Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Direct Marketing Strategy Adoption by Agro SMEs’ in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

E. D. Setsoafia, D. B. Sarpong, G. T. M. Kwadzo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 105-117
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2013/4474

The study investigates the determinants of direct marketing strategy (DMS) adoption and its effect on gross sales of agro SMEs in the wake of the government’s industrialization efforts. A multistage sampling was used to select 120 agro SMEs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, and the study took place between August 2011 and June 2012. Out of the 120 Agro SMEs’ sampled, 39 firms were involved in processing level 1, 39 firms processing level 2 and 40 firms in processing level 3. A t-test was used to test the means of gross sales over the study period, of DMS adopting firms and non adopting firms. The double hurdle approach was used first to determine factors that influence SMEs adoption of DMS and second, to assess the effect of adoption on the gross sales of adopting firms.
The results showed that DMS enhances growth in sales, since DMS adopting SMEs increased their gross sales significantly as compared to non adopting SMEs. The factors identified to influence the adoption of a DMS positively were, the processing level of product, location, organised structure of firm, type of packaging; whilst free zones status, use of wholesaler/distributors and internet use, negatively influenced adoption. The impacts of processing level engaged in, age of owner, packaging, and organized structure of firm; on the gross sales from DMS were estimated.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the adoption DMS enhances growth of Agro SMEs’, when it is undertaken by organized firms involved in level 3 processing, located in urban areas. The study, recommends among others, encouragement in the adoption of DMS by stake holders such as MoFA, MoTI, NGOs, and DMS specific training should be given to agro SMEs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency of Table Egg Producers in Imo State, Nigeria

D. O. Ohajianya, P. N. Onu, J. N. Ugwu, M. N. Osuji, I. U. Nwaiwu, J. S. Orebiyi, C. C. Godson-Ibeji, C. O. Enyia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 118-127
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2013/4178

The study measured the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in table egg production in Imo State, Nigeria by using a stochastic frontier production function to determine individual technical efficiencies of the farmers. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 105 table egg producers. The estimated technical efficiency ranged from 16.23% to 94.17% with a mean technical efficiency of 62%. The wide variation in the level of technical efficiency indicates that ample opportunities exist for table egg producers to increase their productivity and income through improvements in technical efficiency. Determinants of technical efficiency of table egg producers were found to be credit access, level of education, farming experience, flock size, extension contact and membership of farmers’ associations/cooperatives, since these variables were found to be positively and significantly related to technical efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Analysis of Empowerment Programmes of Tribal Community in East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

K. Suman Kalyani, C. Chandrasekhara Rao, T. G. K. Murthy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 128-139
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2013/5080

The tribes of Andhra Pradesh present a fascinating diversity with its variegated socio-cultural traditions and diversified occupations.
Aim: The objectives of the study are to facilitate adoption of appropriate agricultural technologies, to enhance the productivity level of the agro-based farming systems and to conduct need based extension activities in various agro-based technologies to improve the knowledge, skills and abilities of tribal farmers.
Research Design: Expost-facto research design.
Place and Duration of the Study: A project for a period of three years (2009 – 2012) was proposed and approved by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi for empowerment of tribal farmers to be carried out in the Tribal areas of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Methodology: The level of knowledge content of the farmers was analyzed by the use of pre-tested schedule before and after implementation of the interventions viz., after a period of three years. About 250 farm families in general and 100 tribal farmers in specific among ten villages of two panchayats from Rampachodavaram mandal were selected based on multistage sampling technique.
Results: A total of hundred selected farmers were trained in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, poultry and animal husbandry and value addition programmes. Interventions through training programmes, awareness camps, front line demonstrations and method demonstrations were conducted to improve the knowledge skills and abilities of tribal farmers. A set of agricultural technologies which were simple, effective and need based were selected and implemented to improve the knowledge, skills and abilities of the tribal farmers in the selected villages. The impact was analyzed after a period of three years of implementation of the project and presented. The proposed interventions in agriculture, horticulture, poultry, animal husbandry and value addition programmes have enhanced the knowledge, abilities, skills and income level of the tribal families by improving their living standards.
Conclusion: A desirable change was brought in economic, social, health and livelihood aspects of tribal farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency Analysis of Silage Maize Production in the Province of Canakkale

Gul Ebru Orhun, Eda Orhun

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 140-151
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2013/4007

Aims/Objectives: This study offers an efficiency analysis of maize silage production in the province of Canakkale. As a next step, the role of various socio-economic factors on efficiency has been examined to find out which socio-economic factors could be improved to attain higher efficiency levels.
Place and Duration of Study: In 15 villages of the province of Canakkale during Summer 2011.
Methodology: 15 villages in the province of Canakkale, which have similar climate conditions, production structures and technical properties, are determined. Then, 70 silage maize growing farms are randomly selected from these 15 villages. Data regarding input-output relations and socio-economic properties of farms were collected for the production season of 2009-2010 in the summer of 2011. Technical, allocative and economic efficiency measures are derive for this sample by employing parametric stochastic frontier analysis and nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA). Finally, socio-economic factors affecting efficiency levels are estimated with a Tobit estimation procedure.
Results: The analysis shows that the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies are found to be 76.9%, 87.1% and 77.8%, respectively, with the parametric approach and 84.2%, 78.2% and 64.7% with DEA. It is found out that the efficiency rankings of the sample producers based on the two approaches are very much correlated, indicating that there is an agreement between the two approaches. Both approaches show that there are considerable inefficiencies in maize silage production in the region. Analysis of the role of various socio-economic factors on productive efficiency shows that the size of the farm, number of irrigations and irrigation interval are found to be important determinants of efficiency.
Conclusion: Both approaches show that there are serious inefficiencies in maize silage production in Canakkale implying that there is a lot of room for improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cultivation Practices and Utilisation of Moringa oleifera Provenances by Small Holder Farmers: Case of Zimbabwe

C. T. Gadzirayi, S. M. Mudyiwa, J. F. Mupangwa, J. Gotosa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 152-162
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2013/5531

The study sought to establish the cultivation practices and utilisation of Moringa oleifera provenances grown by small holder farmers in Zimbabwe. Focus group interviews, questionnaires and field observations were used to collect data. The snowball technique was used to identify farmers to be interviewed in the targeted study site. Eight focus group discussions, in four districts, disaggregated by sex were conducted, one per district. Questionnaires were administered to farmers who were growing Moringa oleifera trees. Data from questionnaires was analysed using Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) version 9.13 in order to come up with descriptive statistics of the responses to the questionnaires. The study established that, the common innovative cultivation system for Moringa is mixed cropping, where Moringa is planted together with fruit trees in the orchards or grown together with garden crops around homesteads. The leaf biomass was used as mulch and as organic fertiliser. A significant number of farmers, 63%, use Moringa for both medicinal purposes and household nutrition and, 9%, use it for household uses only such as water purification. The main Moringa provenances grown by farmers are Malawi, Binga and Mutoko. However, there is need for an efficient production system that enhances full realisation of the benefits of Moringa oleifera in the small holder farming sector.