Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Factors Influencing Adoption of Dual-purpose Cowpea Production Technologies in Bichi Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria

A. Sani, B. Z. Abubakar, D. H. Yakubu, T. K. Atala, L. Abubakar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 257-274
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7981

This study investigated the socio-economic factors influencing adoption of dual-purpose cowpea production (DPC) technologies among farmers in Bichi Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the use of questionnaire administered to 200 farmers selected randomly. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and step-wise multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that 35.7% of the farmers were within 41-50 years. The largest percentage (24.5%) had a family size within the range of 11-15, with a mean of 8. Majority of the farmers had formal education, ranging from primary to post-secondary. They had more than 1ha of land, with a mean of 2.2ha. They all participated in one form of farmers’ organization or the other. The mean adoption rate was 77.5%. The use of improved seeds and insecticides had the highest adoption score (100%). Result of the correlation analysis indicated that level of education, household size, farming experience; number of ruminants owned, social participation and contact with extension agents were significantly related to technology adoption and hence, influenced adoption of DPC production technologies. Moreover, level of education, social participation and extension contact made the highest contribution in explaining variations in the differential adoption of the DPC production technologies among the farmers. It was concluded that educational level, social participation and extension contacts were the major socio-economic factors influencing adoption of the DPC production technologies. The need for improvements in promoting these factors, were therefore recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bayes Approach to the Estimation of Technical Efficiency and Returns to Scale in Agriculture: A Case of Nigeria

Toritseju Begho, O’raye Dicta Ogisi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 275-284
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10454

Most studies in Nigeria have focused on the classical approach to estimating technical efficiency. In this paper, we examine technical efficiency of small farms by estimating a stochastic production frontier model using the Bayesian methodology. The model is applied to farm household data from Nigeria. The results obtained show that farm size, fertilizer, hired and family labour are positive and significant at 5%. The estimated stochastic frontier function indicates that farms are technically inefficient. Efficiency was found to be positively influenced by the age, gender, education, extension visits and participation in off-farm activities. We also found that the farms in our sample exhibited increasing Returns to Scale. Our findings have significant policy implications as it draws attention to increasing agricultural productivity through improving the existing level of efficiency of small farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pollution and Commerce Control between Emerging Countries

Salvador Sandoval Bravo, Semei Coronado Ramirez

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 285-300
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9799

This work presents a mathematical model for reciprocal dumping and transboundary pollution, under a setting of oligopolistic competition. To control emissions, governments can establish two environmental regulation instruments: quotas and taxes. To do so, they calculate the optimal values for these variables and implement environmental policies, which aim to maximize the welfare function for both consumers and manufacturing companies and improve tax revenue and the social cost of polluting. With this model, we are able to conclude that when the social cost of polluting is high, governments should impose a quota for the level of pollution or a tax for contaminating. However, if the cost to abate pollution is high, the government may increase the pollution quota or reduce the tax.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Innovation on Smallholders’ Productivity and Poverty Status: The Case of Arable Crop Farmers in South-East, Nigeria

Onwuchekwa Raphael Iheke, Jude Chukwudi Nwaru

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 301-318
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6503

Agriculture is the prevalent occupation of most rural households especially in Nigeria. Raising the productivity of these rural households is crucial in reducing rural poverty and hunger. Innovation adoption is key to increasing farm productivity. This necessitated this study on innovation adoption, farm productivity and poverty status of rural smallholder farm households in South-Eastern Nigeria. This was premised on the fact that increasing agricultural productivity through adoption of innovation can increase food availability and access as well as rural incomes. Multistage sampling proceedure was used in selecting the respondents used for this study. Data collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedules were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency tables, percentages, regression analysis and Chow’s test statistic. Result of data analysis revealed that the most adopted innovations/technologies were use of iinorganic fertilizer, improved seed, terracing, crop residue recycling, crop rotation and use animal waste. The significant factors influencing adoption of the innovations/technologies were gender, age, years of formal education attainment, household income, extension contact and membership of cooperative. The Chow’s test revealed that innovation/technology adoption have significant and positive impact on farm productivity. Also, the study revealed improved livelihood or better welfare for innovation adopters than for non-adopters. Therefore, efforts at increasing farm productivity and reducing poverty among farm households should involve policies that would encourage the households to embrace or step up adoption of agricultural innovations should be put in place. This should involve educating and enlightening the farm households on the benefits of these innovation. In this respect, agricultural extension services should be strengthened to provide the informal training that helps to unlock the natural talents and inherent enterprising qualities of the farm households, enhancing his ability to understand and evaluate new production techniques/innovations leading to increased farm productivity and incomes with concomitant reduction in poverty.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Cassava Output among Small Scale Farmers in Nigeria: A Survey of Akwa Ibom State Farmers

Nsikan Edet Bassey, Aniekan Jim Akpaeti, Idaraesit Uwem Umoh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 319-330
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9117

The study employed primary data collected through a multistage sampling technique from 90 respondents to examine the determinants of cassava output in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were analyzed using Gross margin analysis, simple descriptive statistics as well as Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression technique. Findings indicated that educated (75.6%), female (68.9%) farmers, majority who were within the age bracket of 31-40 years, with an average household size and mean farming experience of 6 and 10 dominated cassava production. The average Gross Margin and Net Income of N154,840 and N125,590 per hectare showed that cassava production was profitable. The study further showed that educational level, farm size, household size, farming experience, labour, and extension visit significantly influence cassava output in the study area. Also, high cost of cuttings and other inputs, high cost of labour, uneconomical size holdings, inadequate finance and storage facilities constituted the main cassava production problems in the study area. This informed the need for the government to give subsidy in the form of basic farm inputs to farmers, pursue policies that would enhance access to land, provide storage facilities and extension advice as well as encouraging farmers to take up cassava farming as a profitable venture in the study area as the way out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Festive periods and Meat Price Transmission and Market Integration in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria

Sunday B. Akpan, Edet J. Udoh, Ini-mfon V. Patrick, Udoro J. Udo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 331-364
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9787

The study analyzed the dynamics of meat (pork, goat meat, beef, exotic chicken, local chicken and snail meat) price transmission and market integration in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram) of meats in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data covered the period from January 2005 to September 2013, and was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP). The trend analysis showed that, prices of sampled meats in the rural and urban markets have positive significant relationships with time. The descriptive analysis revealed that, the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of rural price of each meat was similar to its urban counterpart and this was substantiated further by the respective pair linear graph of each meat. This result suggested possible co-movement of meat prices in rural and urban market in the study area. The Pearson correlation coefficient of each of the respective pair of rural and urban price of meats revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The bivariate Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of all sampled meats in the State. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration relationship between the rural and urban meats used in the analysis. The coefficients of market integration in the rural meat price equations converge to unity or law of one price which connotes high degree of market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM) confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of meats in the study area. The rural prices of meats adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than their respective urban prices. The index of market connection (IMC) supported the existence of the short run market integration between meat prices in rural and urban markets. Based on the findings, it is recommended that, the Akwa Ibom State government should continue to provide marketing infrastructures and reduce sources of externality cost in order to improve further the symmetric nature of information flow among meats markets in the state. Also, individuals, trade unions, NGOs’ and government should established market information units and awareness programmes on mass media to facilitate efficient communication or flows of meat market information in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preferred Sources of Information Used by Cassava Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

Joseph U. Agbamu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 365-372
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10046

This study ascertained information sources that cassava farmers preferred to use in Delta State. Area and stratified sampling techniques were used to select villages and farmers. A total of 125 respondents were used for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data. Data were analysed by use of percentages, mean scores, rankings, and factor analysis based on homophily and heterophily communication factors. This study found that the average age of cassava farmers was 45.6 years. Neighbour was the most preferred source of information by cassava farmers with a mean score of 2.32. The second and third preferred information sources were opinion leaders and farmers’ cooperative society with mean scores of 2.16 and 2.00 respectively. The result of factor analysis revealed that heterophilous factors had higher factor loadings for neighbours (0.830), farmers’ cooperative society(0.769), television(0.774) and friends(0.371). This result proved that nowadays, cassava farmers preferred heterophilous information sources, from those that belong to higher social strata due to search for improvement in farming practices.