Aims: The research investigated the determinants of gender differentials in the output of male and female sweet potato farmers in the study area. Specifically, the study examined the socio economic characteristics of the sweet potato farmers, gender levels of potato production, the efficiency estimates of the farmers and factors that determine gender outputs in the study area. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Osun State Agricultural Development Programmes (OSADEP) between April 2010 and September, 2011. Methodology: The sampling frame for this study is the sweet potato farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. The sample of 16 respondents were randomly selected from five (5) Osun State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) zones giving a sample size of 80.Primary data were collected with the use of structured questionnaireand personal interviews. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cobb-Douglas production function. Results: The result suggests that Land clearing, preparation and ridging were found to be done by 90%, 87.5% and 93.8% of the male and 12.5%, 35.0% and 10.0% of the females, respectively. The analysis of the mean output in kg per hectare of the male and female sweet potato farmers shows the difference in the mean output. The efficiency distribution shows that male operate at the efficiency range lower than that of the females. The study reveals that women are more interested and committed to sweet potato farming. Farm size, quantity of input, depreciation, age, education, farming experience and care economy were found to affect output of all the respondents. Conclusion: It is therefore pertinent that policy makers should pay attention to the female sweet potato farmers as they are found to be more productive, since it was revealed that the female produced more output than their male counterparts. This implies that the female took sweet potato farming more seriously and did not play a supportive or complimentary role to their male counterparts.
Aims: This review reveals the weaknesses and inherent inconsistencies of private funded agricultural extension services and posits that this model cannot be practical in a Third World country like Nigeria. Discussion: It brought to the fore the basics of publicly and privately funded agricultural extension services. It alluded to the fact that some private bodies have done reasonably well in providing agricultural extension services to rural farmers in Nigeria. Proponents of privatized agricultural extension are of the opinion that public-financed agricultural extension is bedeviled with the many weaknesses associated with government bureaucracies. On the contrary, supporters of public-funded agricultural extension maintained that 95% of extension work world over is done by one government department or the other and that privatized extension would not be visible in Nigeria, a country that has over 90% of its farmers operating at subsistence level and who are too poor to pay for extension services cannot but be serviced for free as a matter of policy. Furthermore, the paper frowned at the policy of the First world who wants subsidies removed for the agricultural enterprise in all ramifications and in the contrary heavily subsidized their own agricultural sector, these subsidies have hurt African milk, livestock and grains export. Again, it called for a blend of public - private agricultural extension services; this it maintained would be compatible and most practical for the Third World milieu. Recommendation: Finally, it recommended that instead of an outright privatization of the sector, a middle ground should be pursued and this will be most desirable.
The study discusses use of indigenous knowledge as a strategy for climate change adaptation among farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. The local farmers in this region through the indigenous knowledge systems have developed and implemented extensive adaptation strategies that have enabled them reduce vulnerability to climate variability and change over the years. However, this knowledge is rarely taken into consideration in the design and implementation of modern mitigation and adaptation strategies. This paper highlights some indigenous adaptation strategies that have been practiced in sub-Saharan Africa and the benefits of integrating such indigenous knowledge into formal climate change adaptation strategies. The study recommends the need to incorporate indigenous knowledge into climate change policies that can lead to the development of effective adaptation strategies that are cost-effective, participatory and sustainable.
This study was conducted in Delta Central Agricultural Zone to determine the effectiveness of the leadership of farmers’ self-help groups through attendance to meetings, regularity in the payment of dues and participation in group activities. Farmers’ groups are ubiquitous, yet the level of production among farmers is still inadequate. Seven of the registered farmers groups were randomly selected. Ten percent (10%) of the members of each selected group were also randomly selected to give 68 respondents that were used for the study. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the use of questionnaire and interview schedule while secondary data were collected from the records of the selected farmers’ groups. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis by using mean derived from 4-point Likert-type scale, frequency counts and percentages. The hypotheses were addressed with the use of Pearson correlation. Leaderships were rated low in qualities of leaders and were found to be fairly effective creating access to credit, organizing group for price determination and direct sale of produce to consumers. Generally the performance of the members was poor as they did not attend meetings regularly as their mean percentage attendance to meetings was 39.89% and the percentage difference in membership due payment between the year 2002 and the year 2011was -13.19%. Owing to this, leadership performance is considered as being generally ineffective. The implication for extension delivery service is that regular training should be organized for leadership of farmers’ groups. It was therefore recommended that such training should include democratic fixation of days and time for meetings as it is in the constitution of the group, access to cheap inputs should be created, collective price determination needs to be done and the need to sell produce directly to consumers should be addressed.
The study was carried out to examine the role of radio agricultural programmes on awareness creation among farmers in the study area. The study districts were purposively selected for their known potentiality of agricultural production and a convenient sampling was employed to get a total of ninety farmers for the study, a structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. The finding of the research reveals that majorities (90%) of the farmers were males, within their active productive ages (31-42 years) and 50% of them had attained Islamic education. Most of the farmers obtained agricultural information through radio agricultural programmes (97.8%) out of which majority had access to information through the format of presentation or discussion by an expert and or the extension workers (77.8%). The finding also revealed that farmers adopted the information disseminated through radio, which was found to be highly relevant (32.2%) to the farmers’ agricultural activities. Farmers gained the knowledge of agricultural management practices (26.7%), prevention of post harvest losses (17.8%) and appropriate application of fertilizer (16.7%), and which was found to be very important and effective to majority (97.8%) of the farmer′s agricultural activities. The chi-square analysis depicts that there is significant relationship between the type of radio agricultural programmes aired and the knowledge gained by the farmers (X2=94.2, P< 0.03). It is recommended that there is need for improvement on agricultural information programmes to farmers through radio and rural agricultural radio stations should be established in the villages to disseminate and to teach farmers improved agricultural practices.
The study determines factors that affect food consumption expenditure of agro based firm workers in Cross River State, Southern Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were collected from 250 randomly selected workers of five rubber estates in the region. Descriptive statistics and two-stage least squares method of simultaneous equation model was used in the analyses. Results of the descriptive analysis of the socio-economic characteristic of respondents reveal that, the rubber sub- sector is dominated by the middle age workers who are predominantly males. More than 70% of workers in the industry had some years of formal education; while majority of them had moderate family size. In addition about 97% of the workers have invested more than one year in the sampled estates. Also, 76.8% of respondents belong to the local cooperative society; while only 6% depended solely on their salaries. Furthermore, the results of the regression analysis reveal that salary, tax, family size, non-food consumption expenditure and farm income determined the food consumption expenditure of rubber plantation estates’ workers in Cross River State. The study has identified that remuneration among workers in the sub sector is generally low and this has a marginal positive effect on the food consumption expenditure. To improve workers food consumption expenditures, increase in salary in line with changes in the macro-economic variables in the country is advocated. In addition, policies targeted towards reducing household size and tax as well as the provision of amenities and infrastructures in the rural areas are recommended, as these would upsurge the agro-based workers’ food consumption expenditure and increase productivity in the rubber sub-sector.
This study analyzed economic efficiency indices in the sugar industry in the period 1970 to 2010 in Nigeria. Secondary data were obtained from the sugar firms, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) as well as the federal Ministry of Finance. Stochastic Cobb-Douglas cost function for the sugar industry was estimated from which indices of economic efficiency were obtained. Trend in the estimated economic efficiency indices showed time invariant fluctuations across the study period with an average index of 41.80% and excess cost efficiency of 58.20%. Multiple-regression of various forms based on the ordinary least squares technique was used to determine factors that influence the economic efficiency in the industry. Empirical result revealed that economic efficiency in the sugar industry was influenced positively by the industry’s sales growth and capital-labour ratio. On the other hand, the industry’s expenditures on research and training, physical capacity utilization rates and the real exchange rate of naira for US dollar impacted negatively on the economic efficiency of the industry. It is recommended that capital intensive method of production should be adopted as a means of promoting economic efficiency of resource use in the industry. Also, effective marketing policy on the sugar industry manufactures is strongly recommended. Government should increase budgetary allocation to the Sugarcane Research Development and Training Center to intensify its activities in areas of manpower development. Finally, the industrial policy package for the industry during import substitution period should be used as a basis for regulating economic efficiency in the sugar industry in Nigeria.