Open Access Short Research Article

Okra Supply Chain: A Case Study of Vadodara City of Gujarat

Sahil Gondaliya, Snehal Mishra, Montu Bhatiya, Vishal Vaghasiya, Navin Venkat, Denish Zalavadiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 395-401
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121808

This study was conducted in 2022 based on the following objectives: 1) to identify different marketing channels of okra in Vadodara city, 2) to estimate price spread of okra crop, and 3) to identify problems encountered by producers and intermediaries. The primary data were collected from 50 farmers, 15 wholesaler,15 retailer,6 commission agent,6 trader,3 private companies of Vadodara city total sample size is 95 while the secondary data were collected from different Private and Government publications to include Review Paper, Literature, and Journals. The following districts in Vadodara City such as Padra, Karjan, Waghodia, Aklav, and Savli talukas were the selected venues of the study. The respondents of the study were randomly selected such as the farmer, wholesalers, retailers and private companies from the above area. The descriptive research design was used for the research. Non-probability sampling method and convenience sampling technique was used. In channel I, very small proportion of the agricultural commodities which moved directly from producers to consumers. Channel II is the most common supply chain for okra during the period of June and July. Both Channel III & IV are working at rural level. Channel I has the best marketing efficiency out of these six marketing channels, but it is not realistic to sell all produce through this channel. However, channel V marketing efficiency is around 68% and is a practically feasible channel due to the lower number of intermediaries. Therefore, the lesser the number of intermediaries the higher will be the marketing efficiency. The most common problem encountered by farmers are lower price which can be solved by collectivism and contract farming.

Open Access Short Research Article

Problem Identification of Groundnut Cultivation in Bhadthar Market of Devbhoomi Dwarka District, India

Denish Zalavadiya, Snehal Mishra, Sahil Gondaliya, Montu Bhatiya, Vishal Vaghasiya, Naveen Venkat

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 430-435
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121813

The study was aimed on “Problem Identification of Groundnut Cultivation in Bhadthar Market of Devbhoomi Dwarka District”. The study type was descriptive research. Since groundnut was the most important crop farmed in the area during the Kharif season, the study was primarily focused on groundnut. The research was carried out in Bhadthar, Bhinda, Movan, Golan Sherdi, and Thakar Sherdi villages of Khambaliya Taluka in Gujarat's Devbhoomi Dwarka District. The primary data were collected from 150 respondents from the previously mentioned villages. To meet the study's objectives, both primary and secondary data were collected. The primary survey was carried out with the help of a Semi-structured Schedule. Groundnut farmers' major problems were the high input cost followed by diseases like rust and tikka disease, wilting, seed rot, and yellowing. The retailer’s suggestion was the highest influencing factor followed by a farmer’s/friend’s suggestion, demonstration, farmer meeting, exhibition, leaflets, TV advertisement, poster, wall paintings and jeep campaigns, which influence the farmer’s purchase decision of pesticides followed by the farmer/friend’s suggestion and demonstration.

Open Access Short Research Article

Challenges Encountered by Veterinarians and Dairy Farmers in the Context of Animal Healthcare Services in Kashmir

Sanober Rasool, Abdul Hai, S. A. Hamdani, Gowhar Gull, Syed Akram Hussain, K. H. Bulbul

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 483-487
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121824

The present study was purposively carried out in Kashmir Division of Jammu and Kashmir based on the availability of records for data collection at respective Government, Veterinary Healthcare Centers. The aim of the study was to get a knowhow about various challenges encountered by veterinarians and dairy farmers while delivering animal healthcare services in Kashmir. The many challenges/obstacles that veterinarians encounter while providing animal healthcare services, was the absence of efficient diagnostic laboratories with suitable infrastructure in veterinary clinics with a constraint index of 1.00,  followed by livestock farmers' delay in bringing animals in for treatment (CI =0.97),inadequate transportation facilities (CI= 0.89). whereas  poor supply of inputs with a constraint index of 0.95, followed by difficulty in availing veterinary services during emergencies (CI= 0.92) and non-availability of animal healthcare services round the clock ( CI=0.91) were the major constraints that majority of the livestock owners faced while availing the various animal healthcare services. The study's conclusions have given policymakers important information they need to know about the possibility of enhancing AHS in the Union Territory.

Open Access Short communication

Local Food Systems and Farmers’ Markets-an Exploratory Study

Amtul Waris, S. Arun Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121765

The local food systems and farmers' markets support the local economy, build relationships between producers and consumers, and promote social interaction along with the provision of fresh and nutritious foods. The local food systems cater to the three dimensions of sustainability viz. environment, economy, and society by providing access to fresh produce. Various models of local food systems are in operation, direct-to-consumer, direct-to-retail, farmers markets, and farm-to-school programs each with distinct features of operation. Consumers prefer local food markets as they perceive the locally grown food to be fresher and they like unique and special foods on offer at these markets. Policy support and capacity building of smallholder farmers on reducing the cost of cultivation, marketing skills, and knowledge of food safety regulations are essential. Farmers' markets are integral to local food systems and various models of farmers' markets are operational in different countries of the world. The mode of functioning and operational principles of a farmers market (Rythu Bazar) in the Telangana State of India has been described in this article. The participating smallholder farmers benefitted from higher price realization, an increase in earnings, and immediate cash receivables. However, the major constraint was inadequate storage facilities for leftover produce. The disruptions to food supply chains faced during the covid-19 pandemic have indicated that the farmer's markets were preferred by both poor and elite customers alike and thus the local food systems can provide resilience to the food systems. The SWOT analysis of the farmers' markets indicates a robust system with explicit strengths, and operational weaknesses, the opportunities are also many and with the suitable policy and affirmative action the threats can be addressed.

Open Access Minireview Article

An Overview of Employment Opportunities in Rural India

M. Sathish Kumar, Y. A. Lad, A. B. Mahera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 42-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121763

The rural population in India is abundant, but unemployment has been a problem over the years. A rural employment opportunity enables individuals to lead successful lives and contributes to the growth of our country. Despite the availability of many employment opportunities in the rural area, the government continuously implements several schemes to increase employment rates and reduce migration from rural areas to urban areas. The government provides a variety of training programs for rural people to improve their skills. A main purpose of the paper is to determine current employment opportunities in rural areas and possible opportunities to increase them. Furthermore, it discussed some government initiatives aimed at improving the quality of life for rural residents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Marketing of Betel Leaf in Odisha: An Economic Analysis

Anwesha Dey, Avdhesh Sharma, Yash Gautam, Krishna Gopal Swain, H. P. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121759

Betel Leaf is a commercial horticultural crop with unleashed economic potential. It is not only part of our cultural traditions but also has great significance in the Ayurveda. Odisha being one of the prominent betel leaf growing state the crop has economic impact on the betel leaf growers of the state. Multistage random sampling technique was adopted to select 60 betel leaf growers. In the initial first year the cost incurred by respondents is more because of additional cost incurred on baroj construction. Net return was calculated by subtracting total costs from total returns; in the following years it gets amplified with the increase in economic life of the crop. Resource use efficiency was analyzed by examining production by Cobb-Douglas production function. All the resources used are significant but seed is the only resource whose use is being ill afforded. Of the two major marketing channels prevalent in the area, the channel that was comparatively more efficient was Producer-Wholesaler- Retailer – Consumer. The other channel that was prevalent was Producer- Pre-harvest contractor- Wholesaler- Retailer – Consumer. To identify the constraints Garett’s ranking method was employed. The prime constraint that caused hindrance in optimum production and marketing of betel leaf were disease severity and price fluctuations respectively. The crop despite the capacity to earn foreign currency has been of less interest to both researchers as well as policy makers. This paper tends to analyze the economic potential of this horticultural crop to enable the policymakers understand its role in the rural economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Practices Followed by the Farmers in Kharar Division (SAS Nagar) Punjab

. Inderveer, Gurshaminder Singh, Francis Namuse

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 9-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121761

The agriculture industry plays a significant part in the Indian economy, accounting for around 20% of the Gross Domestic product (GDP). Around 62 percent of India’s population is reliant on it for survival Gupta & Nagar [1]. Agriculture is a crucial sector of the Indian economy as it contributes about 20.19 percent of GDP (DAC&FW Annual Report, 2020-21). Agronomical practices include all the practices which are followed by the farmer from seed to seed i.e. from seed sowing to seed harvesting and storing. The study was conducted in Kharar block, district SAS Nagar (Punjab). Three villages were selected randomly. A questionnaire was prepared to interview the farmers. After the collection of the data from respondents data were classified and analyzed with the help of suitable statistical measures. As per the data collected overall 100%, of farmers grow wheat and about 98% of respondents grow paddy crop in their fields. Apart from these two crops around 52% of farmers grow cauliflower crop in their fields overall 46% of farmers cultivate the mustard crop. The overall amount of fertilizers used by the respondents are more than the recommended dose. Phalaris minor is the major weed, apart from this about 92% of farmers face the problem of Grasshopper insects in the paddy crop. The average yield of wheat, paddy, and cauliflower is 52, and 75,243 QTLs/ acre respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perspectives on Fish Consumption Preference, Frequency and Information Accessibility among Households in Juba, South Sudan

John K. B. Alosias, Philip W. M. Draga

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 16-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121762

Eating healthy requires nutritious foods (e.g. fish, vegetables and fruits etc.) on the menu to help improve the health of consumers. As an example of highly nutritious foods, eating fish has the potential to improve human health. Most fish consumption studies mainly focus on consumers’ perspectives to evaluate their knowledge and behavior, and are often compared to scientific evidences. In many developing countries, fish consumption cannot only be influenced by consumers’ knowledge and behavior but also by other factors such as undersupply of fish and fish products due to poor infrastructures, political instability and unregulated prices in the local markets, accessible and preferred purchasing points, accessible and preferred sources of information, and trust towards agents of information, which are not commonly studied or underrated in developed nations. Limited number of studies only incorporated a few of these variables to understand issues influencing fish consumption. In Juba Town, Kator and Munuki Payams of Juba County and South Sudan at large, recent estimates about food insufficiency among households are worrying. Besides such worsening food insufficiency, studies on food consumption preference, frequency and other persuasive issues have not been conducted or lacking. As a result, this study evaluated perspectives on fish consumption preference, frequency and information accessibility among households in Juba, South Sudan. A total of 191 respondents from Juba Town, Kator and Munuki Payams of Juba County were interviewed using non-probability sampling method. The data were analyzed thematically and descriptively using SPSS software 20.0. Majority of the households (>50%) in Juba consumed fish regularly but in small amounts. The findings also revealed the most preferred fish species and products, purchasing points, motivation and constraints, and information accessibility influencing fish consumption and recommendations for further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Capital in Relation to Market Participation of Smallholder African Indigenous Vegetable Farmers in Vihiga County, Kenya

E. Minyattah, J. Ombati, M. Mutuku

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121764

Marketing is a social as well as a management process that facilitates exchange of products and information among the actors. Improved livelihoods among smallholder farmers depends on sustainable access to markets. In Kenya, Vihiga County, various development practitioners have promoted the production of African Indigenous Vegetables (AIVs). However, AIVs marketing has been given little attention. The farmers, therefore, have not taken advantage of the full potential of the gains of AIVs marketing to improve their livelihoods. Small holder farmers experience low market participation due to their non-competitiveness in the promising AIVs market. This could be associated with the low social capital among the farmers. Social capital serves as complementary mediator which supports marketing capability consequently enhancing performances This study sought to assess the role of social capital in relation to farmers’ participation in the AIVs market. This was done through a household survey with AIVs farmers in January 2021. A total of 167 farmers were interviewed in in Vihiga County. Purposive sampling was done to target AIVs farmers. The study results indicate that though there were more female (63%) farmers in the study site there was a significant difference (P=.002) between the sex of the AIVs farmers interviewed in the two study sub counties. The study results also show that, majority of the farmers (76%) did not meet the demand for AIVs needed in the market. Despite the deficit in the demand for AIVs, most farmers had not taken advantage of the available market by producing more AIVs during peak season. A likert scale analysis of the farmer’s social capital reveal that there was a strong (3.5) bonding social capital among the farmers however, the bridging social capital was lower (3.0). This indicates a weak social network among the farmers to the outside world which can greatly hinder their participation in the high end AIVs markets. The study concluded that, there is demand for AIVs, however, the farmers have not positioned themselves to tap the available market opportunities. There is need for capacity building of farmers on the importance of building their social network for improved participation in the AIVs market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Financial Ratio Analysis of A Food Industry Company

Shaik Mohammad Irfan, C. P. Gracy, M. S. Ganapathy, . Siddayya, G. M. Gaddi, Mahin Sharif

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 68-78
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121766

This paper discusses introduction, classification and detailed financial statement analysis and financial ratio analysis and their interpretation of food Industry company. Britannia Industries Limited is purposively selected for the study. The study is purely quantitative. Secondary data is used for the study. The liquidity, activity ratios showed a decreasing trend, whereas solvency, profitability ratios showed increasing trend for the selected period of 2017-18 to 2021-22. At last, the paper has concluded that the company’s overall financial performance and position has been improved over the past five years.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Appraisal of Traditional Rice Cultivation in Kerala, India

R. Ahaljith, Jayasree Krishnankutty, Rajesh K. Raju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121767

Rice cultivation is the mainstay of agriculture in Kerala for centuries. But as time progressed, rice cultivation using traditional varieties was confined to some pockets in the state. Traditional rice farmers are mainly unorganised and are followers of lineage. This study was taken up to attempt to outline the evolution of traditional rice farming, understand farmers’ perceptions about its sustainability, and look into the legal protective measures available for these varieties. It was found that the centuries-long presence of this system is now in peril. However, the farmers had a more positive perception of its sustainability than a negative one. The cultivating farmers were largely unaware of the government’s measures to support traditional agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Practices Followed by Farmers in Order to Attain Maximum Yield

Harshveer Singh, Sameer Chopra, Gurshaminder Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 84-92
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121768

In India, Agriculture has 65% of total population directly dependent on itself making it the backbone of the Indian economy. The farmer while producing crops aims at getting maximum yields. A study on agronomic practices followed by 120 farmers from three villages viz. Hasanpur (42 farmers), Kalewal 54 farmers), Singhpura 24 farmers) was carried out. Major crops cultivated were known to be wheat, paddy, mustard, sugarcane, maize, berseem, cauliflower and carrot. The collected from the respondents included the seed rate, fertilizer dosage, seed treatment, number of irrigations provided, organic manure used, major weeds infesting the fields, herbicides used, major pest attacking crops, pesticides used, major diseases infesting the fields, disease chemicals used and yield range of crops. The findings of the study showed the practices followed by the farmers in the fields for optimum crop stand and get maximum yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Buying Pattern of Selected Carbonated Dairy Drink by the Consumers in Anand City, Gujarat

P. Navyasree, A. B. Mahera, M. R. Prajapati

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 93-99
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121769

This study is conducted and intended to identify the factors influencing the buying pattern of a selected carbonated dairy drink by the consumers in Anand city, Gujarat. In order to analyze the information, primary data was collected with the help of collecting the information from 100 consumers using non-probability sampling method under which convenience sampling method is used. According to the findings of the study conducted, using the chi-square analysis and correlation co-efficient, it was observed that there was significant positive correlation between the income and the consumption, no significant difference between the age group and frequency of consumption and education qualification of the respondents is independent to the purchase decision in consumption of selected carbonated drink. The survey also reveals that most of the respondents were satisfied with the taste of the product. About 70 percent of the respondents reported that they would like to shift to the other brand carbonated drinks. Based on the study, awareness among the customers should be created by using suitable marketing and sales promotion strategies [1]. Mass communications and digital communications are to be used, utilized and delivered effectively to build brand preference, attract new consumers and nurture the existing ones [2].

Open Access Original Research Article

Gain in Knowledge after Watching Video Clip of Soil Sampling in (SAS Nagar) Punjab India

Gurshaminder Singh, Nitish Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 100-103
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121770

Soil is one of the element required for farming as it provides nutrients to the plant. Healthy soil contain all the elements for growth and development of crop .Therefore, Soil sampling is one of the most important aspect in the determination of the properties of the soil or the soil deprived from one or more nutrient either reduce the production or degraded quality of crops. Therefore, proportion and quantity of macro and micro nutrients altogether refer to the soil health. As far as agriculture production is concerned, soil health play vital role in ensuring sustainable production with optimizing the utilization of fertilizer and reducing its waste. Soil sampling involves the analysis of a soil sample (from the area which is landscaped) to determine the nutrient content, composition. Of the soil. It allows the farmer to determine accurately which crop would yield the best growth in that particular soil. The survey of 100 respondents was taken and are selected randomly from all the three villages for the research and questionnaire was framed having the questions regarding the soil sampling and data was collected through the interview schedule or interaction of the respondents. Purposive as well as the random sampling procedure were followed in providing the knowledge regarding the soil sampling Then the data has been tabulated and analyzed with the objective to assess the knowledge gain by the shows that there is significant gain in knowledge by 74.63% more in respondents. After watching the video film it was found that the mean score was 50.81 before watching the video and 88.73 was after watching the video. Thereafter, mean percentage before watching the video was 50.81% and after watching the video was 88.73%. 90% of the respondents are aware about from where the soil sample should be taken and 88% of the respondents are aware of the harmful effects of pesticides to the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping Out the Motivations, Housing Patterns and Management Practices Adopted by 2018 Kerala Flood Affected Dairy Farmers

Sachin B. Patil, Biya Ann Joseph, P. Reeja George, S. Harikumar, Greeshma Joy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 104-109
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121771

A study on the dairy management practices adopted by dairy farmers who had been affected by the floods of 2018 was carried out in selected districts of Kerala state.  A cross sectional survey design was employed for the study in which data were collected using structured interview schedules. Analysis of data revealed that 76.70 per cent of the respondents had housed their animals in traditional kutcha sheds. Raised platforms were seen in 84 per cent of the animal sheds. It was observed that 84.70 per cent of sheds had floors of concrete. Regarding the roof, it was observed that 89.30 per cent were constructed with sloping roof. The predominant roofing material used was sheets of galvanized iron (62.70 Per cent). Analysis of the occupational status of the farmers indicated that dairying was their primary occupation that majority of them undertook for self-employment (42 per cent) and additional income (32.70 per cent). On the adoption of important management practices, it was evident from the study that all the respondents had adopted scientific management practices such as regular vaccinations and regular deworming of dairy animals. However, it was also notable that 33.30 per cent of them had not adopted the practice of scientific disposal of carcass. This is important from the public health point of view, especially in event of natural calamities such as the Kerala Floods, 2018.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by Cotton Farmers in Management of Cotton Cultivation in Madhya Pradesh, India

Shivpal Singh, M. M. Patel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121772

The study was conducted in ten purposively selected villages of Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh on the basis of large area under cotton crop and a total of 200 farmers selected by the proportionate random sampling technique. An interview schedule was prepared for collection data relating to constraint faced by cotton growers. They faced in growing cotton to lack of knowledge about improved scientific practices in cotton crop (89.50%), insufficient training programs (88.00%), insufficient demonstration of improved technology (83.50%), lack of technical knowledge about pheromone and sticking trap (81.00%), high price & poor quality of Bt. cotton seeds (79.50%), lack of information regarding upcoming abnormal weather conditions (78.00%), lack of coordination between farmer and agriculture institution (76.50%), scarcity of labour at the plucking stage (73.50%), a decline in the yield of cotton due to insects (71.00%), lack of technical knowledge about the recommended insecticide, pesticide, fungicide and herbicide (68.00%), high costs of fertilizers (65.50%), uneven electricity supply (65.00%),  lack of expertise in identifying the crop's pests, diseases, and weeds (63.50%). Farmer has not proper knowledge about improved cultivation practices of cotton crop. So famer should be provided the various training programmes be organized to provide practical knowledge and field demonstrations should be arranged on improved practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability of Bt Cotton On-farm Situation: A Survey

Vinayak Hosamani, B. M. Chittapur, Venkatesh Hosamani, A. S. Halepyati

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 117-127
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121773

The survey was carried out during November 2015 in selected cotton fields of seven villages viz., Kalmala, Jagir Venkatapur and Ijapur of Raichur district and Gogi, Ulalkal, Hothpet and Maddarki villages of Yadgir districts covering part of TBP and UKP irrigation commands, respectively. The villages were selected based on the predominance of cotton area. Farmers plots were visited and location were  recorded using GPS and observations were made on management practices, leaf reddening incidence and per cent leaf reddening, NDVI values, chlorophyll content, anthocyanin content and seed cotton yield. The spatial variability maps were generated using “krigging”, and interpolation method under GIS environment using observations on spatial spectral variability in NDVI, SPAD (chlorophyll content), anthocyanin content, leaf reddening index, reddening percentage and seed cotton as influenced by irrigation ecosystem, soil type and foliar spray of 19:19:19, date of sowing and cultivars. The data was further subjected for correlation studies. There is a lot of variation in the seed cotton yields among Bt cotton farmers across the Upper Krishna project and Tunga Bhadra Project irrigation commands of the state. Soils cultivated and cultivars used often remain the same the difference in yield could be due to nutritional management, the occurrence of leaf reddening, other factors, or combination of many of these attributing characteristics. Since leaf health is indicative of plant health and yield in turn, leaf health could be assessed through leaf spectral reflectance viz, NDVI, SPAD, and LRI. Based on this a survey was undertaken in November 2015 at Raichur (in three taluks) and Yadgir (in four taluks) districts falling under TBP and UKP irrigation commands, respectively, taking in all 90 farmers. The spectral observations were made on standing field crops besides leaf samples were collected to estimate leaf anthocyanin in the laboratory and GIS mapping was done using ESRI-made ArcGIS version 10.4 from Sujala-III, Remote Sensing and GIS laboratory, College of Agriculture, Raichur, was used to import GPS data and field data attachment for spatial analysis of leaf reddening incidence in cotton.  The results on Spectral observations on NDVI, SPAD, leaf reddening index, reddening percentage in addition to leaf anthocyanin content varied due to locations, irrigation or otherwise, foliar spray, fertilization level, date of sowing, and cultivars.The leaf chlorophyll content is an important biometric character, the content quality, and duration (stability) indicate general crop health and ultimately yield directly if not influenced by the rate and efficiency of translocation to sink (kapas yield in case of cotton), therefore, it is often used to monitor real-timeN fertilization (LCC, SPAD, Green Seeker) as well as to forecast crop condition and yield. Periodic spectral observations on SPAD and NDVI are useful indicators of crop health and performance in commercial crop like cotton which could be extrapolated to field scale for crop management and production forecast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Learners' Attitude towards Distance Education Programme: Case of Bachelor Program in Agriculture of Bangladesh Open University

Md. Jahangir Alam, A. K. M. Kanak Pervez, Md. Ruhul Amin, Md. Mohiuddin Sheikh, Rejvi Ahmed Bhuiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 128-135
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121774

The study aimed to explore learners' attitudes toward 'the Bachelor of Agriculture Education (BAgEd) distance education program' and to show its relationship with the selected socio-economic characteristics of the learners. The target population for this study were learners at different BAgEd Study Centers of Bangladesh Open University BOU). Data collection was conducted from June 15, 2020, to April 30, 2022, by the survey through Google form in the web link. Random sampling was used from 438 learners who participated in the study out of 1750 learners. The findings show that around  57.3% of participants stayed in earlier stages in the innovation-decision process related to learners' attitude toward BAgEd distance education (no knowledge, knowledge, persuasion stages). About 42.7% were in later stages (decision, implementation and confirmation). A large portion (22.2%) of the learners think that after acquiring BAgEd degree, one may apply earned knowledge in own service field. On the other hand, only eleven participants think combining web-based and traditional methods in distance education can help learners access higher education. Out of ten selected characteristics of the learners, only one characteristic, family member, showed a no relationship with their attitude towards the BAgEd distance education program. Six of the significant characteristics, such as earning members, training, organizational participation, cosmopoliteness, uses of e-resources and creativity with correlation at 0.01. On the other hand, three independent variables, such as an academic semester, age and educational qualification, are significant at 0.05.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Locus of Control on Emotional Intelligence: A Study of College Students

. Nitima, Shabana Gandhi, Madhur Katoch, Raj Pathania

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 136-145
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121775

Aim: To assess student’s locus of control and to identify the impact of locus of control on emotional intelligence among college students. Gender differences were also assessed in the study regarding student’s locus of control.

Study Design: An exploratory research design was used for the study where data were taken from primary sources.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in two coeducational and two girl’s colleges of Chandigarh in the year 2018-19.

Methodology: A sample size of 100 boys and 100 girls (50 students in the age group of 18-24 years from each college) was selected randomly for the study. Data were collected from respondents by using standardized scales viz. Rotter’s Internal-External Locus of Control (Indian Adaptation) and Emotional Intelligence Test. Tabulation of data was done and frequencies were calculated and data was further subjected to statistical analysis through SPSS software.

Results: Based on study findings, out of 200 students, 116 students including both boys and girls have showed external locus of control. From linear regression results, it revealed that managing emotions was positively significant at confidence level 0.1 with external and internal locus of control while empathy was significantly but negatively associated with internal locus of control at 0.1 level of confidence.

Conclusion: It was concluded from results that, most of the sample have more external locus of control followed by internal locus of control. As both the dimensions of locus are significant with managing emotions at 90% intervals. Furthermore, the results for empathy are negative but significant which means that internal locus of control has significant impact on empathy. No significant gender differences were found for locus of control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social and Institutional Factors Influencing the Performance of Tank Irrigation System – A Study of Uthiramerur Tank in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu

T. Kuzhalarasan, P. Nirmal Kumar, R. Venkataraman Venkataraman, S. Ravichandran, K. Dhanasekaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 146-156
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121776

Aim: Tanks were the major sources of irrigation for agriculture and storehouses of economic, social, aesthetic and environmental use values. However, in the present context, the current trends are showing that area and number of tanks are being reduced due to poor maintenance, encroachments, degradation of catchment area and siltation, etc. This calls for rehabilitation and rejuvenation of the existing tank irrigation systems so as to preserve this precious natural resource for the livelihood of future generations ahead. Hence this present study was undertaken to identify the social and institutional factors influencing the performance of tank systems in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Study Design: Quota and Multistage random sampling method was followed.

Place and Duration of Study: Command and Non-command areas of the Uthiramerur Tank in Kanchipuram district of Tamil Nadu during 2020-2021.

Methodology: A Sample size of 120 sample respondents from the different locations of the command areas (Head, Middle, Tail and Non-command area) of Uthiramerur tank were selected and interviewed.

Results: It was observed from the performance analysis that over the years the tank’s performance was decreasing both in terms of filled in capacity vis-à-vis rainfall received (Above the tank outlet) and in terms of actual gross area irrigated vis-à-vis its potential command area (Below the tank outlet)  . One of the important reasons for the decline in the performance of Uthiramerur tank was attributed mainly to institutional deficiencies wherein concrete action lacked thereof.

Conclusion: The study suggested the following actions for the improvement of tank’s performance- streamlining the feeding channels of the tank by removing the encroachments, lining of channels to minimize the seepage losses and ensuring better water distribution, periodic desiltation ,strengthening the revenue collection mechanisms, encouraging the conjunctive water use and rejuvenating the water user association.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nexus between Agriculture Growth and Poverty Reduction in India

C. Chandrarekha, S. S. Guledagudda, G. N. Kulkarni, Nagaratna Biradara, R. A. Yeledhalli

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 157-163
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121777

Poverty is an issue of concern in developing countries as it remains the most elusive social evil to derail the economic progress of the country and social status of population. India remains fastest growing economy in the world, however efforts have to be made to improve the standard of living and social wellbeing of people. Agriculture as primary sector benefits the poor sections of the population by providing employment opportunities and play a key role in reducing poverty. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of agriculture growth on poverty reduction by using secondary data and sixteen states of India were purposively selected. An attempt was made to analyse the relationship between poverty, Agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker and Non-Agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker using pooled regression analysis. The findings of the study shows that, as every one per cent increase in Agriculture GDP per worker found to have reduced poverty by 0.11 per cent as against 0.04 per cent in Non-Agriculture GDP per worker. This shows that increase in Agriculture GDP per worker causes higher poverty reduction as compared to Non- Agriculture GDP per worker. This is true in case of agrarian economy like India as majority of population are dependent on agriculture for their sustenance. However, it suggested that the balanced mutual growth between various sectors of the economy will help to alleviate poverty in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Integration and Price Transmission Analysis of Onion in Wholesale Markets of India

Mohit Kumar, A. S. Shaikh, Rohit Kumar Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121778

The present study was done in seven major onion wholesale markets in India, namely Pimpalgaon, Lasalgaon, Solapur, Pune, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Indore to explore the interdependence of wholesale prices amongst Indian onion markets. The study was conducted in all India perspective and the study period involves the seventeen years data of onion wholesale prices (January 2004 to December 2020). The study was majorly based on the prices of onion obtained through secondary source. These data were collected from various portals such as FAO, NHRDF, Agmarknet and NHB. The current study employs co-integration analysis of wholesale monthly onion prices in selected marketplaces to determine the degree of market integration. The Trace and Maximum Eigen-value tests results showed that the onion prices in India moves together in the long run equilibrium. As a result, it may be stated that India's onion markets are well-functioning. The direction of information flow was determined by using Granger Causality test. It was found that in few markets pairs, price transmissions were bi-directional whereas between Bangalore and Pune market, no transmission was found. The study reveals that Lasalgaon market is dominating in terms of price determination. The empirical study also recommends keeping a careful eye on diverse market behavioural patterns, since "news" in one market might have an influence on other markets due to the numerous interdependencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Training Needs on Entrepreneurship Development for NTFR Stakeholders in Gurez Valley of Kashmir

M. A. Islam, Ummar Atta, A. A. Wani, A. A. Gatoo, Murtaza Shah, Masood Ahmad Dar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 172-181
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121779

Entrepreneurship on non-timber forest resources (NTFR) is an important source of sustainable livelihoods and income diversification in the Gurez valley of Kashmir. In order to increase the efficiency of NTFR stakeholders, training is indispensable. This study attempts to assess the training needs, suitable training programme and socioeconomic profile of the NTFR stakeholders. Multistage random sampling procedure was used to select 337 households from 18 sample villages for field survey. Data were collected through personal interviews administering structured interview schedule and analysed using simple descriptive statistics. Results indicated that majority of the NTFR stakeholders were belonged to low socioeconomic status class as reflected by their household characteristics. Among the ten selected major thematic areas the ‘commercialization of NTFR’ (WMS, 3.00; priority percentage, 12.87%) was ranked 1st while ‘conservation of NTFR through JFM’ (WMS= 1.68; priority percentage, 7.21%) was ranked 10th. The short duration trainings (1-7 days) (WMS, 3.00) was ranked 1st among the delivery methods followed by the medium duration trainings (8-14 days) (WMS, 2.84; rank 2nd) and the long duration trainings (3-4 weeks) (WMS, 2.79; rank 3rd). The findings suggested that the trainings on NTFR entrepreneurship of stakeholders is the crucial intervention for livelihood diversification, socioeconomic development and forest conservation; hence, need-based trainings must be planned and imparted to the individuals for improving the entrepreneurial productivity, performance and efficiency. To achieve the desired change in the NTFR entrepreneurship, the training needs identified in this study must be given due consideration during designing the training curriculum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Work from Home: Scenarios Exhausting or Draining during On-Line Teaching

Y. D. Haritha, Chaitanya Kumari, . Bilquis

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 182-189
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121780

Work from home describes work being done remotely, instead of at an office. The acronym “WFH” is used as a nickname for the concept. Many organizations/institutions transitioned their employees from the office to a work from home model during the Corona virus global pandemic. The present study was undertaken to study the “Work from Home: Scenarios exhausting during on-line teaching. Purposive random sampling technique was used to collect sample for this study. A sample comprised of 30 public and 30 private teachers were selected. Location of the study: Madakasira (Anantapuram dist., A.P.) Public teachers scored 90 percent on adjusting to new pedagogical practices whereas private teachers scored 97 percent in this area. Public teachers scored 90 percent on adjusting to new pedagogical practices whereas private teachers scored 97 percent in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges Faced by the Retailers in Selling the Selected Carbonated Dairy Drink in Anand City, Gujarat

P. Navyasree, M. R. Prajapati, A. B. Mahera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 190-195
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121781

Carbonated drinks or frizzy drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide. These are the packaged drinks that are available in bottles, cans, and PET bottles without any alcohol content. This industry has been experiencing paramount changes regarding product innovations, variations, and offerings. To create a wider penetration of carbonated beverages and sustaining the customer base, companies have been using a variety of strategies. This study was conducted to identify the problems faced by the retailers in selling the selected carbonated dairy drink in Anand city, Gujarat. Primary data was collected with the help of collecting the information from 60 retailers of different general stores, parlors, bakeries and petty shops using purposive sampling method in order to analyze and interpret the information. According to the findings of the study conducted, using the percentage and tabular analysis, it was observed that 41.67 percent of the respondents felt that the price of the carbonated dairy beverages are higher than the other competitive carbonated drinks. 30 percent of the retailers gave their feedback of better service as there was replacement of the old stock and the company was resolving the issues as per the need. 20 percent of the respondents felt that the quality of the selected carbonated dairy drink was good. Only 8.33 percent respondents reported that there was better supply. So, the data depicted that the retailers were not so satisfied with the selected carbonated dairy beverage products. About 55 percent of the retailers were not satisfied with the marketing and promotional strategies of carbonated dairy drinks. The results clearly represented that the retailers expect more promotional activities from the companies, draw suitable marketing strategies, attract the new customers by creating the awareness, retain and nurture the existing ones and target the potential ones to increase the sales revenue and maximize the profit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pleasure of Fulfilling the Aspect as Parents between Mother and Father

Y. D. Haritha, . Bilquis

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 196-201
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121782

Parenting is a concept of raising children in a prompt way. Good parenting is involving their children in all kind of tasks so that children can learn good and positive things in an appropriate way. Both mother and father have equal responsibility in raising the children. Parents become successful when their children grow-up with good discipline, and no dependency on parents or anyothers. In this context, a study is undertaken to study the pleasure of fulfilling the aspect as parents between mother and father. The sample of 60 parents (30 mothers and 30 fathers) were interviewed using the developed schedule on their aspect performance. The results revealed that mother’s aspect or part was high in spending sufficient time with the children, providing nourishment to the children, ensuring the psychological wellbeing of the children. Father’s aspect or part was high in being dedicated parent financially, maintaining positive relationships with children in providing knowledge about society. Both parents (mother and father) were found to be equally involved in educating children with good morals and values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Positive Youth Development: Levels of Positivity in Youth Development

Y. D. Haritha, . Bilquis

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 202-207
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121783

Positive youth development is a combination of Positive Episodes + Positive Associations + Positive circumstances. Youth development expert Richard Lerner theorizes that young people will thrive if they develop certain behaviours, dubbed the “five Cs,” over the course of childhood and early adolescence: competence, connection, character, confidence, and caring/compassion. According to Lerner, a youth with the five thriving behaviours is on the path to attaining a sixth C: contribution – to self, family, community, and civil society. It is the sixth C that leads to positive adulthood. “Committed— behaviourally, morally, and spiritually—to a better world beyond themselves,” he writes, “they will act to sustain for future generations a society marked by social justice, equity, and democracy and a world wherein all young people may thrive.” Richards Five C’s model Competence: enhancing participants social, academic, cognitive, and vocational competencies, Connection :building and strengthening adolescents’ relationships with other people and institutions, such as school, Confidence: Improving adolescents’ self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, identity and belief in the future, Character: increasing self-control, decreasing engagement in health-compromising (problem) behaviours, developing respect for cultural or societal rules and standards, a sense of right and wrong (mortality) and spirituality, Compassion/Caring: improving youths’ empathy and identification with others. Females reported highest score in caring (89%), connection (92%), character (85%). whereas males reported highest score in competence (78%), contribution (96%), confidence (88%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Promotion of Fish Production and Doubling Farmer’s Income among Scheduled Caste Fish Farmers in Assam, India

Kulen Chandra Das, R. S. Haldar, Debajit Sarma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 208-219
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121784

Aquaculture plays an important role in supporting livelihoods worldwide and also forms an important source of diet for over one billion people. The inland fisheries are of particular importance to the rural poor accounting for about fifteen per cent of total global employment. Besides employment, it caters to the nutritional need of the rural poor. Being an agrarian economy, fish farming is one of the important livelihood activities in Assam. Though “Kaibartta” is the main fishing community in Assam the profession has been taken over by the immigrant Muslim people in various districts of the state. Nevertheless, Scheduled Caste people living in rural areas have their own ponds at the back of their houses and they culture fish for domestic consumption. It is observed that rural farmers lack exposure to scientific fish farming and this may be considered one of the obstacles to low production and productivity. Thus, looking into the huge potentiality of the sector and its associated problems, a small intervention in the form of capacity building of the fish farmers’ belonging to the Scheduled Caste and distribution of various fishery inputs was undertaken. Twenty percent of three villages belonging to Schedule Caste in the Nagaon district were selected randomly for the interventions to be administered. The paper analyses the process of implementation along with the outcome of the project on the sample households. The result shows that the intervention has augmented the knowledge base and skill of the SC farmers and thereby enhances household income and nutritional security in a sustainable manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Marketing and Storage of Onion Cultivation in Yamunanagar, Haryana

. Usha, . Shivam, Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan, V. P. Luhach

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 220-231
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121785

The current research was carried out in the Yamunanagar district of the state of Haryana due to the greater area of onions being grown there. In the study multi stage purposive sampling was used. The current research concluded that the cost of production per quintal in the studied region was ₹594.62. The major cost incurred on items included rental value of land (₹17365.20), fertilizers (₹3948.41), plant protection (₹1479.28) and seed cost (₹8753.73), respectively. The average yield of onion was 126.53 quintals per acre. The average variable cost was ₹45401. The gross return per acre was ₹165754.30 and net return was recorded ₹90515.90 per acre. While channel-I was observed that to have the greatest disposal of onion produce, channel-III was determined to be the most effective of the different marketing channels. It was shown that onion producers might increase their profits up to six months of storage before they began to lose money. After 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months in storage, the farmer earned ₹125.89, ₹176.52, and ₹210.53 per quintal, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Value Chain Upgrading Strategies for Sustainable Coffee Industry:- A Visionary SWOT Approach

C. G. Yadava, M. Arun, K. M. Santhosha, B. H. Manohar, C. Chandrarekha, M. D. Gagana

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 232-244
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121786

The government of India believes boosting exports of agricultural commodities is a sure-shot way to enhance the farmer’s income in the country [1]. Indian coffee is primarily an export-oriented commodity with over 75 per cent of the annual production being exported to various destinations around the world [2]. Small coffee growers dominate coffee production in the country. The study comprised both qualitative and quantitative data collected for coffee value chain actors in Kodagu districts of Karnataka during the study period. The main objective of the study is to develop strategies to upgrade the value chain for the sustainable coffee industry. The results of the study indicate that value chains for coffee are largely diffuse, with limited coordination in terms of quality and specifications in the conventional chain. For up gradation in the value chain in the study area farmers has to adopt Branding and Labeling, value chain through bio-dynamic farming, Sale through direct auction, Collectivization, Direct Sale of ripe cherries to a Corporate, Internet Marketing, organic certification etc [1]. This study suggests that upgrading strategies could be difficult at the level of the chain without any institutional support. Hence, the government needs to develop policies for effortless adoption by the coffee planters of identified upgrading strategies.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Media and Variety on Seedling Root Growth and Field Performance of Early Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)

Nayanmoni Buragohain, S. Gogoi, U. Kotoky, D. B. Phookan, P. K. Barua, P. Kalita

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 245-253
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121787

An experiment was conducted inside greenhouse and in the field of the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat for two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) to assess the effect of sowing media and variety  on root growth of  early cauliflower seedling and subsequent performance of seedling  in the main field. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with eight treatments comprising of four sowing media [M1-cocopeat (60%): vermiculite (20%): perlite (20%), M2-cocopeat (50%): vermicompost (50%), M3-cocopeat (50%): vermicompost (50%): microbial consortium and M4-Conventional nursery] and two varieties [V1 (White Diamond) and V2 (CFL1522)] replicated thrice. Treatment M1, M2 and M3 were inside green house. The results revealed root parameters at seedling stage were significantly influenced by sowing media. The highest root length (4.94 cm), root fresh weight (0.26 mg) and root dry weight (0.07 mg) of seedling were recorded in M3. Between the two varieties (i.e V1 and V2) V1 exhibited the maximum root length (4.24 cm) while no significant difference was observed for root fresh and dry weight. Among interactions, M2V1 recorded maximum root length (5.83 cm) while M3V1 recorded maximum root fresh weight (0.28 mg) and dry weight (0.08 mg) of seedling. After transplanting in the field, significant variations for root parameters were observed. Cauliflower plants that were grown in M3 at seedling stage recorded highest root length (21.94 cm) and  volume (74.59 cm3) but for root dry weight  seedlings that were grown in Mrecorded maximum  dry weight i.e. 3.28 g. Variety V2 recorded maximum root length (17.76 cm) and dry weight (2.68 g).  M3V2   recorded highest root length (22.01 cm), volume (76.46 cm3) and dry weight (3.48 g). Curd characters were also significantly influence by media while variety showed significant variation for days to curd initiation, harvesting and curd diameter only. M3 recorded minimum days for curd initiation and harvesting (37.09 and 53.26), maximum curd compactness (53.05 g/cm3), diameter (12.84 cm), weight (0.41 kg) and shelf life (8.89 days).The interaction effect between media and variety was also found significant. The combination M3V1 recorded  minimum days  for curd initiation and harvesting ((36.55 and 52.32), maximum curd compactness (53.15 g/cm3)  while M3V2 recorded maximum curd  diameter (13.51 cm), curd weight (0.41 kg) and shelf life (9.50 days) .The  combination M4Vrecorded maximum days  for curd initiation and harvesting (45.46 and 63.87),minimum curd compactness (42.77 g/cm3)  and M4V1 recorded minimum curd diameter (10.28 cm), shelf life (4.95 days)  while  both  M4V1 and M4V2 recorded minimum curd weight (0.27 kg). From the present investigation it can be concluded that for producing quality seedlings in the nursery which will further show good performance in the field seedling can be raised in media(M3) i.e.cocopeat (50): vermicompost (50): microbial consortium @ 1:100 under protected condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Preferences, Perception, and Satisfaction about the Over-The-Top (OTT) Platforms/Players in Anand City, Gujarat, India

Dilip Rasiklal Vahoniya, Dhwani R. Darji, Sukanya Baruri, Jerul R. Halpati

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 254-264
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121788

Background: Movies and other audio and visual media have traditionally been consumed through outlets like theatres and television. The development of VHS, DVDs, Blu-rays, and disc rental services made technology readily available at home and whenever needed. Furthermore, Co-axial and fibre optic cables were used by cable television to provide the material. Direct-to-home (DTH) technology through satellite and dish communication, which offered high-quality broadcast and on-demand material straight to the consumer, emerged as another improved offering. With the advent of online streaming and Video on Demand (VoD) services, watching movies and TV shows has become more convenient. VoD refers to the streaming of video content via Over-The-Top (OTT) applications over the Internet (OTT). Any Internet-connected device, including a smartphone, smart TV, tablet, desktop computer, laptop, etc., can be used by viewers to access video content via OTT apps. Contrary to traditional media, streaming services present a variety of tales without censorship, box office, or audience restrictions. If the viewers have a reliable Internet connection, it provides a viewing experience with much-increased sound and visual quality [1].

Methodology: The article presents data obtained through personal interviews with help of a semi-structured Schedule from individual respondents of Anand city for OTT players.  The present study finds out the awareness and preferences for the purchase of OTT players and understands the perceptual map with the help of the Multi-Dimensional Scaling technique (MDS) of OTT players on different parameters like multiple devices and resolution of the video, and Price and subscription plan. This study also tries to find the out satisfaction of respondents towards different OTT players.

Results: The majority of the respondents were male, belonged to the age group of 15 to 25 years, represent nuclear family, and the majority of the respondents were students by an occupation. The majority of the respondents had an income between 30k to 40k. Out of 200 respondents, most of the respondents were aware of the OTT. Friends and relatives were the most common source of awareness for OTT platforms. OTT players like Netflix, Amazon Prime, Disney+Hotstar, YouTube Premium, MX Player, Zee 5, and Sony Liv had high awareness in the study area, and also the majority of respondents were preferring Amazon Prime, Disney+Hotstar, and Netflix for purchase because of their various services like multiple content categorization, multiple user account, and multiple subtitles, and video quality. The perceptual map also represents the perception of the respondents on the basis of different parameters like multiple devices and resolution of the video, and Price and subscription plan. Respondents were satisfied with the Quality of the video content of OTT, followed by their Multiple content and Language, Price, Downloading Speed, and multiple device support.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Adoption of Recommended Practices of Cotton Cultivation by the Cotton Farmer

Shivpal Singh, M. M. Patel

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 265-270
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121789

Aims: To know the adoption level of recommended cultivation practices of cotton crop.

Study Design: The research design used for this study was an Ex-post Facto.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh and duration 2020-2022.

Methodology: The study was conducted in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh a total of 200 farmers selected by following the proportionate random sampling technique. An interview schedule was prepared for collection data relating to the adoption of recommended practices by the respondents.

Results: The study, concludes that, with respect to the adoption, majority of the farmers (69.00%) had a medium level of adoption of recommended improved practices of cotton cultivation while, an equal number (15.50%) of the respondents had low and high level of adoption of the same practices. Among the socio-economic and personal, communication and psychological characteristics of the respondents, age, education, family size, family type, land holding, annual income, farm mechanization, extension participation, information seeking behaviour, cosmopoliteness, economic motivation, scientific orientation and risk orientation indicated significant association with the extent of adoption of the recommended practices of cotton.

Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the cotton growers were low adopted recommended cotton practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Information and Communication Center in Disseminating Agricultural Information in Bangladesh: Effects, Problems and Suggestions

S. B. Setu, M. S. Ali, M. H. Kabir

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 271-277
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121790

The government of Bangladesh established Agricultural Information and Communication Centre (AICC) to communicate with mass farmers quickly. This paper aimed at analyzing the direct and indirect effects of farmers selected characteristics on the effectiveness of AICC in disseminating agricultural information and identifying problem faced by the farmers in getting service from AICC and probable suggestions to overcome identified problems. Data were collected from randomly selected 90 farmers of Faridpur district, Bangladesh using a pre-tested interview schedule. Path analysis was applied to assess the direct and indirect effects of farmers’ selected characteristics on the effectiveness of AICC. On the other hand, Problem Faced Index (PFI) and Frequency of response was used to identify problem and suggestions. The analysis showed that farmers’ use of ICT had the highest direct effect (0.345) in the positive direction followed by ICT using experience (0.245) and ICT using confidence (0.237) on the effectiveness of AICC. The other variables have direct and indirect effects were ICT using confidence and ICT using experience.  Limited availability of ICT tools and technology in AICC were most severe problem followed by technical problems of different ICT based media in AICC and low bandwidth speed of internet. The study provided suggestions to increase the efficiency of the AICC in communicating agricultural information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of a Poultry Litter Raking Machine for Small Farms

V. G. Sunil, V. Sooraj, K. S. Swathy Suresh, Asish Benny

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 278-283
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121791

Poultry industries are one of the profitable agro-industries that can effectively tackle the growth of the economic sector. One of the more promising sources of biomass is poultry manure, which has the potential to be utilised as a green substitute for fossil fuels as well as a natural fertiliser and fuel for the production of biogas. The present paper discusses the developmental process of a new machine for poultry farms. The new machine can be used to rake the poultry litter on the floor bed of poultry farms at periodic intervals with ease of use and minimum disturbance to birds. The device or machine or arrangement, or apparatus can be used on poultry farms of all sizes under all seasons by people of all age groups. The paper also represents the steps followed in the identification of the need for the machine to the final level of commercialisation of the innovation. Experimentation has been carried out to compare the raking process both manually and using a litter raking machine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Efficiency of Major Spices in Madhya Pradesh with Special References to Farmer Producer Organization (FPOs)

Rajendra Singh Bareliya, Pradeep Kumar Patidar, Prem Ratan Pandey, Deepak Rathi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 284-289
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121792

Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) and NABARD are providing technical & financial support for promotion of FPOs. The Kutir Agri Producer Company Limited, Betul is basically a corporate body registered as a Producer Company under Companies Act, 1956. The total spices grower members 214 of FPO and by using proportionate (5:1) random sampling method subjected to minimum 50 sample respondents were selected. Marketing cost, producer’s share, price spread and marketing efficiency were analyzed. The Farmers sell their spices product to FPO at the rate of garam masala (₹29814.40), red chili (₹9674.42), coriander (₹8843.32) and turmeric (₹ 6639.25) per quintal respectively. The marketing cost is high on garam masala (₹4816.17), red chili (1859.47), coriander (₹1743.62) & turmeric (₹1645.66) Rs per quintal and absolute market margin on garam masala (₹4533.85), Red chili (₹1474.97), coriander (₹1350.81) and turmeric (₹1037.16) Rs quintal respectively. Producer share in consumer’s rupees 71.22 to 76.13 per cent in spices. The maximum profit is obtained by FPO in garam masala (₹2298.37), red chili (₹738.32), Coriander (₹675.24) and turmeric (₹512.11). Government of India and NABARD should be providing market platform and procure of processed spices to FPOs. Government should be available machineries at subsidized rate for processing of their spices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cluster Front Line Demonstration on Productivity and Yield Gap of Lentil in Kokrajhar District of Assam

Bhupen Kumar Baishya, Priyanka Bora, Manoj Kumar Bhuyan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 290-294
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121793

The Cluster Frontline Demonstration (CFLD) on lentil var.WBL-77 was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kokrajhar to find out the grain yield, technological gap, extension gap, and economics during 2020-21 and 2021-22. In both year, lentil variety WBL-77 was used in the demonstration plot and considering local variety as check in the farmer's plot. The result of the study revealed that the yield of lentil was found to be 10.0 q/ha and 9.50 q/ha, respectively under the demonstration plot as compared to 7.0 q/ha and 6.50 q/ha, respectively under the farmer's plot and the yield increased by 42.85 and 46.15 percent, respectively during the year, 2020-21 & 2021-22. The technology gap, extension gap and technology index were found to be 2.0 q/ha & 2.5 q/ha, 3.0 q/ha & 3.0 q/ha, 16.6 % & 20.83%, respectively during 2020-21 & 2021-22. The net return (Rs. 31314.00 /ha & Rs.34074.00 /ha, respectively during 2020-21 & 2021-22) and Benefit Cost ratio (2.59 & 2.87, respectively during 2020-21 & 2021-22) were found to be highest under demonstration plot in both the years. The results depict that the seed yield of lentil in the Kokrajhar district could be enhanced by using lentil var. WBL-77 over local variety and CFLD could be an effective tool to minimize yield gaps.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints and Suggestions Expressed by the Farmers toward Kisan Call Centre (KCC) Advisories

R. Puneeth Raja, K. Venkataranga Naika

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 295-301
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121794

Kisan Call Centre (KCC) is an ICT initiative with the core aim of answering farmers' queries through telephone call in their own dialect. KCC offering services at free of cost countrywide by dialling a common Toll-Free number 1800-180-1551. In this study, an attempt has been made to document the constraints faced by the KCC beneficiaries and seek their suggestions to overcome them in Chamarajanagar District of Karnataka during 2021-22. Totally 200 respondents were considered for the study and personal interview method was adopted for collection of data. The data was analysed using frequency and percentage analysis. The results revealed that, it is difficult to explain the symptoms of pests and diseases of plant over phone call (94.50%), is the major technical constraints and location specific needs of the farmer not solved by KCC officials (91.50%), are the technical and general constraints expressed by the KCC beneficiaries. KCC should provide the facility of snap chats wherever, it is required to understand symptoms in better way (90.50%) and The publicity and awareness programs to be organized to increase awareness about KCCs among farmers (97.00%) are the technical and general suggestion given by beneficiaries to overcome the constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decadal Change in Ground Water Utilization Pattern in West Bengal, India

Subhadip Pal, Agniswar Jha Chakraborty, Sk. M. Rahaman, Abhijit Kr. Nandi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 302-310
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121795

This research article is meant to highlight the topic present ground water utilization scenario of West Bengal, India. Contribution of irrigation structures for different minor irrigation censuses, irrigation potentiality, cropping pattern with the development of irrigation over time and the extent of use of ground water resources have included in the study. Secondary data on irrigation potentiality, cropping pattern, minor irrigation censuses over times has been assembled from Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) (Eastern Region), State water investigation directorate (SWID) and area on different crops is from the official statistics published time to time by public sources. In the study area, it has been found that utilizable water is much less than available water. The availability of surface water is more than groundwater. Gap between water demand and availability is more in southern districts of West Bengal. Per capita water available is decreasing as the population is increasing. In both the cases of culturable command area and gross irrigated area, irrigation through the surface water sources has shown negative growth rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multidimensional Food Security Index: A Comprehensive Approach

Janvier Kini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 317-331
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121798

The major challenge in measuring food and nutrition security is to provide policymakers with a single comprehensive measure that is valid, reliable, comparable over time and space, and captures all various elements of food security. Several indicators have been developed for this purpose. However, most of these indicators appear to be limited in capturing all aspects of food and nutrition security, and a comprehensive approach to this measurement requires further investigation. This study introduced a multidimensional food security index for this debate. This index was applied using survey data from 1832 households in Burkina Faso. The study concludes that policymakers should avoid using the easiest and incomplete approaches in measuring food and nutrition security if they expect to know the real situation on the ground.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Preference of Consumers in Selection of Designer Bags

Poonam Singh, Pragya Ojha, N. R. Meena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 332-338
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121799

A designing of bag used in different materials and size. Colour and design have been used to enhance the intrinsic beauty of textiles from ancient time. It is believed that ornamentation by material and size developed earlier than the use of bags itself. Design is the knowledgeable selection and application of the basic art elements i.e. line, shape, colour and texture to produce a unified expressive visual statement. The present study was conducted to develop designs for bags suitable for materials and technique. Created works were got decorative bags were selected from each category. Material and designing work is a beautiful art form of skilled women. The objective of present study was to carry out the documentation of design from material and techniques used to develop innovative techniques work. The effort was targeted to words fining the possibility of applying material and techniques on bags utilizing the needle and threads works among the total fifteen innovative designed bags the materials and designing techniques preferred by the experts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Skill Development of Students for Economic Empowerment

Poonam Singh, Pragya Ojha, N. R. Meena

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 339-343
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121800

A study was conducted in College of Home Science, Department of Family Resource Management and Consumer Science organized skill development classes for the economic empowerment of the students. These classes are geared towards the needs of students in a particular context keeping in view their social needs, culture and geographic realities. The present study was carried out to enhance the economic empowerment of students of Kumarganj through skill development. A Total 124 respondents participated in the study. Primary data were collected through interview schedule. Results revealed that about 80 percent of the respondents improved their skills in functional and decorative crafts while 87 percent respondents contributed to family income. Following a skill development programme, 70% of respondents agreed that they had improved their leadership and communication skills. The findings indicated that organising students into self-help groups was a relevant strategy for empowering them, as poor students expressed a strong tendency to derive strength from being a member of the group. The intervention of Family Resource Management and consumer science had a positive impact on students' functional status. It was observed that there is a perfect fit between skills, resource available, technological options and marketing avenues.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Socio-Personal Profile of Daesi Input Dealers

B. Jhansi, M. Ragini, Jaya Laxmi B. Pawar, Surekha Sankanagoudar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 344-351
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121801

The present study was conducted in Kolar district of Karnataka during the year 2021. A total of 90 input dealers who have undergone DAESI training programme were purposely selected. Data was collected through pre – tested interview schedule and analyzed through frequency and percentage, mean and standard deviation, indices and correlation. The results from the study indicated that, majority 63.33 per cent of the input dealers belonged to young age group category (18-30 years), high majority 96.67 per cent of the input dealers were male respondents and 03.33 per cent of them were female. More than half 53.33 per cent of the input dealers educated up to graduations and above. Whereas occupation of the input dealers, about 40.00 per cent of the input dealers primary occupation was agriculture and secondary occupation 26.67 per cent respectively. Annual income of the input dealers, indicted that nearly half of the respondents (46.67%) annual income was 0-1, 00,000. High majority 95.56 per cent of them were retailers, 03.33 per cent of them were wholesalers and 01.11 per cent of them were retailers and wholesalers. The results from the study also concluded that, high majority of the respondents were retailers (95.56%), and 03.33 per cent of them were wholesalers followed by retailers and wholesalers (01.11%). Majority 64.44 per cent the input dealers sold seeds, 46.67 per cent of them sold fertilizers, 41.11 per cent of them sold agriculture implements, 28.89 per cent of them sold pesticides and 10.00 per cent of them bio-fertilizers. More than half of the respondents (53.33%) belonged to medium level of social media participation. Nearly half of the respondents (46.67%) belonged to medium level of source of information. Cent per cent of the respondents belonged to high level of achievement motivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID 19 on Agricultural Sector in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, India

V. Deepthi, E. Karuna Sree, K. Venkata Subbaiah, T. Vijaya Nirmala, A. Devivaraprasad Reddy, G. Shaliraju, J. Venkata Satish, J. V. Prasad

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 352-359
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121802

This study was formulated to know the impact of COVID-19 on agriculture and allied sectors in Krishi Vigyan Kendra Operational areas in West Godavari District.  Ex-post facto design of research was used. Data was collected from 60 farmers. Interview schedule as well as questionnaire was developed in the form of Google on set of question related to impact of COVID 19 on horticulture sector, food sector and livestock sector. Normal descriptive statistics (frequency & per centage) was used. During the study it observed that in horticulture sector harvesting of major fruits and vegetable crops have been affected due labour shortage. Impact of COVID 19 in case of food crops is harvesting of major food crop (paddy) was completed due to mechanization but the labour unavailability has increased the labour cost and cost of cultivation of crops. In livestock sector, feed and concentrate availability were major affected areas followed by non-availability of veterinary services, shortage of fish seed, feed and transportation. 86.66 per cent of farmers reported that the government has announced relief measures and supply ration to poor ration card holders including farmers and farm women get 5 kg of rice and one Kg of pulses free of cost every month during lockdown period. 86.66 per cent farmers suggested that quality seed, fertilizers, pesticides supply from the government on subsidy basis followed by Provide MSP for produce and government directly procure the produce from farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Perception of Access and Use of Modern Information Communication Technologies in Enhancing Smallholder Tea Production in Kakamega County, Kenya

Gideon Atsango, Evans L. Chimoita, Lucy Karega Njeru

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 360-372
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121803

The smallholder tea sector in Kenya forms the second-largest agricultural exporter after horticulture, contributing 4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Modern communication technologies (MCTS) are key in supporting production, processing and marketing across the tea sector value chain. Despite the availability of all these technologies, their access and use by smallholder tea farmers for production and tea auction price monitoring are still minimal. Further, farmers’ perception of access and use of modern communication technologies is not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate smallholder farmers’ perceptions on access and use of modern communication technologies in enhancing tea production in Shinyalu subcounty.The study was anchored on diffusion of innovation that emphasizes on the five attributes of an innovation. The study evaluated the farmers’ perception of access and use of MCTs. The study adopted a descriptive research design where fisher’s formula was used to get 162 out of 1,600 smallholder tea farmers who were systematically sampled and interviewed. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Likert perception test scale was also used test perception statements. The data was cleaned and analyzed in form of frequencies and percentages and chi-square The results established that majority of the tea farmers (36%) had acquired basic literacy levels of education to use modern technologies in tea production. It also established that modern technologies such as smartcard technology 78%, mobile phone text messages 62% and personal digital assistants 61% were the most essential tools for enhancing access to farm inputs, market information and tea management information. However, extension agents 61% played a complementary role in unpacking and linking modern tea technologies from the source to farmers. A positive association was revealed between farmers’ literacy level and the use of MCTs, which influenced access to MCT. The study, recommended re-tooling agricultural information dissemination agents and farmers on the existing MCT to enhance effective communication, promoting tea production yields and accessing market information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors to Consider Tourists in Visiting Recreational Forest Tourism at Perum Perhutani East Java

Taufik Setyadi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 373-378
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121804

The objective of this research was to understand some factors considered by the visitors of ecotourism recreational forest at Perum Perhutani East Java before deciding visiting the places and to obtain the describtions of the visitors characteristics.  This research was conducted in Coban Rondo recreational forest in Malang East Java, with the respondent number of 200 persons.  Reliability and Validity was 0,79 and 0,7, so it was concluded that the sample was sufficiently valid and reliable. The result showed that the visitors generally consist of teenagers and young families which have 2 until 3 children. The most favourite activities of the visitors were commonly ecotourism and sport outdoor.  So, they generallyknew about recreational forest and made the recreational forest as the main destination.  Some of the knew about the recreational forest from internet, their friends from social media, and from their family.  They were impressed by the beauty of the forest and willing to come back in the future with their friends and families again.  Most of them spent their money and their holidays to visits this areas to get some peace, and to get healing from forests and etc.

Families and friends were their partners in visiting the area of the tourism at recreational forest.  The decision to visit was made together and they ride their cars to got to the areas.

There were 16 factors (chosen from 20 factors variabels) which were combined as the new 6 factors influencing the visits of recreational forest. The factors which considred by the visitors to visit the recreational forest were: qualities of the site, services factors, facility factors, information and acces factors, promotions factors, and price factors. Nevertheless, quality factors were the dominant factors considered by the visitors with eigen value 4,476 and total variables explained of 12,827 %.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Perceived by Dairy Cooperative Society Members in Dungarpur, Rajasthan

Virendra Singh, Gara Ram Saini

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 379-382
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121805

The present study was carried out in purposively selected Dungarpur district of Rajasthan to find out the constraints perceived by Dairy Cooperative Society members. A total of 120 respondents were selected and interviewed personally through a structured interview schedule. Results of the study revealed that lack of awareness about credit facilities provided by the Government and milk unions for rearing cattle (60.00%), lack of affordability to purchase feed additives and concentrates (58.33%), high cost of veterinary medicines (53.33%), low income from dairying (50.00%)  and inadequate space for office of DCS (50.00%) were found to be ‘most serious constraints’. While, lack of cooperation among DCS members (43.33%), lack of physical facilities at meeting place (43.33%), technical inability in handling ICT tools (43.33%),  inequality in issuing loans (41.67%) and non availability of fodder seeds (41.67%) were recognized as ‘serious constraints’. Non availability of high yielding varieties of fodder crops (40.0%) and non sharing information about financial activities in DCS with members (36.67%) considered as ‘less serious constraints’ and long duration of meeting was perceived as ‘not a constraint’ by most of the respondent. It was also found that economic constraints were a mean score of 3.11 followed by technological constraints (3.03), organizational constraints (2.66) and infrastructural constraints (1.83).

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency and Constraints of Cotton Production in Odisha, India

M. K. Das, K. K. Sarangi, S. N. Mishra, B. P. Mohapatra, A. Dash

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 383-389
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121806

The present study entitled "Analysis of resource use efficiency and constraints of cotton production in Odisha" was undertaken with the major objectives to analyse resource use efficiency in cotton cultivation and to elicit the constraints faced by the farmers in production and marketing of cotton in the study area. This study used both secondary and primary data. Multi-stage random sampling was taken for this study. The districts selected for study were Kalahandi, Balangir and Rayagada of Odisha state. A total number of 120 cotton farmers i.e 71 farmers from small and 49 farmers from large size groups were selected at random based on probability proportion. Analytical tools like Tabular analysis, Cobb-Douglas production function and Garrett’s ranking were used for the analysis. Cobb-Douglas production function was used taking Y i.e. yield of cotton as dependent variable and X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 i. e. for total human labour, farm power cost, manure cost, fertilizer cost, cost of pesticides, area under the crop respectively as independent variable. Among these variables, fertilizer, pesticide, human labour and machine labour were positive and significant for small farmers and manure, fertilizer, pesticide and machine labour were positive and significant for large farmers. Most of the significant resources were proved to be efficient. The major constraints in cotton yield as reported by farmers were high cost of labour, high cost of seeds, lack of regulated markets etc. in the study area. For the sustainable growth of cotton crop in the state, timely policy interventions were required by promoting contract farming and providing price incentives, so that cotton farmers of Odisha will get better profit for their crop and prosperity of agriculture in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of the Agrochemicals Industry in SPSR Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh

Venkat Naveen, Snehal Mishra, Montu Bhatiya, Sahil Gondaliya, Vishal Vaghasiya, Denish Zalavadiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 390-394
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121807

The study entitled “An Analysis of Agrochemicals Industry in SPSR Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh” was taken up with basic objectives to study the competitors and the reason for the success of the top companies in the market. The study was conducted in the SPSR Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. The stipulated objectives of the study were achieved by using both primary and secondary data. The primary survey was done with the help of a semi-structured Schedule. The sampling consisted of 210 farmers and 70 dealers who are from the major towns in the district. The major crop is Paddy as major parts of the district receive the rainfall with both southwest and northeast monsoon. Farmers are showing interest in pesticides which are giving more results than the price and availability. The major market of the district is occupied by Bayer Crop Science Ltd, Adama Ltd, Dhanuka Agritech Limited, FMC, and Corteva Agrisciences. The Total market size was nearly INR 250 crores. The reason for the success of Bayer crop Science Ltd and Adama Ltd is a strong distributor relationship. The reason for the success of Dhanuka Agritech Limited is due to the presence of more sales staff and their monitoring of sales by visiting shops at regular intervals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Profile of Vegetable Growers in the Amaravati Division of Maharashtra, India

Karukumalli Sindhura, V. S. Tekale, Pranali N. Thakre

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 402-409
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121809

India is an agriculture-based economy, known for possessing its own rich and diverse knowledge about cultivation practices. There has been a rise in the demand for fruits and vegetables by 2-3 percent per annum in recent years. In the background of this market trends, it requires no special emphasis to state that resorting to vegetable cultivation is widely considered as a highly profitable option amongst farming community in India. The present study attempts to scrutinize the socio-economic profile of vegetable growers in the Amaravati division of Maharashtra State. The study was conducted in 10 villages located at Akola and Amravati districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. An exploratory research design of social research was used for conducting the study. The data was collected from 20 respondents by personally interviewing them with the help of structured interview schedule. Information obtained from them was carefully examined, classified, quantified and tabulated. Frequencies, mean, standard deviation were employed for interpreting the results. The findings revealed that, the majority (48.33%) of the vegetable growers were middle aged. High proportion of the respondents (37.50%) were educated up to higher secondary school category (10th to 12th standard). Nearly half (47.50%) of the respondents were having medium family size category (5-6 farmers).  Most of the respondents (30.00%) had annual income between Rs. 2,00,001 to 3,00,000/-.  High proportion of the vegetable growers (45.83%) possessed semi-medium category of land holding (2.01 to 4.00 ha). Nearly half (46.67%) of the vegetable growers had 0.81 to 1.60 ha area under vegetables. Nearly three fourth (65.00%) of the respondents had above 20 years of experience in vegetable cultivation. Most of the respondents (55.83%) belonged to medium category of social participation. Nearly three fourth (77.50%) of the respondents always share information with needy people. Majority (56.67%) of the respondents were having medium source of information. More than half (64.17%) of the respondents were having medium level of Innovativeness. Nearly three fourth (72.50%) of the respondents had medium category of risk orientation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Profile of Farmers of North Eastern Haryana with Reference to Over-exploitation of Irrigation Resources

. Shubham, Rati Mukteshawar, A. K. Rohila, P. K. Chahal, B. S. Ghanghas, Rohtash Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 410-415
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121810

Aim: The main aim of this study was to ascertain the socio-economic profile of farmers in North Eastern Haryana, in relation to over-exploitation of irrigation resources.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the purposively selected five districts of Haryana state due to the intensification and extensiveness of agricultural practices in recent times. .

Methodology: The data were collected from 150 respondents comprising 15 respondents from randomly selected ten villages through a well-prepared interview.

Results: The study revealed that majority of respondents belonged to the middle age group, 34.00 per cent of the respondents had the level of education up to matric only, more than two-thirds of respondents were living in joint families, nearly half of the respondents had medium size family, majority of respondents had farming as major occupation, nearly one third of respondents had the medium size land holding, most of the respondents were following only double cropping pattern, most of the respondents were using only tubewell/borewell/submersible for irrigation, all respondents were using only flood irrigation method, vast majority of respondents had only natural pond as a water conservation structure, more than half of respondents had the medium level of mass media exposure, and majority of respondents had high level of extension contacts and high level of perception.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Jeevika Sakhi of Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission on Improving Livelihoods of Rural Poor in Assam, India

Bidisha Bora, U. Barman, H. Saikia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 416-423
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121811

Introduction: Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihood Mission in Assam introduced a community resource person, Jeevika Sakhi, to facilitate the Self-help Groups formed under the mission. Jeevika Shakhis helps the rural poor until they can support themselves.

Objectives: (i)To determine the performance of Jeevika Shakhi's role under DAY-NRLM, (ii) to find out the impact of Jeevika Sakhi's intervention on the livelihood of SHG members, and (iii) to assess SHG members' development perceptions after Jeevika Sakhi's intervention.

Methodology: The location of the study was Balipara Development Block of Sonitpur district of Assam, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted for which data were collected from 150 respondents. The data was collected from April 2022 to June 2022. For the analysis of data, descriptive statistics and Difference -in Difference method were applied.

Results and Discussion: The results show that all the Jeevika Sakhis could not perform all the designated roles. However, there were positive changes in SHG members' income after the introduction of Jeevika Sakhis. A positive development was found in the case of the SHG members of DAY-NRLM after the intervention of Jeevika Shakhi

Conclusion: The study revealed a need for capacity building of Jeevika Sakhis, which will improve the performance of the Jeevika Sakhis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Banana Supply Chain: A Case Study of Vadodara City of Gujarat

Vishal Vaghasiya, Snehal Mishra, Montu Bhatiya, Sahil Gondaliya, Naveen Venkat, Denish Zalavadiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 424-429
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121812

The supply chain begins with acquiring fundamental raw materials and ends with delivering the finished product to the consumer. The growing interest in Agricultural Supply Chain Management (ASCM) can be attributed to two main factors: agricultural industrialization and the uncertainty brought on by differences in product quality and safety. The study objective was to identify different marketing channels of banana in Vadodara city, to estimate the price spread of banana and to identify problems faced by producers and intermediaries. Primary data were collected from 40 farmers, 15 wholesalers and 25 retailers to accomplish these objectives. Secondary data were collected from different private and government publications, review papers, literature, and journals. For the study descriptive type of research design was used. In the research sampling method was non-probability sampling method and sampling technique was convenience sampling technique were used. Channel-IV was the most effective way to reach consumers because it has the shortest route. Channel-I was less effective than the others because its marketing cost was the highest. The study reveals that the existing supply chain has a serious problem of lower prices faced by farmers. A significant problem for wholesalers is the lack of a ripening chamber. The major problem for retailers is that they suffer from higher post-harvest losses due to the lack of storage facilities, forcing them to sell products quickly to maximize profits and minimize losses. After doing certain changes like developing a ripening facility in marketing channel IV company may adopt this channel because its channel has the highest marketing efficiency and more share of producer in consumer rupee. To overcome these problems, there is a need to develop infrastructures, cold storage facilities, set up ripening chambers, processing facilities and use refrigerated vehicles for long-distance transportation, etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Extent of Farmers Towards Improved Radish Production Technology in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

Ritesh Singh, R. K. Doharey, N. R. Meena, Anurag Shankar Singh, Vishal Yadav

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 436-440
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121816

Radish is an important source of nutrition in our diet. Although farmers in eastern uttar pradesh are growing radish for a long time many farmers are lacking good knowledge of radish and its new varieties production practices. The study was conducted to know the level of knowledge of production practices among radish cultivating farmers of the eastern uttar pradesh region. A personal interview was conducted with hundred and fifty farmers those were selected through proportionate random sampling technique from ten selected village panchayat on the basis of fifteen farmers from each village panchayat. Highest knowledge level was observed in sowing time and irrigation management (100 per cent) followed by, field preparation (82.67 per cent), harvesting (80.66 per cent), weed management (74.00 per cent), high yielding varieties (72.00 per cent), plant protection measure (70.00 per cent), fertilizer application (68.67 per cent), spacing (68.00 per cent), inter cropping (61.33 per cent), plant growth regulator (50.67 per cent), respectively. Total knowledge index was calculated to be 74.67 per cent. Out of sixteen variables i.e., caste, education, material possession, risk orientation, scientific motivation, extension contact, awareness and adoption were found highly significant and positively correlated with knowledge at 0.05 % of significance level. The variables age is also highly significant but negatively correlated with knowledge level. Variables like annual income, marital status, land holding, type of family, size of family and social participation were found not significant but positively correlated with knowledge level. Only one variable economic motivation was found not significant and negatively correlated with knowledge level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends and Market Integration of Kharif Sorghum in Beed District of Maharashtra

Vishakha A. Chopade, Digamber S. Perke, Shriniwas V. Bharti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 441-446
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121817

Sorghum cultivation has declined over the period of time farmer’s turned to production high lucrative cereals such as rice, wheat, corn, pulses and competitive crops like oilseeds and cotton. The District Statistic Board of  Beed has reported that the cultivation area for Kharif Sorghum in the year 2020 to 2021 were 7194 hectors and 481 kg per hector respectively. The time series data of sorghum arrivals and prices were collected from APMCs Beed, Dharur and Parli during the period 2001-2020 to study the growth and market integration of selected markets.  The trends and annual compound growth rate in arrivals and prices of Kharif Sorghum was calculated by using linear and exponential form respectively where as Market integration was worked out by estimating Bivariate correlation analysis. The present study reported that Beed market has positive annual growth rate, while in Dharur and Parli markets has negatively significant annual growth rate in Kharif Sorghum arrivals. Beed, Dharur and Parli markets showed positive and non-significant growth rate in prices of Kharif Sorghum. The said study also revealed that there was strong association of sorghum prices among the selected markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of the Rural People on Different Digital Applications, Sites and Channels

Munmi Boruah, Sayanika Borah, H. C. Kalita

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 447-453
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121818

Digital literacy provides many opportunities for growth and advancement of the people which is essential to survive in the current tech-dominated world. The present study was conducted with the objective of finding out the socio-economic status of the respondents and to assess the awareness of the rural people on different digital applications, sites and channels. The study was conducted on 120 members of Jorhat and Golaghat District of Assam. Results of the study showed that 70.83 per cent of the respondents belonged to the medium level of socio-economic status and among different digital applications sites and channels in different categories, DD Kishan (Agricultural), Facebook (Social media), ArogyaSetu (Health), Google meet (Videoconferencing), Google Pay (Finance) and Flipkart (online shopping) were found to be more popular as compared to others in their categories.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Feasibility Study of Custom Hiring Service of Farm Machinery at Kanker District of Chhattishgarh

Narendra H. Tayade, Surendra V. Jogdand

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 454-460
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121819

The study has evaluated the contribution of Custom Hiring Centres (CHCs) towards improving the economic viability of farming in Kanker district of Chhattisgarh. Model of custom hiring is very useful for providing the services of farm machinery for agricultural operation such as seedbed preparation, sowing, harvesting and threshing within a short period. Study is conducted to know the economic feasibility of the custom hiring services of farm machinery in all blocks of the Kanker district.  Survey was carried out through gathering the information of 30 custom hiring centres owners in addition to beneficiaries (138 cultivators) of this custom hiring centers. It was found that 38.4 % small cultivators avail the services of custom hiring centre followed by 31.88 % marginal, 15.94 % large, and 13.76 medium cultivators respectively. It was also noted that profit per investment of tractor among all the farm machinery was highest but other machinery such as rotavator, plough, cultivator, reaper, seed drill and thresher was also profitable to the farmers. Disc plough has negative value of profit per investment which indicates that these implement cause loss on the initial investment. The return on investment from machinery does not depend on its initial cost mainly but it depends   upon the annual usage it. The success of the CHC in the district will help in reducing debt-burden of the farmers by bringing down costs of operations and improving economic viability of farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Educational Stress of Student during Lockdown Period that Inturn Shapes Their Career

Priyanka Pandey, Neelma Kunwar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 461-465
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121820

The entire world is going through a crisis on account of the Global Pandemic. After the surge in the cases in the early March 2020, the policy makers, the doctors, and the experts in the field of Virus Epidemiology took a call of nation -wide lock down. Since, there is no immediate cure available, physical distancing is seen as the only solution to curb the spread that could create a panic. The nationwide lockdown has consequences on various spheres of public life, government, and informal sectors and also on the education sector. The lockdown has resulted in schools, college universities being shut for more than a month now. The academic session in the schools was about to end and examinations had started in some schools and some were in the middle of the examination process. Universities work in full swing during this time of the year as it is the time for semester assessments and completion of the syllabus is on wheels. Educational institutes across the length and breadth of the country are temporarily closed to contain the spread of Corona infection. The decision of the Government needs to be appreciated as the schools and other educational institutes cater to the younger, dynamic, and most productive chunk of our population and it is the duty of the Government to protect the youth and hence the closure was inevitable. It is also becoming increasingly clear that the present lockdown is not going to end soon as the infection rate is escalating in almost all states.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Agriculture Technology: Extent of Adoption & Constraints Faced by Farmers of Madhya Pradesh, India

Shrishti Bilaiya, N. K. Khare, Ankita Sahu, Jitendra Patidar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 466-474
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121821

Increase in human population and vigorously changing climate leading to declining natural resource are the emerging challenges for the world's agricultural systems, which need to produce more food for the increasing population. Therefore, change in our conventional agriculture practice is required by adapting practices or technology helping in coping up with the changing climate and sustainably using the resources for future productivity gains and Conservation Agriculture (CA) Technology is one of the best alternative. CA is a resource conservation practice which improves biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface and includes a trifecta of no-till or minimum-till or zero-till farming, permanent soil cover and crop rotations which have existed for nearly a century, but its uptake has generally been slow and uneven. Present study was conducted at state Madhya Pradesh of India using ex-post facto research design to find out the extent of adoption along with the constraints faced by the farmer in adoption of this decade older technology. The study revealed that despite the proven benefits of CA, its adoption rate is very slow in the region. Further, majority of the farmers had moderate knowledge of CA but were afraid to adopt it completely. The major reason witnessed were complexity of CA in comparison to conventional agriculture, lack of awareness of this technology among farmers and high cost and unavailability of happy seeder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Red Gram (Cajanus cajan L) Production Technologies Advised by the KVK Jammikunta in Karimnagar District of Telangana State, India

N. Venkateshwar Rao, P. K. Jain, N. Kishore Kumar, M. Jagan Mohan Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 475-478
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121822

The study conducted at KVK Jammikunta of Telangana State along with its 15 adopted villages was selected for the study. A sample of 60 Red gram growing farmers who are adopting the KVK technologies and 30 Red gram farmers who are not covered under KVK production technologies were selected from the adopted villages. Present paper highlights the impact of Red gram production technologies in terms of adoption quotient, productivity and profitability in Karimnagar district of Telangana State. High impact in terms of adoption quotient, productivity and profitability   of red gram production technologies is observed among the KVK Jammikunta adopted farmers compared to the non adopted farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Paddy (Oryza sativa L) Production Technologies Advised by the KVK Jammikunta in Karimnagar District of Telangana State, India

N. Venkateshwar Rao, P. K. Jain, N. Kishore Kumar, M. Jagan Mohan Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 479-482
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121823

The present paper highlights the impact of paddy production technologies in terms of adoption quotient, productivity and profitability in Karimnagar district of Telangana State (Formerly Andhra Pradesh). High impact in terms of adoption quotient, productivity and profitability of paddy production technologies is observed among the KVK Jammikunta adopted farmers compared to the non adopted farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Credit Pattern of Small and Marginal Farmers in Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

V. Mohanraj, P. Balasubramaniam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 488-495
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121825

Finance is the lifeblood of any business same way credit is the lifeblood of agriculture. Without credit, farmers cannot do farming activities. Hence the Primary Agricultural Credit Co-operative Societies provide credit to farm and non-farm activities in rural areas to improve agriculture. The adequate and timely availability of credit at reasonable rates is crucial for agricultural development. The study is based on households’ survey conducted in six blocks from three districts viz., Ammapettai and Orathanadu blocks of Thanjavur district, Needamangalam and Mannargudi blocks of Thiruvarur district, Kilvelur and Thirumarugal blocks of Nagapattinam district. Two villages from each block were selected purposively based on more area under rice cultivation. Sample size of 366 farmers which consisted of 183 marginal and 183 small farmers was selected randomly based on proportionate random sampling method. The data were statistically tabulated and analyzed by calculating simple percentages and cumulative square root frequency method for categorization. Nearly one-fourth of the farmers (24.86%) had low level of credit orientation followed by 23.50 per cent had very low level, 21.58 per cent had high level, 15.03 per cent of farmers had medium and very high level of credit orientation. The small farmers having high credit orientation than marginal farmers, the most of the small farmer’s occupational status was farming and business. They utilize credit for their farm, household and non-farm activities. More than three-fifth of the marginal farmers (63.39%) sometimes relying on individual moneylenders for their credit source followed by 45.36 per cent of small farmers sometimes rely on individual money lenders for their credit source and more than half of the farmers (54.37%). Most of the marginal and small farmers were having low to medium level of income category, they depend on banks, co-operative societies and money lenders for their credit source. Mostly they allocate equal percentage of loan for the farm and household expenses. The policy makers can make note of the utilization pattern of agricultural credit and can give directions on the lending terms and conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upheaving Livelihood Avenues through Mushroom Cultivation: Assessment of Knowledge Domain in Trainees of Malappuram District as Training Effectiveness Indicator

Lilia Baby, V. K. Jasna, V. N. Dhanalakshmi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 496-500
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121828

Mushroom cultivation as an enterprise seeks to circumvent constraints of land availability reining the livelihood opportunities. Capacity building programme on cultivation of oyster and milky mushroom was conducted for farmers of Malappuram district, Kerala to inculcate entrepreneurial urge. Data from ninety trainees of two batches were analysed to assess their knowledge gain on various aspects of mushroom cultivation. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data on socio economic profile and a knowledge test was conducted to measure the change in knowledge employing a before-after method of comparison. The comparison testified a significant improvement in the knowledge domain of the trainees with respect to mushroom cultivation. Maximum gain in knowledge (94.44% and 93.33%) was observed for harvesting practices of mushrooms and identification of mushroom species, respectively. The study thus suggests training is a pivotal activity to improve the knowledge component, which serves as a spring board for their entrepreneurial endeavours in mushroom.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Constraining Farmer’s Adoption of the E-National Agriculture Market (eNAM) in Sultanpur District of Uttar Pradesh

Sandeep Gautam, . Supriya, Aditya Bhooshan Srivastava, Diksha Bohra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 501-506
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121830

The study attempt to analyse the constraints faced by the farmers and traders in the adoption of eNAM in the Sultanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. Data were collected by personal interview with 90 farmers and 30 traders in the district as the survey schedule were prepared. The methodology were used to analyse the constraints faced by the farmers and traders in the adoption of eNAM is Garrett’s ranking technique in terms of ranks and total mean (score). This study reveal that major constraints faced by the farmers in the adoption of  eNAM were they need cash payment to meet immediate expenses (I), strong trust in physical presence for selling (II), problems regarding receiving payments for produce, and lack of faith on the online transaction(III), difficulties in the online payment process(IV), Farmers were uncomfortable using technology/computers(V), digital payments were a barrier in repayment of informal loans taken (VI), etc. in case of traders the major constraints were faced by them in the adoption of eNAM i.e. high transportation cost(I), management problems of produce unsold (II), complaints settlement(III), fear of invasion by large traders (IV), insufficient number of computer operators (V), difficulty in getting a license (VI), etc. were the major constraints which had a great impact in adoption of e-NAM among farmers and traders. Therefore government should take some steps regarding the awareness of farmers that they faced significant challenges due to complicated and time consuming methods of trading in the eNAM system.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Insight into the Level of Technology Adoption of Farmers of Jhelum Rice Variety in Kashmir Valley

N. Siddardha , S. Hyma Jyothi , M. H. Wani

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 507-512
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121832

This work is centered around the adoption level of Jhelum rice variety among the farmers in Kashmir Valley. The data collected from 120 respondents from four Jhelum growing districts (Badgam, Kulgam, Pulwama and Anantnag) has been subjected to Technology Adoption Index (TAI) to analyze the adoption level, and Multivariate Linear Regression Model to analyze its determinants. It has been found that farmers used excess seed material by 207.67 per cent, DAP and Urea by 28.00 and 10.82 per cent respectively. MOP use was recorded 3.69 per cent less than the recommended level, which stands one of the contributing factors of blast incidences in some farms. Incremental yield of 20.92 per cent was observed over the expected, which could be attributed mostly due to increased crop density rather than efficient production resulting from optimally dense farms. Regression analysis results have indicated that education level, experience and family labor of the respondents, coefficients of which were reported at 10.76, 0.56 and o.34 respectively, had a significant positive influence on TAI. Based on the results obtained, extension activities directed towards educating progressive farmers about Jhelum’s package of practices is suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Sugarcane Farming and Jaggery Production in Narsinghpur District of Madhya Pradesh vis-a-vis Growers' Characteristics and Economic Motivations

Prashant Singh Kourav , Kamini Bisht , P. K. Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 522-530
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121836

The study was conducted in the Narsinghpur district of Madhya Pradesh, encompassing all five tehsils of the district. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of sugarcane growers were middle-aged and had a graduation degree. The average land holding size was medium and the area cultivated for sugarcane production was also 1.01 to 2.00 hectares. Sugarcane growers had medium-level experience in cultivation and processing, and the average size of their jaggery unit was medium. They earned medium income from both jaggery and sugarcane sales, and sold jaggery primarily through commission agents at the regular market yard. Approximately 67.67% of the growers had received training in sugarcane production technology, while 85.78% had received training in processing and value addition. The average jaggery unit had medium functionality and employed 15 workers. Over 80% of the growers stated that the profitability in processing sugarcane was the main reason for their diversion towards processing and value addition.

Open Access Review Article

Analyzing the adoption of Bt Cotton in India

Saikat Mukherjee, Chitrasena Padhy, S. Sai Sruti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 311-316
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121797

Cotton production has been very much bountiful in the regions of india, circling the states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. The hybrid line of Bt cotton has many advantages like of resisting jassids, aphids and pink bollworm which poses a big economic threat to the production. Bt cotton led the development of “gene revolution” in India. The HD-SS gene variety of Bt cotton enhanced profits and reduced seed and insecticides cost. Along with uplifting the food security of the nation its has also quite negative effects which are mainly making the respective soil exhaustive after the harvest, some soils are claimed to be non-preferable  for the production and also creating a ill-commotion in the cattle. Bt crops releases a sort of Bt toxins which lowers the soil chemical and biological activity. The adoption rate of the Bt cotton has been majorly found in the northern states of India with the farmers and the stakeholders being having a large portion of the land. During the 2014, it was being observed in the rate of adoption of Bt cotton shown a very drastic increase and also the shape of the graph formed a Roger’s “S” Shaped curve. The farm science centres (KVKs), proved itself to be the most influencing and playing a major role  in the demonstration of ipm (integrated pest management) of the Bt cotton through trainings, front line demonstration (FLD), on farm trials (OFT) and other extension activities which enhanced the overall development of Bt cotton.

Open Access Review Article

Intensification of Forage Production and Quality Parameters: A Review

Suffiya Wani , Raihana Habib Kanth , Rayees Ahmad Tantry

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Volume 40, Issue 12, Page 513-521
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2022/v40i121834

India supports nearly 20 per cent of the world’s livestock population on just 2.2 per cent of the world’s geographical area. The fodder production in the country is not sufficient to meet the requirement of growing livestock population and country faces a net deficit of 61.1% in green fodder, 21.9% in dry crop residues and 64% in feeds. This puts a tremendous pressure to increase fodder and forage production to meet the diet demands of increasing livestock population. Intensification of fodder and forage can be done by increasing productivity per unit area that can be achieved by integration of fodder crops in the cropping systems as intercrops, round the year forage production and introduction of fodder and forage crops in tree crops as alley crops. In addition to the intensification, the quality parameters of forage are equally important to be stressed upon. Important components that determine forage quality include fats, carbohydrates, crude protein, percent dry matter, pH etc. Anti-Nutritional Factors (ANF) in plants reduce the intake or nutrient utilization and determines the extent of uing those plants a fodder for livestock. The presence of anti- nutritional components viz., nitrates, tannins, oxalates, mimosine, cyanogens, Saponins, BOAA ( Benzo-Oxalic Acetic Acid) limit the forage and fodder consumption. For the lean periods in which land may not be accessible for forage production, forage conservation is the best measure to meet the fodder demands. The forage conservation methods include hay making and silage making. These strategic measures will ensure food and nutritional security by supplying quality food and nutritional security by supplying quality fodder and forage for animals.