Open Access Short Research Article

ICTs as Enabler in the Dissemination of Agricultural Technologies: A Study in the East Akim District, Eastern Ghana

E. Asiedu-Darko, S. Bekoe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 224-232
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7661

This study reports on the availability, use and information seeking behaviour of farming communities with specific reference to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Eastern Ghana. It fills a research gap by examining what people do with a medium when they have access to it, while also looking at barriers surrounding the use of ICTs arising due to differential access and capabilities. The study was conducted in the East Akim District of the Eastern Region of Ghana and sought insights into intentions and factors surrounding the use of various media by farmers. The study also threw more light on the socio-cultural context within which information seeking and use occurs in the district and tried to explain the reasons behind the use of ICT by farmers over other available sources. It was observed that accessing agriculture information by farmers through ICT’s was not popular and needed to be given a boost. The farmers mostly relied on friends and relatives, and other local sources for agricultural information and this has been a drawback to the adoption of agricultural technologies. The need for pragmatic measures to bring about the use ICT by farmers in seeking agricultural information was emphasized. Also some adult education programmes would be required to help farmers in ICT usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of Fish Production in Amansie-west District of Ghana: Implication for Food Security in West Africa

Christian Crentsil, Inibehe George Ukpong

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 179-188
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8553

This study analyzed the economics of fish production in Amansie-West District of Ghana, West Africa. Primarydata were collected from 45 fish farmers in the district, in April, 2009. We carried out a descriptive analysis of the inputs used and output obtained byfish farmers in the district. The results show that majority (95.6%) of the fish farmers used the earthen pond type, with a mean pond area of 0.17ha. The mean number of fingerlings stocked by the farmers was 9,331.11 and the mean quantity of fish harvested was 771.96Kg. The results show a wide variation among the farmers in the use of inputs and total quantity of fish harvested, which implies that yields of fish in the area are poor and well below potential yields indicated by field trials.The study recommends changes in public policy to improve yields for existing ponds and to identify circumstances where yields can be improved for future ponds. It also recommends a further research to be carried out to estimate the production and cost functions for the fish production technology used by the fish farmers in the district to help reduce the cost of fish production and improve the returns to fish farmers, while helping to increase fish production and promote food security in the country and the West African region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Production Function with Economic Content Using Data Envelopment Analysis as a Complement to Marginal Analysis in Rice Production of Kwara State, Nigeria

I. A. Adedeji, J. O. Ajetomobi, O. M. Bamiro, K. U. Ifegwu, J. O. Ogunjobi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 189-205
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7742

The consideration in the present study is mainly conceptual. The objective is to show how Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) can be used to reveal the true input-output relations in rice production. In the estimation of a production function, it is assumed that all firms use the existing technology efficiently. However, in the real world the observed firms produce homogeneous outputs with differences in factor intensities and in managerial capacity. Hence, inefficiencies are hidden in the estimated production functions. In order to overcome this drawback of the parametric approach and to reveal the true nature of the input-output relations in production, given the available technology, the DEA approach is applied. In this study DEA is applied in order to select the farms that utilize efficiently the existing technology, allowing the estimation of a production function that reveals the true input-output relations in rice farming, using farm accounting data from a sample of 60 rice farms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Employment and Socioeconomic Effects of Semi-Mechanized Palm Oil Mill in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Elijah I. Ohimain, Cletus I. Emeti, Sylvester C. Izah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 206-216
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9197

Aims: The unemployment rate in Nigeria has risen in recent years. Activities related to the oil palm industry could employ millions of people. This study evaluated the employment and socioeconomic influence of semi-mechanized oil palm processing in Elebele, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Direct observations and interviews of the employees of the processing units of the mill were used to obtain the data.
Results: The mill employed eleven workers for each shift and each person had the capacity of producing 9.1 liters of palm oil per day. The labor force was comprised of able-bodied men and women (72.7 and 27.3% respectively). During processing, women sieved the oil while men received the palm bunches at the plant. Men also loaded bunch on stripper, stripped, sieved, sterilized/boiled, digested/pressed, clarified and dried the oil. The processors ranged from 21 to 51 years old. The educational background showed that they were graduates of universities (degree), polytechnics (diploma), secondary (high) school, standard six certificates, or no standard six certificate (13, 35, 30, 22 and 0%, respectively). The employees had worked in the industry for <10 to> 30 year.
Conclusion: The study shows that the semi-mechanized oil palm industry can be an important source of employment creation in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Income and Economies of Scale on Household Food Demand in Pakistan

Abdur Rehman, Wang Jian, Sun Wensheng, Liu Niya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 233-242
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6938

This paper determines the household food demand for various income groups in Pakistan namely, The Lower Income Group (≤ $ 93.023), Lower-middle Income Group ( $93.034-139.534), Middle Income Group ($139.546-209.302), Upper-middle Income Group ($ 209.314-406.977) and Upper Income Group ($406.977+) United States dollars respectively. The Pakistani rupees are converted into US $ according to the average exchange rate of (2010-11).The study uses Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement Survey data (2010-11) conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. The food expenditures are the sum of monthly expenditures by each household on the following 16 major food items, wheat, rice, pulses, vegetables ghee, Milk (Fresh), butter, mutton, beef, chicken, fish, fruits, vegetables, salt, spices, sugar and gur. The household size and income elasticities are estimated to explain the food consumption trends in Pakistan. The results of the study indicate that all the income and household size elasticities are positive and significant at one percent level of significance. And the study also indicates that food income elasticity is the highest (0.901) for the Lower-Middle Income Group and the same is the lowest (0.716) for the Upper Income Group. Similarly, household size elasticity is the highest (0.181) for the Upper Income Group and the same is the lowest (0.067) for Lower Income Group. It is highly recommended that family planning system should be introduced in the country to keep away from the harmful impact of large family sizes upon the household food consumption, and it is also necessary for policy makers to make plan to improve the food availability and to increase family income to develop the standard and quality of the rural people of Pakistan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Value Chain Analysis of Palm Fruit Production and Processing in Abia State, Nigeria

Onwumere Joseph, Onwusiribe Ndubuisi Chigozirim, Iheanatu Chinyere

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 243-256
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9461

This study analyzed the value chain of palm fruit production and processing in Abia state of Nigeria. The analysis was imperative, because of the increased emphasis on value addition to improve the market value of agribusiness products. The objectives considered included the socio economic characteristics of the respondents, the cost and returns of the value addition stages in the value chain, the determinants of participation in the value chain and the effect of the value addition stages on the value chain. The tools used to achieve these objectives are descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, probit regression analysis and polynomial regression analysis. Random samples of 40 palm fruit farmers were selected from the three agricultural zones of Abia state, to make up a sample size of 120 palm fruit Agribusiness operators. The analytical synthesis unveiled that most of the palm fruit Agribusiness operators were headed by females with highest education attainment as secondary education. A major constraint to the value chain includes credit as a limiting factor. The factors found to be significantly affecting the participation in the value chain were credit, farm size and education. The harvesting, cooking, digesting, clarification, extraction stages of value addition were found to be positive and significantly influencing the value chain. It is therefore recommended the education (training) and credit facilities should be made available and policies should be formulated to enhance the participation in the palm fruit value chain as it was found to be a profitable means of entrepreneurship and the proper management of the stages of value addition to enhance the palm fruit value chain.

Open Access Review Article

Effective Application of the Coorientation Communication Model in Disseminating Agricultural Information: A Review

P. C. Ajieh, U.N. Uzokwe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 217-223
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9264

Co-orientation is a measurement process which contributes to a consensus of views among communicators. Co-orientation analysis yields three measures of consensus: accuracy, congruency and agreement. Accuracy refers to the similarity between one person’s estimate of another’s perception and other person’s actual perception. Congruency compares a person’s perception with his or her estimate of another’s perception, while agreement is the similarity between two person’s perceptions. This paper examines the application of the co-orientation communication model for effective dissemination of agricultural information. A framework for applying the model was suggested and other strategies for effective application of the model were discussed.