Open Access Case study

Social Enterprises in the Irish Rural Space: An Analysis in the Area of Ballyhoura

N. Galluzzo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 147-163
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8265

Social enterprises are a pivotal tool for improving the living conditions in the Irish countryside and also to reduce the sense of remoteness in rural space by creating many job opportunities specifically towards disadvantaged people and unemployed workforce. The latter aspect is particularly topical during this time of Irish economic crisis as many dismissed people come back to their rural villages aimed to find new job chances.
The object of this quantitative analysis was to investigate the role and the impact of social enterprises in a small Irish rural area such as Ballyhoura able to stimulate endogenous job opportunities towards disadvantaged groups of people and young generations.
The Local Action Group is the most and foremost local factor to promote and to manage in collaboration with stakeholders, farmers and entrepreneurs the rural development in the countryside, using different sources of financial supports allocated by the European Union and by the Irish government as well.
The methodology of analysis was a qualitative description of the role of social enterprises in a rural Irish area after a description of features and issues of the rural context.
Over the time of analysis, the less favored people as elderly and young people, female workforce and dismissed people have improved their skill capabilities and they have formed new enterprises able to produce handmade products, to implement the tourism fruition of the countryside. They have also set up new enterprises aimed to take care of disadvantaged people creating a social and solidarity economy.
The social enterprises have had a pivotal role in increasing tourism flows and the socio-economic growth in the area of Ballyhoura. Other findings have pointed out as in the area of study there has been a strengthening of the sense of belonging to rural communities and also a new involvement in a modern path of rural planning. Rural communities are a fundamental pillar in the Irish process of endogenous development able to reduce the sense of remoteness in the countryside and stimulating new generations to move from urban areas to the rural space.
The local and European authorities should allocate new addition financial resources to stimulate the growth of social enterprises in order to reduce the out-migration from the Irish countryside by several job opportunities in this time of economic downturn. Others recommendations for the public authorities are also to assign to social enterprises a prime role in providing social services towards people at risk of marginalization, in preserving the environment and in upholding cultural traditions in rural territories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Different Agricultural Extension Methods in Providing Knowledge and Skills in Disease Prevention: A Case of Smallholder Poultry Production Systems in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt

Hazem S. Kassem

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 91-107
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7010

The study identified the effectiveness of the Demonstration alone, the Meeting alone and the Pamphlet alone and All methods together on the poultry farmers’ knowledge and skills levels. The Experimental research design was used in the current study. The study was carried out in Dakhalia Governorate of Egypt during the period from November 2012 to April 2013. One hundred and twenty poultry farmers were selected randomly in 10 districts of the governorate. The sample was categorized into (4) equal groups for providing extension recommendations by different extension methods in cooperation with extension poultry specialists in the districts studied. The first group was exposed to a Demonstration, the second group was exposed to a Meeting, the third group was exposed to a Pamphlet and finally last group was exposed to All methods together. The main findings of the study indicate that: the total average of poultry farmers’ exposure level to information sources studied was moderate at 59.8%.In addition, The All Methods group had acquired the maximum knowledge and skills with the percentages of 55.8%, 48.3% respectively followed by the Demonstration method, the Meeting method and the Pamphlet method. It can be concluded that Demonstration, Meeting and Pamphlet could be rich communication tools on their own, but when combined with others, can create a more effective training/learning experience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency of Sweet Potato Farmers in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

D. O. Ohajianya, J. O. Otitolaiye, O. J. Saliu, S. J. Ibitoye, U. C. Ibekwe, F. C. Anaeto, O. S. Ukwuteno, S. I. Audu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 108-117
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6945

This study analyzed technical efficiency of sweet potato farmers in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. A sample of 80 sweet potato farmers was selected using the multistage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection This implies that sweet potato farmers in the study area are technical inefficient in resource use, and therefore technical efficiency could be increased by 53% through optimal reallocation of existing resources. This result also reveals that level of education, farming experience; household size and credit access are important factors contributing to technical efficiency. Sweet potato farmers with higher education that acquired more farming experience have small household size and have access to credit tends to be more efficient. Therefore, policies that will enable the farmers to improve on their education and grant them increased access to credit to be vigorously pursued for increasing the farmers’ efficiency and income.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Nutrition Gardens in the Healthcare of HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected Urban Households

C. T. Gadzirayi, E. Mutandwa, N. Mafuse, D. Manyumwa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 118-128
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6122

This study assessed the role played by low input nutrition gardens in improving the livelihoods of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people in the urban areas of Zimbabwe. Structured interviews were conducted mainly with infected and affected households in the city of Harare’s high density suburbs. A stratified random sampling design was used to select respondents from the three suburban areas, with each suburban area acting as a stratum. Sixty six households were then randomly selected from a sampling frame of 182 using the lottery technique from three suburbs. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Most of the households (39%) grew green leafy vegetables in their low input nutrition gardens. Herbs and bulbous vegetables were grown by 33% and field crops by 28% of the households. Low input nutrition gardens contributed diversification of vegetables and herbs which enhanced the health status of the HIV infected and affected households. According to the respondents, nutrition gardens offered affordable healthy food because they are environmentally sustainable. Low input nutrition gardens should therefore be integral to the livelihoods of HIV/AIDS infected and affected households in a context characterized by prohibitive costs of acquiring food and medication.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Farmer’s Perception on Crop By-Product Utilization as Feed for Beef Cattle in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Agustina Abdullah, Hikmah M. Ali, Jasmal A. Syamsu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 129-137
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7304

Aims: This research was objected to analyze farmers’ perception on feeding technology and crop by-product utilization at the farms of Bulukumba regency, Souh Sulawesi Indonesia.
Place and Duration of Study: The number of respondents involved was as many as 96 farmers in the two sub-sites (Herlang District and Bulukumpa District), Bulukumba Regency South Sulawesi, between May until August 2011
Methodology: Data was collected by oobservation, interview on the basis of questionnaires and focus group discussion (FGD). The collected data were then analyzed in a statistic descriptive method.
Result: The research results indicated that most of cattle were still maintained traditionally (53.12%), of letting the cattle go all day (28.83%), and letting the cattle all noon then tying them at night (32.29%). The number of farmers stalling their cattle was low 46.87% (44 farmers), their cattle just at night (semi-intensive) were 31 farmers, and the one stalling their cattle all days (intensive) were 14 farmers or 12.12% from all respondents. A large number of farmers (88.54%) to feed in rice fields, gardens, and yards, while others to the herding fields 11.46%. The utilization of crop by-product as beef cattle feeding in farmer stills low that was 55.21% of farmers did not use crop by-product as beef cattle feeding. The farmers knew about feeding technology 56.25%, such as ammoniation, hay, silage, and other fermentation technology. Applying level still low that was 24.07%. The farmer’s perception on feeding technology and crop by product utilization relatively still low caused by limited knowledge.
Conclusion: The crop by product utilization as beef cattle feed in Bulukumba Regency is still low. The farmer know about feed technology such as hay ammoniation, fermentation, and silage technology but it less in applying by considering that the availability of natural grasses is still enough for cattle, feed technology is not effective, and cost of cultivation is still high.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency of Resource Utilization in Dry Season Waterleaf Talinum triangulare Jacq. Wild Production by Women in Southern Nigeria

Nsikak-Abasi A. Etim, Glory E. Edet

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 138-146
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7323

The study estimated the efficiency of resource use by women in dry season waterleaf production. The study was conducted in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State during the short dry season between November 2011 and February 2012. Through the multistage sampling technique, primary data were obtained from women waterleaf producers using questionnaire. Resource-use efficiency was estimated by fitting stochastic production frontier functions to survey data obtained from women waterleaf producers. Using the Maximum Likelihood analysis, asymptotic parameter estimates were evaluated to describe explainers of resource use efficiency. Results indicate that the most important resources were family labor, organic fertilizer, irrigation water, planting materials (cuttings). Result indicates that waterleaf cultivation is highly laborious particularly during deflowering and irrigation water. Findings further show that waterleaf producers relied more on organic fertilizer for increased production and yield. Land size, family labor and organic fertilizer are significant (P<.01) whereas irrigation water and waterleaf cuttings are significant (P<.10) and (P<.05) respectively. Findings reveal that none of the producers reached the maximum production efficiency. The mean resource use efficiency of 68 percent showed an inefficiency gap of 0.32 implying that about 32 percent increase in waterleaf output could be achieved using the same resource combination. The benefits of economies of scale could be achieved by expanding the size cultivable waterleaf land either through consolidation of existing holdings or acquiring new farm plots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Poverty and Risk Attitudes: The Case of Cassava Farmers in Awutu-senya District of the Central Region of Ghana

William Ghartey, Samuel K. N. Dadzie, Michael Weittey

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 164-178
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/5401

Ghana’s agriculture is characterized by low productivity, low farm incomes and low levels of technological adoption and use of inefficient production techniques. This poor state of Ghana’s agriculture is related to farmers’ attitudes towards risk in the adoption of new production techniques, as well as risk in the production and socioeconomic environment. Having realized that poverty is a major constraining factor in the farmer’s production and socio-economic environment, the study therefore sought specifically to: measure the poverty situation among cassava farmers in the study area; analyze the risk attitudes of cassava farmers and determine the effect of poverty on risk attitudes of the farmers. The study area is Awutu Senya District. A random sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents. Data were generated using structured interviews and field visits. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Foster Greer Thorbecke poverty measures, Equal Certainty Equivalent Risk Model and regression analysis to determine the effects of poverty on the risk attitude of farmers. The result showed that 58% of farmers in the study area were poor and 31% measured the depth or extent of poverty as indicated by the FGT poverty measure. Furthermore, using the equal certainty equivalent risk model of assessing farmers’ risk attitudes the study revealed that, as many as 82% of the farmers was risk averse. The result of regression analysis also suggested that age, household size, educational level, land size and degree of poverty were significant determinants of farmers’ attitude towards risks. Poverty situation was found to be positively related farmers attitude towards risk. It is therefore, recommended that the government and private sector should initiate policy that strengthens existing programmes on alternative income generating activities within the broad framework of its poverty alleviation strategy to improve farmers’ income. With improved income farmers should be able to improve on their risk management skill to mitigate the effect of perceived risky situation they find themselves.