Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology (ISSN:&nbsp;2320-7027)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJAEES/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Agricultural Extension, Economics &amp; Sociology research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) (Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociolo) Tue, 27 Jul 2021 05:48:52 +0000 OJS 60 Assessing the Attitude of Farmers towards Improved Fodder Production Technologies in Jhansi District of Bundelkhand Region <p>The present study was carried out in 2020 with the aim of assessing farmer's attitude towards improved fodder production technology in Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region. An ex post Facto research design was used in the present study. Three villages from Babina block were selected purposively for investigation of farmer’s attitude towards various fodder based technological intervention. From each village, 20 farmers were purposively selected. Thus, a total of 60 farmers were selected for the present study. The results revealed that majority of the respondents belonged in middle age category (58.33%), more than one third had middle class education (36.67%), medium family size (53.34%), semi-medium land holding (41.67%), percentage of the respondents involved in dairy+crop farming (100%), medium herd size (53.33%), medium experience in dairy farming (51.67%) and medium annual income i.e. Rupees 155000 to 350000 (53.34%). The results revealed that majority of the participants who had high, moderate and low attitude towards improved fodder production technologies were 16.67, 23.33 and 15.00% respectively. It was concluded that, there was an inclination of positive response and concern for improved fodder technologies among respondents and vast majority of the respondents (85.00 %) had a moderately to highly favorable attitude.</p> Pragya Singh, Arjun Prasad Verma, Gaurendra Gupta, Khem Chand ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Jul 2021 05:50:05 +0000 A Study on Impact of Farmer Producer Organisation on Farmers’ Income in Andhra Prdesh <p>The present paper gives the information about the impact of Farmer Producer Organisation on farmers income. The data was collected from both the members of FPO and non- members regarding the socio-economic factors and farming details of farmers. Logistic regression which was a binary regression model was used for determining the factors influencing the farmers to join as group members and then ordinary least square regression was estimated to study the impact of FPOs on farmers income by including inverse mills ratio which was calculated in logistic regression model, to remove the selection bias. The results showed that education, distance to market and age are the factors determining the farmers to join as members of FPO. The impact study results showed that group membership, hired labour, crop production area, share of crop sold and market size are the factors that are positively significant and increasing the farmers income.</p> R. Vedasri, R. K. Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting the Level of Rural Households Livelihood Diversification in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia <p>Livelihood diversification is enchanting a significant effect in generating household’s income. The livelihood diversification includes:on-farm, non-farm and off-farm strategies which are undertaken to get extra income and moderate hazard and insecurity. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the level of rural household livelihood diversification in Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. It is a quantitative dominant concurrent mixed research methodology where the qualitative research is complemented with interpretations and triangulation. By applying multi-stage random sampling technique, a sample size of 400 household heads from 6 sample villages was selected and data were collected using interview schedule and via key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were analyzed and presented by using tables, graphs and figures while chi-square-test and F-test were employed to make statistical inferences. Tobit model was employed to identify the intensity of factors affecting of rural household’s livelihood diversification. Out of the 14 hypothesized explanatory variables, 6 variables namely age, education, access to extension, media access, distance to urban centers and training were found to have significant effect in rural household livelihood diversification decision. Therefore, the findings of this imply that rural households’ development policies should consider these factors in designing rural household livelihood diversification strategy.</p> Wanno Wallole, Yishak Gecho, Tewodros Tefera ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Economic Analysis of French Bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production in Bishnupur District of Manipur <p>The study was conducted in Bishnupur district of Manipur with an objective to work out the cost and return of French bean production. The primary data on various costs and returns were collected at random from 100 respondent farmers. Production is normally considered as the function of area and yield. Results of the cost of cultivation analysis revealed that human labour, rental value of owned land, hired machinery charges, fertilizers and plant protection chemicals were important contributors to the total cost of cultivation. The average cost of cultivation was found to be Rs. 238894 per hectare.The hired human labour charges as the major cost item, it accounted for about 41.14 per cent of the total cost of cultivation. The imputed value of family labour and rental value of owned land were the next important cost components contributing about 11.56 and 11.30 per cent of the total cost of cultivation. The net farm income per hectare was estimated at Rs.230962 and benefit cost ratios per hectare was found to be 1.96. The government and related departments should arrange training programs to upgrade the knowledge on recommended package of practices on cultivation of vegetable crops and educating the farmers to develop social consciousness by strengthening local security service through proper initiatives. The farmers also need to encourage forming farmer groups or farmer producer organization (FPOs) in order to improve the production and marketing efficiency of French beans in Bishnupur district of Manipur.</p> Kenjit Tongbram, Y Chakrabarty Singh, Daya Ram, N. Gopimohan Singh, Kh. Rishikanta Singh, Oinam Krishnadas Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of COVID-19 on Consumers’ Buying Behaviour and Consumption Pattern towards Milk in Nagpur City of Maharashtra <p>Understanding and monitoring the behaviour of consumers is vital for producers of products and services which help them for market development, new product design, packaging and promotional efforts, so as to suit for milk consumers. Also, to know about how the milk sales were affected during COVID-19, the project was undertaken. The descriptive cross sectional research design was used. The place of study was Nagpur City of Maharashtra and duration was 1st July to 31st July 2020. The data has been collected from 100 milk consumers. Non-Probability Convenience sampling method was used. Primary data was collected through Personal Interview Method by meeting consumers. Secondary data was collected from journals, Research papers, and Company website. Descriptive Statistics method such as Percentage, Averages, Rankings, etc. was used to analyze the data. Graphical analysis was used to achieve the objectives of the study.</p> <p>It was found that Roadside vendors (54.29%) were the major source for purchase of packaged milk followed by Kirana stores (37.14%). Major important source for getting information about the milk brands was Television (47.14%), followed by Newspapers (37.14%), Retailers (14.29%) respectively. It was observed that among various attributes that affect purchase of milk, Taste was the most important attribute, followed by Quality, Brand Image, Packaging and Price respectively. The study with reference to homemade dairy products revealed that majority of the respondents (76%) were not making dairy products at home, only near about 1/4th respondents (24%) were making dairy products at home. During Lockdown majority of the respondents (63%) had no change in their milk consumption, while for near about 1/4th respondents (23%) consumption was increased and for some respondents (14%) consumption was decreased. For 23% respondents 250ml increase in milk consumption was seen. For majority of the respondents (65.22%) the reason for increase in milk consumption was All family members staying at home and for rest of the respondents (34.78%) it was Work from home. For 10% respondents 250ml decrease in milk consumption was seen and for 4% respondents 500ml decrease was seen. For majority of the respondents (78.57%) the reason for decrease in milk consumption was Financial issues.</p> Ashish A. Uikey, Mehul G. Thakkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Economic Viability of Small and Marginal Farms in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh, India <p>This study was conducted to estimate the factors influencing the viability of small and marginal farms in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. Multistage sampling technique was employed for selection of samples at different levels (districts, mandals and villages) in the present study. A sample of 120 farmers was selected from two districts, six mandals and six villages. The farmers were categorized according to their land holding size into marginal (&lt;1 ha) and small (1-2 ha) category. On the basis of economic surplus left, the sample farmers were grouped as viable and nonviable farmers. The farmers having positive economic surplus are viable farmers and the farmers with negative economic surplus are non-viable farmers. Out of 120 sample farmer’s only 37 farmers were viable and 83 remained non-viable. It is found that net income from live stock and dairy and net income from crops were the major significant discriminating factors that discriminate viable and non-viable farmers. Other significant factors were off farm income, farm size and family expenditure.</p> M. Ramakrishna, I. Bhavani Devi, S. Rajeswari, P. V. Satyagopal, G. Mohan Naidu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Domestic Terms of Trade on Oilseed Crops Supply and Demand by Parity Index in Rajasthan: An Analysis <p>In this paper, the terms of trade between the input and output prices of selected major oilseeds i.e. groundnut, rapeseed &amp; mustard and soybean have been estimated for selected districts of Rajasthan for the period 1996-97 to 2015-16. The indices of terms of trade for groundnut has shown mixed trend whereas for rapeseed &amp; mustard trend remained favourable from 1996-97 to 2010-11. The ratio of index of procurement prices to index of input prices for rapeseed &amp; mustard was more than one during this period reached to as high as of 165 in 2003-04 over the base of 100 in 1996-97. Like rapeseed &amp; mustard, terms of trade for soybean cultivation in Baran was found favourable for about a decade (1996-97 to 2008-09) and afterward had shown mixed trend of ups and downs. The decline in indices can be attributed to relatively higher rate of increase in prices of inputs than of output prices. Based on the study it was suggested to conduct regular studies for better understanding the trend in prices of farm inputs and outputs that will help in revising the existing policies with confidence. To remove the disparity between ‘prices received and paid’, concerted efforts should be made to maintain the parity, which will help farmers in buying inputs and other items of household consumption.</p> Dinesh Kumar, Shirish Sharma, Madhu Sharma, Mohamad Awais ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Resource Use Efficiency and Marginal Value Productivity of Sugarcane Cultivation in Sant Kabir Nagar District, India <p>Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops and plays a crucial role in the agro-industrial economy of India. The present study was undertaken on hundred farmers of sugarcane cultivation in Sant Kabir Nagar district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Based on the nature of data, Cobb-Douglas production function was used for estimation resource use efficiency of sugarcane cultivation. The results revealed that return to scale on marginal, small and medium farms were 0.812, 0.912 and 0.962 respectively which are less than unity. It means, sugarcane cultivation is characterized by decreasing return to scale and the Coefficient of multiple determinations (R<sup>2</sup>) were 82.50, 84.10 and 87.50 percent the variation of output by dependent variable viz. seed, irrigation, plant protection and manure and fertilizers. The marginal value productivity of seed, irrigation, plant protection and manure and fertilizers measure were considerably high on all size groups of farms except fertilizers and seed on marginal farms. It indicates that positive relation is further scope for increase in the investment to realize more return.</p> Bhartendu Yadav, R. R. Kushwaha, Harendra Pratap Singh Choudhri, Pavan Kumar Singh, Vishakha Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Role in Agricultural Technology: A Case of Rural Bangladesh <p>This study analyzed the gender role in agricultural activities with respect to the change of technologies and determine their implications for improvement of household status in Netrokona district. The study followed the simple random sampling technique to select 300 sample respondents for household survey through the semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis such as, number and percentages, was used. Multiple regressions used in order to explore the relationship between the income and other factors. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were utilized. Women perception index (WPI) was measured using rank ordered approach. The findings showed that there has been significant change occurred with the livestock rearing activities which are 116.79% after adoption in new technology. According to this study, male are involved in decision making in the following activities as reported by the respondents: sale of produce (84%),&nbsp; purchase and repair (78%), weed control (70%), land preparation (76%), spraying (65%) and planting (51%), where women respondents reported that they are mostly involves in harvesting 89%, processing 81%, manuring 48% and weed control 59%. Our research also shows that 78% and 73% of men have owned small equipment and thresher, Ox-plough, and power tiller where women own only 21 percent, 2 percent, and 5 percent respectively. It is evident that the perception regarding farming with adoption of new technology attain highest score and&nbsp; 2<sup>nd</sup> highest ranked perception is technical training on&nbsp; technology, similarly the 3<sup>rd</sup> ranked occupied is adoption in HYV where last rank score on use of indigenous technology. It means that most of them prefer modern technology in terms of productivity. The experience on modern technology of respondents has a positive coefficient and it was 0.492. Given these facts, our research has explained what keeps women’s rates of modern agricultural technology adoption low.</p> Md. Shajahan Kabir, Md. Monjurul Islam, Monzur Morshed, Shakawath Hussain, Rahima Akther ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Willingness to Adopt the Recommended Practices of Organic Turmeric among Kandhamal Farmers of Odisha <p>Turmeric Cultivation is one of livelihood for the Kondh tribes of Kandhamal District of Odisha. These farmers were cultivating this crop with their traditional knowledge of crop practices without any intervention of chemical inputs. From the studies, it is found that farmers of the district were economically and educationally backward. Turmeric of Kandhamal is well known for its healing property, color, aroma etc. and received GI tag for its unique features. From the secondary data it was found that there were few public and private extension actors trying to promote organic recommended package of practices for Turmeric.&nbsp; And, to boost willingness among farmers towards recommended organic Turmeric various socio-economic variables might be responsible. In this view the present study was carried out (2020-21) in Kandhamal district of Odisha to understand attitude towards recommended organic Turmeric and socio-economic variables effecting willingness to adopt organic package of practices of Turmeric. It was found that turmeric growers had medium to high level of willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practice. And among selected socio-economic variables respondent’s total family member, Members help in family farming and adult male had negative and significantly relationship with willingness to adopt the recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric. Private extension actors and State Horticulture Department training were continually motivating them to adopt recommended agricultural practices of organic turmeric.&nbsp;</p> Asish Panigrahi, Satarupa Modak, Chitrasena Padhy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Knowledge Gain through Training Programmes on Scientific Pig Farming <p>The present study was conducted with an objective of assessing the knowledge gained by trainees about various aspects of scientific pig farming organised by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lakhimpur. A total of 180 numbers of trainees participated in trainings on scientific pig farming over a period during 2019 and 2020 on random selection. The data were collected on pre and post completion of the training with the help of questionnaire which were distributed to the trainees before training. The questionnaire consisted of 13 different aspects on knowledge on Indian and exotic Pig Breeds, knowledge on selection of piglets, castration age of piglets, attainment of puberty in pigs, oestrus period of a sow, heat detection in gilt, gestation period of sow, care of young piglets, deworming in pigs, marketing age of pigs, feeding of lactating sow, knowledge on Vaccination of pigs and common diseases of pigs.</p> <p>A score of one and zero score was assigned for each correct and incorrect response, respectively for analysis of knowledge gain. It was found that majority of the trainees were youths (52.22%), followed by Middle aged (32.22%) and Old age (15.55%).Majority of the trainees were from ST category (33.88%) followed by OBC (32.77%), General (21.11%) and SC (12.22%). Among those who attended training 32.22% had education till middle school level followed by primary 22.77, 16.11 % were found illiterate whereas 15% completed secondary, 10.55% higher secondary and 3.33 % completed education upto graduate level.</p> <p>The overall knowledge of trainees on pre training evaluation was found to be 19.17% which ended up on a high note with 93.15% on post training evaluation, which is indicative of the positive impact of training on knowledge gain.</p> <p>Evaluation of knowledge gain on various aspects of scientific pig farming showed that maximum knowledge was gained on vaccination in pigs (88.89%, Rank I) and minimum gain was in knowledge of gestation period of sow (54.44%, Rank XIII).</p> A. Chakraborty, P. K. Pathak, L. K. Nath, J. Das, S. Bhuyan, D. Hazarika, J. Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000