Open Access Case study

Appraisal of the Agricultural Extension System of Family Farm Schools in Cameroon

Fonteh Athanasius Amungwa, Francis Menjo Baye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 530-543
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9851

This paper analyzes the extension system used by Family Farm Schools in providing agricultural information to farmers to alleviate rural poverty and hunger in Cameroon. It examines the background of Family Farm Schools and the unemployment problem of school leavers and advances the view that moving away from pure state paternalism to a partnership between the state, private sector, NGOs, donors, civil society, and rural communities in promoting of agricultural training and extension would improve the asset levels and autonomy of rural youths. Data was obtained through field observations, focus discussions and programme documents. The conclusion highlights the unsatisfactory financial position of the Family Farm Schools’ extension system and suggests the way forward to develop a newly conceived policy agenda for agricultural training and extension using this system; adopt a diversified and pluralistic strategy for funding the programme; build a platform for dialogue and collaboration with the relevant extension service providers; and evaluate the programme within the economic growth and poverty reduction strategy for government action.

Open Access Case study

Effects of Factory Labour Costs on Annual Returns to Tea Growers: A Case Study of KTDA Managed Factories in Kenya

M. M. Kidusu, F. S. Memba, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 680-689
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11538

The study sought to determine the effects of factory labour costs on annual returns to tea growers in Kenya. A case study design was adopted and data was collected through questionnaires. The research was conducted between September 2013 and March 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The study targeted a sample size of 89 respondents from which 74 was achieved. The sampling frame did consist of employees working in all departments and sections of the KTDA region 6 office and factories. The respondents were drawn from management, directors and external auditors of the 6 KTDA managed factories and stratified random sampling was applied. 52.5% of the respondents were male whereas 47.3% were female. 87.8% of the respondents had attained diploma and degree certificates while 87% of the respondents had served the organization for a period of ≥5 years. 97% of the respondents concurred with labour cost as the deciding factor of profitability. Regression results signpost to a variation of 56.50 on annual returns to tea growers was due to changes in factory labour costs. There was a strong positive relationship between factory labour costs and annual tea growers’ returns at 0.885. The study established that tea growers under KTDA are paid a monthly first payment; known as initial green leaf payment at a fixed rate of Kshs14 per kilogram of green leaf delivered to the factory but the second and annual return made after closure of financial period vary by factories depending on revenues received and costs incurred. Factory labour was identified in the study as one of the key factors that is negatively affecting annual returns to tea growers. Correspondingly, the collective bargaining agreements (CBA) negotiated by KTDA has led to above average seasonal labour payments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monetary Instruments and Inflation: Econometric Analysis Based on Malaysia Economy

Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Maizatul Saadiah, Maimunah Ismail, Abdul Halim Mohd Noor, Elsadig Musa Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 473-487
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10429

The relationship between inflation and monetary policy is widely discussed in the research paper. The increase in inflation is seen as an indicator of a country’s constant growth. However, it is crucial for the government to keep the country's inflation under control by adopting the right policies such as monetary policy. This paper is assessing the impact of monetary instrument in controlling inflation rates in Malaysia over the period of 1970 to 2010. The analysis begins by testing the unit root test to determine the stationarity of the data. All the variables are found to have a long run relationship based on the Johansan Juselius cointegration test. From the causality test, it was also found that there is an existence of unidirectional causality for all variables of CPI, interest, reserve and money supply for Malaysia. The findings of this paper have some handy proposals that should help the policymaker to develop a plan of action for the development of this nation. First, the authority must constantly monitor the level of reserve requirement in the country. Second, the authority needs to control the amount of money supply in order to control money volume in the market to reduce the excess demand of goods and services. Third, the central bank needs to monitor the level of interest rate closely in order to control the inflation problem in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Supply Function for Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria

Olugbenga O. Alabi, A. F. Lawal, Y. A. Awoyinka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 488-495
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8557

This study analyzed supply function for millet in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. Secondary data used for the investigation were sourced from Kano Agricultural and Rural Development Authority; Kaduna Agricultural and Rural Development Authority; National Programme for Food Security (NPFS). Descriptive statistics, Nerlove adaptation hypothesis and grafted polynomials model were used for the analysis of data. The results showed that price of fertilizer lagged one year and cost of production were the significant factors influencing output supply of millet in Kaduna State at 5% and 1% probability levels respectively. The price of millet lagged one year and fertilizer cost lagged one year were the significant factors influencing output supply of millet in Kano State at 1% and 5% probability levels respectively. The grafted polynomials model used for forecasting output supply of millet in tonnes for Kaduna and Kano States showed an increase in output of millet for a forecast period of 2006-2015.It is recommended that more agricultural inputs should be provided for farmers in Kaduna and Kano States by the Government to enable those farmers increase their millet output.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Drought-Tolerant Maize Adoption and its Effect on Food Security among Farmers in the Sudan Savanna of Northeastern Nigeria

Y. L. Idrisa, T. Abdoulaye, S. T. Mohammed, A. A. Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 496-504
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8717

This article examined the factors influencing the adoption of the drought-tolerant Maize (DT) varieties and their effect on food security among farmers in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of northeastern Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from 200 farmers who were selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Factors influencing the adoption of DT maize varieties were determined through the use of censored regression (the Tobit model) while the effect of adoption of DT maize on food security was determined through the use of the chi-square test. The results from the chi-square test were further converted to a contingency coefficient in order to obtain the extent of the association between the adoption of DT maize and food security. The study revealed that income (ρ ≤ 0.01) and access to extension services (ρ ≤ 0.01) were significant in influencing the adoption of DT maize among farmers. The study also found a strong association (χ2 – cal = 15.53; χ2 – tab = 13.28) between the adoption of DT maize and food security among farmers in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of northeastern Nigeria with a contingency coefficient of 0.25. The study thus concluded that maize farmers in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of northeastern Nigeria are generally small-scale farmers that produce for subsistence. It was also concluded that the adoption of DT maize significantly reduced the level of food insecurity among farmers in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of northeastern Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that farmers should be linked to source of market for their produce in order to boost their income and that extension services should be strengthened so as to give farmers access to improved technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foreign Direct Investment and Gross Domestic Investment: Evidence from Asean 5

Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Mohd Azlan Abdul Majid, Abdul Halim Mohd Noor, Elsadig Musa Ahmed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 505-520
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10430

This paper is aiming to evaluate the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and gross domestic investment (GDI) on the growth rate of real gross domestic per capita of the founding members of ASEAN group namely Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. By following the neo classical cum neo-liberal theories, and the dependency theory, this study maintains that the economic growth rates as one of the best proxy to measure economic development for developing countries. Time-series analyses utilizing the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) technique were employed. The results of the ECM-ARDL for long run analysis showed that most of the coefficients in the long run derived from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines are significant. These results are consistent with the Dependency, Neo-classical and neo-liberal theory. Other country in this study shows a mix evidence of relationship between their independent variables and the dependent variables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Industrial Demand Analysis for Millet in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria

Olugbenga O. Alabi, A. F. Lawal, Y. A. Awoyinka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 521-529
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8558

This study examined industrial demand analysis for millet in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria. The Primary data used for the investigation were obtained using structured questionnaires administered to 31 firms. Descriptive statistics; demand function and grafted polynomials model were used for the analysis of data. The results showed that price of millet, price of substitute maize, price of substitute sorghum and income derived were significant factors influencing quantities of millet demanded by industries at 1% probability level. The grafted polynomial model used for forecasting demand of millet in tonnes for Kaduna and Kano States showed an increase in industrial quantities demanded for a forecast period of 2006 to 2015. It is recommended that industrial demand of millet should be conducted for all States of the Federation, so that annual consumption can be estimated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Co-integration Analysis of the Determinants of Cotton Lint Exports from Mali

David Boansi, Boris Odilon Kounagbe Lokonon, John Appah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 544-561
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11440

Following recent declines in volume and value of cotton lint exports from Mali, we made use of the Johansen Full Information Maximum Likelihood test to identify the magnitude and effects of key drivers of cotton lint exports from the country. In this regard, we estimated two primary models using volume of exports as dependent variable in one and value of exports as dependent variable in the other. Results for the two primary models estimated show that exports are generally stimulated by production, improvement in competitiveness, openness to trade, increasing international trade and previous growth in exports. Growth in the country’s exports of the commodity is however noted to be hindered by both domestic and international forces. In as much as distortionary induced downward pressure on world prices impacts negatively on exports from the country, inefficiencies and constraints in the domestic environment preclude the country from appropriately exploiting opportunities and adjusting to unexpected market developments in the short-run. To revitalize the gloomy export trade of Mali in cotton lint, policy makers and various stakeholders in the industry should put in place measures to address domestic inefficiencies (over which the country has some control compared to inefficiencies on the global market) to keep the country in a better position to exploit market opportunities and adjust to unexpected developments in the shortest possible time. In addition, measures should be put in place to revive the declining cotton production industry, promote trade openness, and improve on the quality of cotton lint exports. Increased production could be achieved through supporting of farmers in diverse ways, including provision of credits, input distribution, appropriate transmission of price increments to farmers, and creating of favorable marketing environment for their produce in terms of access and information. Minimization of trade restrictions and appropriate liberalization of internal and external marketing could further enhance the country’s terms of trade index of exports. To improve the quality of exports, emphasis should be placed on improving the ginning process to ensure attainment of high quality lint for export.

Open Access Original Research Article

The State of Adoption of Yam Minisett Technique in Imo State, Nigeria

R. O. Anozie, S. N. Anozie, U. J. Usanga, O. E. Okelola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 562-568
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6916




The study was carried out to determine the state of adoption of yam minisett technique by farmers in Imo State. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed to select 90 respondents (yam farmers) from the area. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain useful information from the respondents. Results showed that 72% of the respondents were between 41 – 60 years of age, 56.7% were married, all attended formal education, 88% had above 5 years farming experience and 45.6% had below N100,000 net annual income from yam production. Findings also indicated that only 36.7% of respondents adopted the yam minisett technique. Age of the farmer, level of education, farming experience, educational level of farmers were factors found to have significant effect on adoption of the yam minisett technique. The farmers were also constrained by scarcity of inputs, low capital outlay, difficulty in obtaining loans, poor market for products and poor extension visit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Security in the United Arab Emirates; the Role of the State in Overseas Farm Crops Production

Saif S. Al Qaydi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 569-579
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11300

With its increasing population and continuing rapid infrastructural development in order to deal with international events such as Expo 2020, The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has created a pull-in environment for a large international labor force eager to work and settle down in the country. Food security has become an important issue as a result of the population growth and the labour force increase. The aim of this paper is to review and analyze a number of approaches, which could point the way to fostering policy options for achieving long term and sustainable food security for the UAE.
Within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the UAE produces an extremely limited amount of its necessary foodstuffs, and as the UAE population increased from 557,000 in 1975 to over 8.5million at the end of 2012, and during that time the annual expenditure on food imports exceeded AED 41.7billion (Arab Emirate Dirham, 1 USD=3.67 Dirham). In fact the country depends almost entirely on imports, especially cereals. Rice, for example, is a vital staple primarily imported from India, Pakistan, Thailand and Vietnam.
This paper focuses on the UAE alternatives to deal with food security by growing food in some friendly countries. Alternatives of 1) increasing food production locally; 2) direct importation; and 3) leasing farmland for food production in other friendly countries are examined to answer the main question raised in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Commercialisation Potential of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables: Case Study of Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

S. A. Mahlangu, A. Belete, Y. G. Beletse, J. J. Hlongwane

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 580-594
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7895

Aims: This study analyses the production and commercialisation potential of indigenous leafy vegetables (ILV) in the Capricorn district in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Specific objectives were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of ILVs producers in rural areas of Capricorn district, investigate constraints faced by farmers in commercialising ILVs in rural areas of Capricorn district, determine the productivity of indigenous leafy vegetables in rural areas of Capricorn district, and to assess different types of marketing channels of ILVs in rural areas of Capricorn district.
Study Design: The study used both qualitative and quantitative, cross-sectional data. The selection of ILV farmers within the study area was done using stratified random sampling procedure the strata being gender. Disproportionate random sampling procedure was used to select individual households.
Methodology: The study used Stochastic Frontier Production Function to determine the productivity and to assess the socio-economic characteristics of producers of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables. Bubble chart was also used to assess the marketing channels whilst consumer data was captured into a statistical package.
Results: ILV famer’s significant socio-economic factors and production factors that constraint them from commercialising their products were found to be the amount of labor required, cost of hiring tractor service, land devoted to ILVs, gender, age, household size, farming experience, farm size, hired labour, primary occupation and land ownership. Results indicated that the productivity of ILVs in the study area varied among farmers; some farmers had a high productivity but most farmers had a low productivity.
Conclusion: There is a great potential for commercialising ILV but there is a lot of work to be done in assisting farmers, for them to be sustainable and exploitation of these crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reinvestigating the Export-Led Growth Evidence in Malaysia: Bound Test Approach

Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Maymunah Ismail, Maizatul Saadiah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 595-604
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10536

International trade is an important contributor to Malaysia's economic growth and development. Malaysia's trade policy is to pursue efforts towards creating a more liberalizing and fair global trading environment. While Malaysia continues to accord high priority to the rule-based multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organisation (WTO), Malaysia is also pursuing regional and bilateral trading arrangements to complement the multilateral approach to trade liberalisation. Recently, Malaysia has successfuly established free trade agreement (FTA) with her close trading partner such as Japan, Pakistan, New Zealand, India, Chile and Australia. Knowing the importances of export contribution towards the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country, this paper aims to reinvestigates the evidence of Export-Led-Growth Hypothesis by using recent time series techniques known as Bound test. The data used in this paper is annually data ranged from 1980 to 2011. By modifying the standard Cobb-Douglas production function, we found out that export plays a significant role in contributing growth to the Malaysia’s economy. Besides, labor and capital are also vital for the development of the nation. We recommend few policies based on the result gained from this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of the Socioeconomic Conditions, Full Package, and Adoption of New Technologies of Wheat Crop at Irbid Governorate, Jordan

Masnat Al Hiary

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 605-618
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9880

The study explored socio economic conditions of wheat farmers to evaluate the impacts of the introduction of the full package(FP) which contains zero tillage, new varieties of wheat seed, adding fertilizer, using the combine, and using herbicides. Partial budget was used to work out the cost and returns of adopting the full package.
The principal method was the administration of a household questionnaire. The household questionnaire was designed to elicit basic numerical data on household structure, farm inputs and expenditures, crop production, wheat variety, farming method, and the strengths and opportunities of the new adopted technologies.
was also used to provide a framework for potential solutions (opportunities) and threats, and analysis of the FP. Garrett ranking was applied to rank a set of factors in adopting the FP as perceived by the sample respondents based on certain criteria.
A socio-economic questionnaire was designed to elicit basic numerical data. About 50 farmers were personally interviewed in Irbid governorate.
Farmers were characterized by large number of family members and good education. The percentage of the male to female was nearly the same. Results showed that 48% of farmers have finished high school, and 34% have higher education.
During 2012-2013 seasons, the participation of farmers in full package was very high. This is because adoption of improved crop management substantially increased farmer income. In other hands, the adoption of zero tillage is shown to increase steadily. Farmers started to gain awareness on the role of this system in achieving stability and higher profitability of wheat production. However, the adoption of this system could be further increased with the increase in availability of special driller’s equipment and farmer learning. About 32% of the sample adopted the full package, and 22% adopted the new verities of seeds.
Garrett ranking showed that there are new techniques have been adopted by the farmers through the full package. Using seeders is one of the main newly adopted techniques as mentioned by 90% of farmers. Regarding to the use of improved variety, there were about 84% of farmers mentioned that they have planted the improved variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Living Condition, Livelihood and Crop Diversification among Rural Farm Households in Remo Division of Ogun State Nigeria

A. O. Idowu, O. I. Ambali, A. S. Onasanya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 619-629
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/8608

This study empirically assesses the livelihood and crop diversification of rural farm households in Remo Division of Ogun State Nigeria. The study drew a sample of 120 rural farm households through a multi-stage sampling technique and the primary data obtained were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, Simpson Index, and Tobit regression model. Results indicated that an average farm household head was 43.9 years old and had 3.6 years of schooling. In term of living conditions, averagely, roads in the communities were tarred but in poor state with households sourced drinking water from borehole. Most farming communities had no access to health services but had primary school as the main educational institution. Ninety six per cent of the farm households diversified their cropping activities with 43.3 percent diversified into three or more crops. The Tobit results revealed that there were marginal increases in crop diversification with increase in household size, farm size and educational level but crop diversification decreases as farmers grow older in age and farming experience. Implications were drawn for provision of functional social amenities and encouragement of farmers to join/form cooperative societies for easy access to loans that promotes crop diversification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plantain Production Systems of Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria: Farmers’ Perception of Loss in Perennial Productivity and Abandonment of Orchards

A. A. Oso, M. O. Olaniyi, O. J. Ayodele

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 630-637
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10886

Plantain orchards are usually abandoned after two or three production cycles due to yield decline as accentuated by the non-adoption of management practices. This study was conducted to identify the causes of loss in perennial productivity that necessitate orchard abandonment. Information provided by 170 and 146 respondents, selected at five farmers each from two towns in each local government area of Ondo and Ekiti States, to questionnaire and interview schedules was analyze with descriptive statistics. Farmers were mainly married males, 40-60 years age and with 26.0 and 21.2% as illiterates; 67.1 and 61.8% had owned the farms for less than 15 years in Ekiti and Ondo States respectively. The farms were in small holdings with 80.8 and 78.8% cultivating less than 2.7 hectares (ha) which 32.9 and 38.2% allow to go into fallow in Ekiti and Ondo States respectively. Drought and damage by strong winds caused snapping while wind damage, shallow soils, high mat formation and root damage by pests caused plantain toppling. Ants, termites and grasshoppers were the commonest insect pests while 58.9 and 32.4% of farmers in Ekiti and Ondo States were aware of the presence and destructive effects of the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) respectively. The decline in productivity which results abandonment of plantain orchards after two or three ratoons could be due to ignorance exhibited by farmers especially in the awareness of pest incidence and damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Growth, Income Redistribution and Poverty Reduction: Experiences from Rural Nigeria

Adigun Grace Toyin, Awoyemi Taiwo Timothy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 638-653
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11239

The paper examines changes and the extent of poverty in rural Nigeria from 1996 to 2004. It investigates the contributions of growth and redistribution factors to changes in poverty within these eight years. The analysis is based on household National Consumer Survey (NCS) of 1996 and the National Living Standard Survey (NLSS) data of 2004 all collected by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Using Shapley Decomposition Approach, the study reveals that the extent of poverty in the rural sector declined slightly during the second period of study (2004). Decomposition of changes in poverty into growth and redistribution components indicate that both the growth and the redistribution component were poverty reducing but at different magnitudes indicating that the deterioration of income inequality contributes to the worsening of poverty in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Price and Non-price Incentives on Production and Marketable Surplus of Food Crops Supply in Ghana

Richard Ampadu-Ameyaw, Dadson Awunyo-Vitor

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 666-679
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11238

Aim: This study examined food crop farmers’ supply responsiveness to selected price and non-price variables.
Study Design: Cross-sectional design
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Ejura Sekyeredumasi District in the Ashanti Region of Ghana and data was collected in November 2013.
Methodology: A simple random sampling technique was used to sample 250 farmers for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from the sampled farmers on production and marketing of maize and cassava. The study used a modified Nerlovian supply model to analyse the data in order to assess farmers’ supply responsiveness to selected price and non-price variables.
Results: The results of the study revealed that food crop farmers respond favourably and promptly to incentive package (price or non-price factors) and this reflected in farmers’ output and farm management practices.
Conclusion: The study provides evidence to support price incentives and non-price factors on food crop supply response. It suggests that a strong complementary policy instrument involving price and non-price factors will provide a fillip to agricultural productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Gender Dimension of Vulnerability to Climatic Shocks in Low Income Country

Gutu Tesso

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 690-704
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/9716

Gender mainstreaming within policies and programs has remained a big priority among government and non-governmental organizations. In all societies, in all parts of the world, gender equality is not yet realized. Men and women have different roles, responsibilities and decision-making powers. Many people, however, find it difficult to understand in what way gender might be a factor in climate change (CC) or how it should be addressed. The prevailing gender power differences in terms of command over different capital endowments have significant impact on being disproportionately vulnerable to climate variability and its negative consequences. This article attempts to uncover the gender difference in vulnerability to the occurrences of climatic extremes with a survey of 452 households conducted in the central part of Ethiopia and time series data of climate variability and its impacts on livelihood. Trend analysis and statistical measurements were used to analyze the data. The study found out that there is a gendered vulnerability. Therefore, there is a need for gendered intervention in terms of policies and actions to reduce women’s vulnerability and build their resilience.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating the Efficiency of Maize Farmers in Ghana

Gifty Sienso, Samuel Asuming-Brempong, D. P. K Amegashie

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 705-720
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11646

A lot of investment has been made in the agricultural sector of Ghana to increase agricultural production through the introduction of new technologies. However, it has been observed that despite efforts being made by the government through the introduction of new varieties of maize the productivity of maize farmers is generally low.
Aim: This study sought to assess the efficiency of farmers.
Place: In Nkoranza, BrongAhafo Region, Ghana at 1º 10’W and 1º 55’W and latitudes 7º 20N and 7º 55N.
Methodology: The study employed the stochastic frontier model by fitting a Translog production function for the 2008 cropping season. The socio-economic and management practices that influence technical efficiency were determined. Input elasticities as well as allocative efficiency of the farmers were also determined.
Results: A mean technical efficiency of 91 percent was obtained for maize farmers. There was a distinct variability in mean technical efficiency among farmers cultivating the improved variety and those cultivating the local variety. Variety of maize cultivated by the farmer, sex of the farmer, experience of maize farmer, distance of the farm from the farmers’ residence and number of times a farmer gets extension visits were found to have significant effect on technical efficiency. Allocatively, maize farmers were found to be over utilizing labour but underutilizing fertilizer and seeds in the study area. The study recommended that more extension staff should be trained so that their services could be extended to more farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Influence on Farmer’s Level of Involvement in Utilization and Conservation of Bambara Groundnut

Oyugi Millicent, O. M. J. Nandi, David Amudavi, Valerie Palapala

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 721-737
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10285

Aims: To understand the role of gender on Bambara groundnut cultivation with respect to levels of farmers’ involvement in utilization and conservation in Western Kenya.
Study Design: A questionnaire was administered to 120 farmers in two districts. The districts neighbor each other and do share common ecological attributes and therefore, provided sufficient population for the study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in 2009 in Mumias and Butere Districts of Western Kenya.
Methodology: Level of involvement in Bambara groundnut utilization and conservation activities was measured by farmers’ level of participation using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression equation. Aspects of utilization examined included food preparation, selling and social capital. Crop conservation variables analyzed included; seed selection, seed preservation and seed storage. Crop utilization (CUI) and Crop conservation (CCI) indices were computed to determine the relationship between gender and level of involvement.
Results: There was significant influence of gender on farmer’s level of involvement in the districts. Involvement level of female farmers was higher than the male farmers in production and conservation activities. Overall, there was significant difference in the means of the computed CUI and CCI Indices between males and females. CCI indicated that women participation in conservation activities was higher (2.71+0.477 and 2.54+0.8) than the males (1.8+0.500 and 2.04+0.82) in both Mumias and Butere districts. This confirmed that the females have a higher level involvement in conservation activities than males. Computed CUI indicated considerable difference in means with women having a high index (2.86+0.315 and 2.6+¬0.713) than males (1.51+0.448 and 1.70+0.587). For both districts, ANOVA for Gender and CUI were significant (F=30.799, p=0.00; F=174.332, p=0.000) as was for CCI (F=46.913, p=0.000; F=6.304, p=0.015).
Conclusion: The high level of involvement of female farmers in the utilization and conservation necessitate consideration of gender role in the transfer of farm technology. Findings provide extension agencies with guidelines for mainstreaming gender roles to target the right clientele by gender in order to enhance the revival and utilization of underutilized crops as an alternative food crop. Agricultural extension agents therefore need to adopt specific models of intervention, approaches and time schedules to enhance the role played by the farmers in revitalizing utilization and conservation of Bambara groundnut. Female farmers should be accorded special attention by extension officers seeking to improve agricultural productivity. Similarly dissemination of innovations to farmers should be appropriate to each gender.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Acquisition and Types of Crops Cultivated by Farmers in Ayedaade Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria

Comfort O. Adamu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 738-745
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/11506

The research was carried out to assess the problems associated with land acquisition and their effect on the type of crops cultivated. Multistage sampling technique was used for selecting 120 farmers for the study. Results showed that the mean age of the farmers was 50.5 years, 76.7% were male and 66.7% married. Also, 64.2% had one form of education or the other with 65.0% having a farm size of less than 2.0ha and 48.3% having farming experience of 1-10years. Methods of land acquisition were mainly through inheritance (42.5%) and purchase (28.3%) with 76.7% cultivating arable crops like cassava and/or maize. Furthermore, (45.8%) of this were as intercrop. Access to market (43.3%) and credit facilities/needed finance (24.2%) influence the choice of crops cultivated. Chi-square analysis showed significant association (p<0.05) between method of land acquisition and education (p=0.00), age (p=0.02). Also there was significant relationship between method of land acquisition and types of crop cultivated (p=0.00). Most respondents were small scale farmers and could not increase their farm size due to financial constraints. Size of farm land was found to influence type of crop cultivated. Thus, the study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to cultivate bigger farm size and government should revisit the land tenure system and land use act to encourage acquisition of more land for agricultural activities.

Open Access Review Article

Economic Benefits of Food Legume Cultivation in Benue State-Nigeria

D. P. Ani, J. C. Umeh, E. A. Weye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 654-665
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/6506

There has been an increased advocacy on food legume cultivation as an economical and sustainable means of soil fertilization due to the inherent problems of inorganic fertilizers such as unavailability, high cost, environmental hazards and soil degradation. This study was therefore undertaken to assess the effect of food legume cultivation on farmers’ output, income, household inventory and inorganic fertilizer usage. The study adopted “adopters and non-adopters”method in assessing the effect of food legume technology adoption on farmers’welbeing. The study which was carried out in 2007 & 2009 respectively employed multi-stage sampling techniques in selecting 300 respondents and data were collected using structured questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics, correlation and t-test were used to analyse the data. The result of correlation analysis shows that a significant positive relationship exist between age, household size, farming experience, quantity of inorganic fertilizer used and the number of legumes planted by farmers. The result shows that a significant positive difference (t = 7.04, 2.84, 2.33, 4.09 and 2.62; P = .05) was found between household inventories of the cultivators and non- cultivators of legume crops in terms of household ownership, quality of roof, wall, water source and possession of phone. Similarly, the mean aggregate crop yield of adopters was found to be significantly higher (t = 2.055; P = .05) than that of the non-adopters. Also, non-adopters used a significantly higher (t=2.007; P = .05) quantities of inorganic fertilizers than the adopters. The major constraints of food legume production includes pests and diseases, drought, erosion and tediousness involved in the farm work. The study concludes that cultivation of legume crop by farmers improved their aggregate crop outputs, income and livelihood. The study recommends increased awareness campaign on the cultivation of food legume crops, adequate and regular supply of production and marketing inputs to ensure sustainability of the technology.

Open Access Review Article

A Stochastic Frontier Production Function Approach to Technical Efficiency among Cassava Farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria

S. O. Anyanwu, A. E. Kalio, S. O. Olatunji, L. Akonye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 746-755
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/7208

In this study the stochastic frontier production function approach was employed in the empirical analysis of technical efficiency among smallholder cassava farmers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the data generation exercise. A total of 94 cassava farmers were randomly selected from ten out of the fifteen Upland Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria, for interview using structured questionnaire. The results showed that there was a significant positive and elastic relationship between output of cassava and farm sizes, family labour, cassava stem cuttings, and depreciated values of implements among cassava farmers in Rivers State. Production elasticity estimates showed that the farmers were experiencing increasing returns to scale (1.27). The significant determinants of technical inefficiency among these farmers include Age, household size and farming experience. The mean technical efficiency of the farms was 70%. This shows that there is still room for the farmers to increase their technical efficiency as they grow older in age. Furthermore, incentives on cassava farming such as subsidized inputs from the governments should be skewed in favor of the older and more experienced farmers.

Open Access Review Article

Tanzania Economic Performance from Pre-Independence to the Current Period: Did We Pursue the Right Way?

Odass Bilame

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 756-772
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2014/10481

This study has gone a long way in showing the trend of economic performance before and after independence. The study aimed at shedding light on the kind of economic trend that Tanzania experienced from the Arusha declaration--a declaration that paved the way for Tanzanian socialism under the Ujamaa policy--all along to the current policy reforms. The study was a case study design focusing on Tanzania economic performance before and after independence.
The methodology that was used involved reviewing various documents and publications that explain the trend of economic performance that cover the period under review. In a way, a descriptive analysis of the information/data from those sources took a centre stage. The results show that after independence some achievements were sustained in terms of economic growth but were then eroded by the negative impacts that emanated from waging a war against Uganda in 1978. By the time the war ended in 1980, Tanzanian economy was hardest hit. It was due to this deteriorating economic performance that Tanzania launched policy reforms under the name of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). In the late 1980s and early 1990s some economic achievements that had far reaching effects to the rural people were sustained following the implementation of the reforms. Since then, Tanzania further pursued other policy reforms that ranged from Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) all along to National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP). Indeed, all these policy reform programmes have indeed influenced economic growth that is not inclusive because a sector like agriculture that employs over 75 percent of Tanzanians has been left aside and as such the economic growth that has been sustained has not trickled down due to poor distributional dynamics. To this end, agriculture has been hit the hardest because it has been excluded in contributing to the economic growth. In a way, the rural people are increasingly becoming poorer. The study concludes that in order to have a balanced reforms strategy, equal distribution of the national cake is of paramount importance. This can only be achieved if economic growth is inclusive of all sectors of the economy and in particular inclusive of the agricultural sector that employs the majority of Tanzanians.