain market competitiveness in India's dynamic dairy landscape.</p> Venkatesa Palanichamy N Kalpana M Sivapriya P Santhosh Kumar M Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 42 5 333 342 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52443 Adoption of Improved Paddy Cultivation Practices among the Farmers in Durg District, Chhattisgarh, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2444 <p>The present study was conducted in Durg district of Chhattisgarh state during the years 2022–23 to study the farmers' adoption of improved paddy cultivation practices. One hundred twenty respondents were randomly selected based on the criteria that no previous study had been undertaken.&nbsp; Farmers were personally interviewed using a pre-tested interview schedule. The majority of respondents had a high (15.83%), medium (53.34%) and low (30.83%) adoption level, hence, there is a necessity to provide training programs through Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) and the Agricultural Departments to improve paddy cultivation methods so that the farmers can enhance their adoption levels of paddy production technology. The independent variables, namely age, education, annual income, farming experience, social participation, extension contacts, land holding, economic motivation and risk orientation were positively and significantly correlated with the adoption behaviour of paddy growers towards improved paddy production practices.</p> Priya Kaur Syed H. Mazhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 42 5 343 348 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52444 Study on Knowledge Level of Farmers towards Climate Change on Crop Production at Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2445 <p>Climate change is one of the most serious ecological problems, and it has a wide-scale effect on agricultural productivity all over the globe. In general, farmers know little about climate change, and their understanding of its impacts on agriculture is poor. Additionally, farmers play the most important role in supporting the economy. This research was conducted to understand farmers' knowledge about climate change. Check the level of knowledge they have. The present study, ‘knowledge level of farmers towards climate change on crop production’ was conducted in 2023. A total of 120 participants were selected from eight different villages’ two tehsils, Vallabhnagar and Mavli. The research revealed that farmers' knowledge about climate change was ascertained at medium level and the independent variables namely age, caste, education, family type, house, sources of knowledge and economic motivation were positively and significantly correlated with knowledge level of the farmers about climate change.</p> Varsha Jain Syed H. Mazhar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 42 5 349 355 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52445 Problems Faced by the Consumers While Buying and Using the Electric Two Wheeler in Thrissur District, Kerala, India https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2446 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study aimed to identify the problems faced by the consumers while buying and using the electric two wheeler.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Data required for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary survey were conducted among the respondents through a pre-structured interview schedule during the month of May 2023. Secondary data were collected from websites, government reports and publications. A total of 30 respondents who are using electric vehicles were selected from Thrissur, using a random sampling method. The identified problems of consumers while buying and using electric vehicle are ranked by making use of Garrett’s Ranking Technique.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on Garrett’s ranking, it can be seen that the major problems faced by the consumers while buying electric vehicle were high vehicle cost and the major problem faced by the consumers while using were lack of service centers and followed by lack of skilled labor (breakdown &amp; maintenance).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study will aid marketers in understanding the problems of consumers. Understanding this would give marketers the ability to create and carry out their marketing strategies effectively, giving them a stronger competitive edge.</p> Aswathy K K Ushadevi K N Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 42 5 356 363 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52446 Improving Household Income by Growing Medicinal Plants in Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam: A Case Study of Celastrus hindsii https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2447 <p>The study focused on surveying and evaluating factors affecting the income of households growing medicinal plants in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. To ensure the sample size, the expected number of samples was 120 to survey medicinal herb growers in Lac Thuy, Luong Son, Yen Thuy districts, and Hoa Binh City (it was expected that 30 samples were to be collected in each district or city). After screening the survey results, the collected data was reduced to 109 samples that met the requirements for providing all necessary survey information for analysis. These are good signs in the transformation of crop structure in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. Factors affecting mixed income of farmer households growing medicinal plants include fertilizers and pesticide costs, selling prices, infield transportation, and propaganda – incentives. Therefore, necessary solutions in the coming period to improve household income of farmers growing medicinal plants in Hoa Binh province include: (i) Promoting training, propaganda and encouragement for farmers to grow medicinal herbs; (ii) Investing in upgrading the internal transport system in medicinal herb production areas; and (iii) Strengthening linkages in promoting the consumption of medicinal products. Developing the cultivation of medicinal plants is an effective solution for raising household income in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam.</p> Ho Ngoc Ninh Le Thanh Ha Lai Phuong Thao Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 42 5 364 379 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52447 A Review on Understanding the Perception of Farmers on Effectiveness of Agricultural TV Programs for the Dissemination of Agricultural Information in Bangladesh https://journalajaees.com/index.php/AJAEES/article/view/2417 <p>Television is an audio-visual medium of communication which is basically conceived as a powerful mass educator. The reason behind this, TV outreach has covered the several remote villages and tribal pockets and is ushering information explosion. The main focus of the study was to have an understanding on the perception of farmers regarding effectiveness of agriculture related TV programs for the dissemination of agricultural information. Attempt was also made to explore the relationship between some of the selected characteristics of the farmers and their perceived effectiveness of agriculture related TV programs for the dissemination of agricultural information. Over the last thirty years agriculture became technology based by using modern practices. Mass Communication media (Radio, Television, Newspaper, Mobile Phone etc.) took away the credit of this upgrade from traditional to modern. Out all of these, television is able to attract the audiences of all age groups, literate and illiterate and of all the strata of the society, thus it is a strong way of disseminating modern agricultural technological information to famers via different TV Programs. TV programs motivate farmers by changing imparting critical agricultural technical knowledge, awareness and skills. The study was carried out to assess the perception of farmers regarding effectiveness of agriculture related TV programs for the dissemination of agricultural information. Attempt was also made to explore the relationship between the selected characteristics of the farmers and their perceived effectiveness of agriculture related TV programs for the dissemination of agricultural information. Most of the studies revealed that of majority of the farmers perceived agriculture related TV programs as medium effective while a minimal number of them found it either highly effective or opposite that means not so effective.</p> Fahmida Husain Choudhury Aysha Akter Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 42 5 99 111 10.9734/ajaees/2024/v42i52417