Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 2320-7027 Does Size of Landholding Contributing Highest Share to Consumption Expenditure Inequalities among Agricultural Households? <p>This study aims to identify factors that contribute to consumption expenditure inequality and employed the regression based inequality decomposition (RBID) method. Used primary data on agricultural households’ consumption expenditure for the agricultural year 2018-19 in the south coastal region of Andhra Pradesh. The results compared across the landholding size wise category and concluded that monthly income, dependency ratio, non-farm income-earning members and size of household contributed highest percentage share to total inequality for food, non-food and total consumption expenditure. At the aggregate (overall farmers) level highest percentage of inequality share contributed by monthly income and followed by the size of landholding. There is a need to focus on control the size of households by narrowing the dependency ratio and enhance the monthly income of agricultural households by providing employment opportunities in both farm and non-farm income-earning activities.</p> M. Areef Y. Radha V. S. Rao P. V. S. Gopal K. S. R. Paul K. Suseela S. Rajeswari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 1 8 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430557 Examining Profitability and Viability of Urban and Peri-Urban Dairy Farms <p>Cost benefit analysis in 20 each urban and periurban dairy farms nearby Navsari city of Gujarat, India were studied. The required information from selected farms was collected through personal interview. The collected and derived data were subject to statistics as per standard technique in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Total fixed cost in urban and peri urban area was Rs. 2.27±0.36 and 2.05±0.33 lakh, respectively. Among total cost, fixed cost was 11.42%, further; it was nonsignificant among urban and peri-urban farms. Total variable cost was looked higher in urban farms i.e. Rs.18.97±2.47 and 14.50±2.33 in urban and periurban farms, respectively, however, it was nonsignificant between two areas. The proportion of variable cost was major (88.58%) among total cost. Among total cost feed-fodder cost was highest i.e. 70.10% followed by labour cost i.e. 17.13%. Gross total income was found higher in urban farms but it was nonsignificant between two regions. Pooled gross total income was Rs. 23.05 lakh. Average total income from sale of milk was Rs. 21.70 lakh (92.72%). Sale of animals (4.31%) and sale of dung (2.98%) was also having some contribution in return. The average net profit in urban farms was found nonsignificant higher i.e. Rs. 5.52 and 3.48 lakh, in urban and peri urban farms, respectively. When farms was compared based on net return per adult unit the urban farms was significantly more profitable (US$ 172 v/s 136). The net profit per litre of milk was Rs. 9.20 and 6.80 in urban and periurban farms, respectively. The overall benefit cost ratio was found 1:1.20. It was also higher in urban area. Thus, it can be concluded that urban and periurban dairy farms are profitable and viable enterprise.</p> A. L. Rathva L. M. Sorathiya D. N. Gadhvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-04 2021-05-04 9 16 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430558 State-wise Production Performance of Basmati and Non-Basmati Rice in India <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the state wise Basmati and non-Basmati rice production performance in India. The study is based on the time series data on area production and yield which were compiled from various sources for a period of 39 years (1980-81 to 2018-19). The sate wise analysis considers for the major basmati and non-basmati production sates by merging the newly divide states to parents’ sates like Telangana to AP etc. While considering overall period in basmati area (6.01%) production (10.55%) and yield (4.28%) shows positive growth rate with 1 per cent level of significance. Allover India shows positive growth rate like area (0.24%), production (1.95%) and Productivity (1.70%) with 1 per cent level of significance. For India, in overall period it is more stable as Area (2.89), Production (6.07) and yield (4.5) give low instability percent. Special attention program is need to enhance the production of rice in Assam and Orissa were two states are in lowest category in terms of productivity, so effects may be taken to increase the productivity in Assam and further increase from medium to high productivity states in case of Andhra Pradesh.</p> M. Udhayakumar K. R. Karunakaran M. Thilagavathi K. R. Ashok ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 17 31 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430559 Drivers of Rural Income Diversification in Developing Countries: Case Study of Burundi <p>The significance of rural income generation is obvious for rural well-being enhancement and rural development in particular and widely national development. The research carried on income pattern analysis enabling to detect the ways to achieve the rural income generation enhancement and so far, the rural development and rural well-being improvement. The discussions about income diversification aim have mainly been divided on one hand in income maximization household objective by increasing output, on the other hand, risk and seasonality of income management. Nevertheless, in all cases, income diversification has been seen as an income increasing factor of income, poverty reduction, and well-being enhancement. The study findings shows that The income level is quite different by sources of income of household, a high income level is achieved in beekeeping at level of 5134.04 thousand BIF, but only 5% of households are involved in beekeeping, whereas the lowest income average is realized in livestock selling, 12.88 thousand BIF and 83% of households benefit from the income of livestock selling. The income from agriculture is also low, it is 112.1 thousand BIF and 100% of the 2,560 households surveyed are involved in agricultural income generation. It is also shown that there is a high share of agricultural income in the total rural income, 67% of rural income is from agriculture. The income diversification level was calculated by using the Berry index. The average Berry index of 0.06 shows a low-income diversification level in the rural households of Burundi. The analysis of income diversification by considering the household income diversification index has proven a higher income for household that their income sources are diversified. The household average income for the household with sources of income diversified is 2.7 times higher than those with one source. The analysis of determinants of income diversification participation realized using probit model has shown that household income, agricultural household landholding, the age of household head, belonging to agricultural producers’ organization, reading skills at least of the national language, and access to market positively induce the income diversification participation, while female household headed status and the non-governmental organizations interventions negatively impact the income diversification participation. The intensity of income diversification analysis done by Tobit model shows that income diversification intensity is positively influenced by household income level, producers’ organization participation, access to market, age of household head and negatively affected by the female household headed status, and non-governmental organizations interventions. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations and policy implications are possible to improve the rural well-being and poverty reduction by increasing rural income through income diversification facilitation. The research findings showed that rural income diversification is positively related to market access. The policy aiming at rural income enhancement by increasing rural income source diversification might take into consideration the increasing availability of the market and linkages of rural households to the market by any means. The increase in the market orientation of the rural household might be achieved by increasing the availability of the market information system. Policy making might focus on increasing factors that increase the market orientation decisions of rural household by the increase of the rural market place, making market information available and enhancing the transport means of rural products. The policy targeting rural income enhancement and sources of diversification should be achieved by reducing the vulnerability of young farmers and households headed by females by supporting rural young farmers and female farmers. The increasing economic empowerment of young farmers and female headed households should be promoted. The policy makers should also focus on increasing education skills at least the reading skills of the national language of rural farmers since reading skills have been proven to have a positive influence on rural income source diversification. The adult literacy programs might continue and try to reach the majority of rural uneducated farmers.</p> Eloi Edouard Kwizera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 32 58 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i430560