Open Access Original Research Article

Tea Oil Camellia Plantation, an Enormous Potentiality for Poverty Reduction

Hoang Van Thang, Tran Van Do, Tamotsu Sato, Nguyen Quang Khai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6377

Aims: Apply different silvicultural approaches to improve oil productivity and quality from abandoned stands and analyze cost-benefit of developing tea oil camellias.
Study Design: Three experiments were conducted as (1) Changing canopy of 36-year-old plantation by grafting, (2) Using Bortrac fertilizer for promoting fruiting by spraying to canopy, and (3) Stem/branch thinning and fertilizing.
Place: North Central, Vietnam at 19º16’N and 105º23’E.
Methodology: Shoots of 4 – 6 mm in diameter and 3 -5 cm long from improved cultivar were used to graft to 36-year-old trees. Bortrac fertilizer was used to spray to canopy of 15-year-old plantation when trees bloomed. While three treatments of stem/branch thinning and fertilizing at different intensities was applied to 29-year-old plantation of 830 trees ha-1.
Results: The results showed that old stand, which has low seed productivity, could be replaced by a new canopy through grafting with improved cultivars. Meanwhile, fertilizing through spraying on canopy at early blooming peak with Bortrac fertilizer increased seed productivity by 28%. In addition, applying 0.5 kg inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 5 kg organic manure per tree coupled with thinning under crown-old branches and diseased branches increased up to 60% seed productivity and improved oil ratio and quality. Cost-benefit analysis indicated that by applying different intensities of stem/branch thinning and fertilizing to 29-year-old plantation, profit margin increased from US$ 502 to as much as US$ 549 ha-1 year-1 for growers selling dry seeds as final product. Meanwhile, it increased from US$ 1,791 to US$ 2,426 ha-1 year-1 by extracting oil for final product.
Conclusion: There is a potentiality of growing tea oil camellia with the increased profit of as much as US$ 2,426 ha-1 year-1 for 29-year-old plantation by applying intensive silvicultural approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Perception of Safety of Leafy Vegetables and Its Effect on Their Vegetable Purchasing Decisions in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

J. Osei Mensah, R. Aidoo, S. K. Denkyira

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/5789

Aim: The study sought to determine consumers’ perception of the safety of leafy vegetables and how it affects their decision to purchase leafy vegetables in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana.
Methodology: Data employed in the study comes from 200 consumers in the study area. Perceptions of consumers were assessed by using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Consumers were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree to statements about safety of vegetables in the retail market of Kumasi-Ghana. These perception scores were averaged to form the consumer perception index. Consumers’ demographic characteristics were cross tabulated against their perception to find the influence one has on the other. Also, consumers’ perceptions were cross-tabulated against their purchasing decision of leafy vegetable to find the association between them.
Results: The main findings are that consumers are very much aware of the unsafe nature of leafy vegetables in the retail market, which is caused by the use of chemicals and contaminated water on vegetables during production. Consumers also perceive retailers as mishandling leafy vegetables in the retail market and that consuming leafy vegetable with chemical residue is a risk to consumers’ health. Demographic characteristics such as educational level, type of occupation and monthly income had a significant positive relationship with consumers’ perception of leafy vegetable safety. Unsafe perception had a significant effect on the purchasing decision of leafy vegetable.
Conclusions: The findings of the study imply that consumers’ demographic characteristics have the ability to influence his or her perception regarding the safety of leafy vegetables. Also, consumers’ negative perception is likely to affect their decision to purchase leafy vegetables. Moreover, the high awareness and consumer perceptions indicate consumers are likely to patronize products of retailers whose products are perceived to be safe by consumers. Thus, efforts to assist retailers should aim at making them understand this perception and how products can be handled well.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Sustainability in Southeast Nigeria – Implications for Food Security

I. U. O. Nwaiwu, J. S. Orebiyi, D. O. Ohajianya, U. C. Ibekwe, S. U. O. Onyeagocha, A. Henri-Ukoha, M. N. Osuji, C. M. Tasie

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 23-36
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6310

Considering the alarming predictions of researchers and policy makers concerning the natural phenomenon climate change, this study “Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Sustainability – Implications for Food Security” was carried out in southeast Nigeria to untie some of the dangers associated with it as a prelude to the final solution. Data for the study were mainly secondary time series data collected from institutions. Statistical data on climate elements for forty years between (1972-2011) were collected from the Agro-metrological unit of the National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike while input/output data in physical and value terms concerning cassava production were collected from government ministries and agencies. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools like mean frequency, percentages, frequency polygon or line graphs. Furthermore, multiple regression analytical tools were used to determine the effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability. Results showed an increasing trend in temperature, rainfall and sunshine duration while number of rain-days and relative humidity showed a decreasing trend. It was observed that the major climate elements that strongly and significantly affected agricultural sustainability were temperature and rainfall. The negative effects of climate change on sustainability requires urgent intervention by government at all levels to ensure sustained increases in food production to ensure food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Small-holder Coffee Farming in the Krong Ana Watershed, Vietnam

Thong Quoc Ho, John F. Yanagida, Prabodh Illukpitiya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 37-49
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6599

Coffee production is a major source of income for farmers in the DakLak province in Vietnam. Although Vietnam is one of the largest coffee producers in the world, research to improve the coffee industry is lacking, in particular, evaluating production efficiency in coffee farming could highlight factors that improve technical efficiency. The overall objective of this study is to estimate the technical efficiency of coffee production and determine which factors affect technical efficiency of small holder coffee farmers in the Krong Ana Watershed of the DakLak province. Based on the stochastic production frontier, the estimated mean technical efficiency scores were 0.7466 and 0.6836 respectively for the Cu Kuin district and the three combined districts (Krong Ana, Krong Bong and Lak). Formal education of the household head, amount of financial credit obtained, ethnicity, coffee farming experience of the household head, and agricultural extension service used were key factors that can increase technical efficiency in coffee production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Default Risk and Determinants of Farmers’ Access to Micro-credit from Cooperative Societies in Abia State, Nigeria

C. O. Emerole, A. N. Nwachukwu, C. O. Anyiro, C. K. Osondu, G. M. C. Ibezim, N. Jonah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 50-62
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6949

This study on default risk and determinants of farmers’ access to micro-credit from cooperative societies was carried out in Abia state, Nigeria. Longitudinal data on micro-credit seeking and repayments for ninety (90) rural farm households in three agricultural zones of the state were collected for 2011 and 2012 farming seasons. The cooperatives and farm households were chosen following stratified random sampling technique. Data gathered through a survey were analyzed descriptively and by inferential statistics using probit regression technique. Results indicated 57 of the 90 farm households involved in this study received a total of N2, 947,140.00 from their cooperative societies and repaid N2, 210,230.00 within a required 24 months. The overall repayment performance of 74.99% was thus very good compared to the 25.01% default rate. The number of years of farming, taking farming as major occupation, years of farmers’ membership to cooperative society and farmer’s deposit/savings in the cooperative society were factors that positively and very significantly (P=0.01) influenced access to loans in the cooperative societies. Another factor that positively but moderately (P=0.5) influenced access to cooperative loans was members demanding for credit after being denied loan(s) from formal sources (spillover demand). The only negatively significant factor that moderately influenced access to cooperative loans was default in repaying previous credit. These factors emphasized that devout commitment to ideals of cooperative movement assures members access to available loans in cooperative societies. Cooperators who benefit from union loans should learn to repay within reasonable agreed period of use of the loan to avoid being in default of repayment and guarantee getting new loans on future requests. They should invest loans in quick yielding enterprises and engage in viable off-farm jobs to earn extra incomes that enhance their cash flows.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acquisition and Management of Land Resources for Agricultural Production in Benue State, Nigeria

Job N. Nmadu, Williams O. Inalegwu, Halima Sallawu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 63-75
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7707

Aims: This study seeks to describe the socio-economic characteristic of the respondents in the study area, describe the land tenure systems operational in the study area, determine the trend in farm size change in the study area over a period of five years, determine the trend in Land supply to the market in the last five years and determine the land tenure system that is dynamic in land supply to agricultural production.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, between January and July, 2012.
Methodology: The study investigated the manner and strategies adopted in acquisition and management of land resources for agricultural production in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 80 respondents was selected for the study through simple random sampling technique and data were collected from them using a structured questionnaire.
Results: It was found that a greater per cent (48.75%) of the respondent acquired land through inheritance indicating that no change has taken place in method of land acquisition over the years. This also underscores the near absence of land markets in most states of Nigeria. The size of holding continues to be small (≤5.58ha) which has not accentuated the commercialization of agriculture in Nigeria. The sale and purchase of land is done in a mix of market situation like exchange of farm produce, cash and other socio-cultural methods.
Conclusion: The study recommends that policies and agricultural programmes in Nigeria should take into cognizance the existing land tenure systems and the problems that emanate from them. In addition, problems associated with small sized farms and dispersal of holdings can be resolved through a method of land reform in which the fragments are accumulated together and the land is shared among owners so that each person’s holding is in one location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Security Determinants among Urban Food Crop Farming Households in Cross River State, Nigeria

Otu W. Ibok, Nsikan E. Bassey, Elizabeth A. Atairet, Oto-obong J. Obot

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 76-90
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6560

The study investigated food security determinants among urban food crop farming households in Cross River State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 217 urban food crop farming households. The study was conducted in three urban areas in Cross River State, namely: Calabar, Ikom and Ugep. Cross sectional data were collected through well structured questionnaires and oral interview. Data were analyzed using headcount index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index as well as logistic regression. The result showed that only 52.5% of urban food crop farming households were food secure while 47.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secure households exceeded the food security line by 44% while 53% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The logistic regression result revealed that, years of formal education, farming experience, age of farmers, farming as main occupation, household size, income from farm and output of food crops produce were major determinants of food security status of urban farming households in the study area. The study recommends among others that in other to increase the output of food crop produced by urban farming households, government should encourage the use of improved planting materials, adoption of improved land management techniques and fertilizer should be made affordable and available to farmers.