Open Access Original Research Article

Factors that Influences Consumption of Processed Sweet Potato Products in Tanzania

Joel. J. Mmasa, Melchior Mlambiti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/8975

The general objective of this study was to describe a socio-economic factor that influences consumption of processed sweet potato products. The study was cross sectional in design and was conducted in Shinyanga and Mwanza regions. The study employed individual interviews, focused group discussions, review of relevant practical documents and discussions from a total of 50 surveyed households. The data collected was summarized using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) windows versions 18.0, excel and content analysis.The survey revealed that two factors mostly influences one to consume processed sweet potato were attractive packaging (51.0%) and nutritional value (34.7%). Other factors mentioned included; taste (95.0%), freshness (80.8%), shelf life (85.8%), texture (57.5%), economy (price) (57.5%), Nutritional factor (72.5%) and color (50.8%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Micro and Small Scale Agribusinesses in Northern Region of Ghana: Non-financial Analysis

John K. Bidzakin, Simon C. Fialor, Daniel Asuming-Brempong

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11997

The need for the reduction in poverty status of rural people through the development of Agribusiness is of paramount concern to most governments. Agribusiness in Africa is considered the catalyst for economic growth and poverty reduction. The importance of Agribusiness to the development of Ghana is quiet clear however very little is done to develop it. The broad question is, are these businesses not doing well? The paper is aimed at assessing the performance of Micro and Small Business using the non-financial method. 160 Micro and Small Business were surveyed across the northern region of Ghana using multi-stage sampling approach in 2012. The result showed that the four most important objectives of the entrepreneurs were achieved. This included; to increase level of household income, to increase security of household income, to enhance business profitability, and Satisfaction from running own Business. The most important challenges identified are, lack of working capital, Poor access to credit, and High cost of credit. There is agreement among the objectives and challenges identified by entrepreneurs of micro and small Agribusiness. Entrepreneurs were generally satisfied with the performance of their Businesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Use of Organic Manure by Female Vegetable Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

K’esit K. Nkeme, Otu W. Ibok, Idaresit U. Umoh, Okon T. Umoh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12602

The study investigated the factors influencing the use of poultry droppings by female farmers in Anantiga vegetable site, Calabar-South Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was used to select sixty female vegetable farmers for the study. Primary data were gathered through the use of a structured questionnaire and an oral interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and Likert scale rating techniques were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study showed that, about 75%, being the majority of the farmers were educated, 68.33% rented the farm land used for cultivation of vegetable, 95% of the farmers have never been visited by extension agent, and 88.33% of the farmers were low income farmers, earning between ₦1,000 and ₦14,999 monthly. The following factors: farmers not being aware of the potentials of using organic manure, inadequate access to organic manure materials, low output price of vegetables, poverty, negative attitude of government, consumer's preference, and poor organization/cooperation of farmer significantly influenced the use of poultry droppings in the study area. The study recommends among others that sustained enlightenment campaigns and enactment of policies that meet the needs and also support organic vegetable farming in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Production and Sustainability in Nigeria

Chukwunonso Gerald Iheoma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-41
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11518

Two major issues that have recently dominated international development debates are climate change on the one hand and the survival of agricultural production systems on the other hand. This study therefore attempts to provide sufficient empirical evidence-base for invigorated debate on the development of the agricultural sector in Nigeria in the context of climate change. The data analysis follows two approaches: when climate change is captured in the model and when it is not. After extensive and rigorous analysis of data, results reveal that if climate change is isolated from the model, irrigation, fertilizer, arable land and agricultural labour significantly correlate with crop production both on the aggregate and on individual samples; agricultural labour is a significant factor influencing livestock production; while agricultural machinery and population density significantly determine forestry output. After accounting for climate change, analysis indicates that crop and livestock sub-sectors are impacted by rainfall alone, while both rainfall and temperature impact on fishery. Conversely, forestry is not significantly affected by climate change. Findings equally reveal that the impact of other agricultural inputs is significantly reduced by climate change, indicating that beside the direct negative impact of climate change on agriculture, it can also have an indirect negative effect by reducing the impact of other agricultural production inputs. Further breakdown of the crop sub-sector shows that only the rainfall component of climate change will impact on cassava alone. The impact of climate change on yam, rice, sorghum, millet and maize is found to be insignificant. Also, irrigation, fertilizer, arable land and agricultural labour are found to be significantly associated with the sample crops. However, this association is appreciably reduced by the forces of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Education and Certified Seeds on Wheat Production in Kohat, Pakistan

Arif Ullah, Syed Noor Muhammad Shah, Zheng Shaofeng, Munir Khan, Shahid Ali

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13256

The study was conducted to investigate the impact of education and certified seed on wheat production in district Kohat, Pakistan. For the purpose, proportional allocation sampling technique was used and total of 100 respondents randomly selected to get necessary information. Simple budgeting technique was used for cost and return of wheat production. The econometric technique, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) OLS estimation model was used to analyze contribution of major factors in the wheat yield. The sign of explanatory variables were found according to our prior expectation of the economic theory. The estimated results of production function indicated that farm yard manure(FYM), total fertilizer nutrient applied and labor days had positive and significantly effect on wheat yield, seed rate had positive but insignificant effect on wheat yield. The impact of both Dummy variables i.e. education and certified seed was positive and significantly affect wheat yield. Finally, it was suggested that there is the need for strengthening agricultural extension services in the study area in order to educate the farming community to ensure the use of recommended certified seed and modern agriculture technology for getting high yield of wheat crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Importance and Growth Rate of Broiler Chickens Fed with Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) Meal Supplements

Friday C. Nworgu, Philip C. N. Alikwe, Gabriel N. Egbunike, Elijah I. Ohimain

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12542

An 8-week experiment was conducted to assess the weight gain and the economic importance of broiler chickens fed with Water Leaf Meal Supplements (WLM). One hundred and fifty day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 treatments which contained 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% of WLM for A, B, C, D and E, respectively, in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The birds were fed with the same starter and finisher diets. The feed and water were served ad libitum. The WLM is fairly rich in protein (19.8%), ash (10.00%) and low in oxalate and tannin. Results show that the feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and water intake (WI), the cost of feed per kg live weight gain and final body weight were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the dietary treatments at both starter and finisher phases. At the starter phase, increasing concentration of WLM in the diets led to significant (P<0.05) proportional increase in FCE. But at finisher's phase, increasing the dietary concentration of WLM led to significant (P<0.05) improvement in the FCE of the broiler. The cost of feed consumed was least on birds fed with 12% WLM (N165.31) while the highest was on the birds fed control diet (N189.85). The cost of live weight gain/kg varied from N93.96 in birds fed 12% WLM supplement to NI19.60in control, while the cost of feed consumed was least on the broiler finisher fed 12% WLM (N165.31) and highest in the control (N 189.85). Least feed cost was recorded on the birds fed with 12% WLM (N217.78/bird) and highest in the control diet (N249.97/bird). The highest profit margin was made on the birds fed with 12% WLM followed by the control diet (N 135.07/bird) and least on those fed with 9% WLM (N 119.36). The cost of feed per kilograms live weight (CFPKLW) at starter phase increased with higher concentration of WLM compared to the control, but at finishers phase, CFPKLW decreased with progressive increase in the concentration of dietary WLM. The highest profit of N145.10/bird was made by the birds fed with12% WLM while the control was N135.07/bird and 3-6%.WLM was N133.82. The benefit cost ratio followed a similar trend, it varied from 1.34:1in control to 1.40:1 in birds fed 12% WLM supplement. The study indicated that WLM is cost effective in the replacement of GNC and SBM in broiler feed without deleterious effect on performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Analysis and Adoption of Improved Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties by Farmers in the North West Region of Cameroon

I. N. Manu, D. N. Tarla, G-F Chefor, E. E. Ndeh, I. Chia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/9975

This study was carried out during April -September 2013 in the North West Region of Cameroon on the socio-economic analysis and adoption of improved maize varieties (IMVs).One hundred and forty farmers were administered semi-structured questionnaires and the data were analysed using SPSS. Socio-economic analysis showed that majority of the sample size were female (50.70%), aged below 50 with an average of nine members per household. Majority of the respondents were Christians (82.60%) and had formal education with access to extension services (72.70%). Most of the farmers depended on household generated income mainly from farm activities. Most of the farm sizes were below 2ha indicating low scale production and low capacity to obtain loans. In the study area, maize was allocated over 60.00% of the farm lands. The level of adoption was found to be 74.30%, with 25.70% of the farmers cultivating both IMVs and local ones. Three IMVs were identified - Coca white, Kasai and ATP with the latter being the most widely cultivated. Chi Square test was used to analyze the determining factor of adoption of IMVs. Gender, level of education, access to extension services, access to credit/loans and possession of off-farm income were found to be the determinants meanwhile the other factors were not. The t-test was used to analyze the four pillars of food security as concerns produced maize in adopter and non-adopter households. The analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the level of yields and quantity sold. This study concluded that adopting improved maize seeds is beneficial to the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Household Endowment on Fertilizer Use in Rice Production in Kwande, Benue State, Nigeria

Fater H. Gasarah, Goodness C. Aye

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12272

This study investigated the effect of household endowment on the use of fertilizer by rice farmers in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 100 randomly selected rice farmers through the use of structured questionnaires. Logit regression was used to analyze the data. The Logit results show that age, household size, education and credit were significant factors affecting fertilizer use among rice farmers in the study area. While household size, education and credit increased the probability of adoption of fertilizer, age decreased the probability. This emphasises the need for the relevant policy intervention to encourage technology adoption in the study area. Specifically, the government is recommended to enact and implement policies that will raise the physical, human and social capital of the households in the Benue State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Construction of a Socio-economic Status Scale for Rural Dwellers in Northern Nigeria

M. A. Adegboye, O. B. Oyesola, E. O. Olumodeji

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/8548

Actual assessment of the socio-economic status (SES) is best carried out through a well constructed SES scale in line with the dynamic nature of SES indicators in every community. Therefore, this study was carried out to construct a standardised SES scale for rural dwellers in northern Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used for this study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a state from each of the 3 geo-political zones of northern Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select 30% of the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in each selected state; to have 3 from 11 LGAs in Gombe, 7 from 23 in Kaduna and 5 from 16 in Kwara states. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 2 villages from each LGA to ensure that the selected villages were not from the same side of any LGA. Then, random sampling technique was used to select 13 household heads from each of the villages given a total of 390 respondents. Interview schedule was used to collect data for the study. Sigma scoring method was used to measure the variables while Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and t-test were used for data analysis. Only 28 of the items collated were discovered valid, to be standardised into SES scale, when item analysis was conducted with r≥0.30 considered good for assessing SES of the rural dwellers in the northern Nigeria. There was a significant difference between high and low socio-economic status rural dwellers (t=2.33, p=0.03); indicating that the scale was valid. Similarly, high correlation (r=0.69; p=0.02) of the split-half score of the respondents for the reliability test shows that the scale was reliable. Therefore, the scale is recommended for the researchers in rural sociology, rural development agencies and policy makers towards better life for rural dwellers in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Run Co Integration Modeling for Rainfall, Yield and Prices of Cereals and Legume in Nigeria

G. A. Abu, P. I. Ater, I. E. Tor

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 86-100
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11846

This study established a long run relationship in rainfall, yield and prices of soya bean, rice and maize for (1975-2009) period in Nigeria. Annual secondary time series data on selected parameters were collected in thirty six states including Abuja in six agro ecological zones and analysed. The result revealed that mean yield of soya bean, rice and maize in Nigeria were 0.52 mt/ha, 1.76 mt/ha, 1.38 mt/ha respectively. The average price of soya bean, rice and maize were N80, 316.38, N95, 044.85 and N85, 140.00 per ton respectively. Average rainfall figure was 1953.51mm/annum with the range of 594 to 4,046. The Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test of stationarity revealed that rainfall; yield and prices of soya bean, rice and maize were non stationary at level but stationary on first differencing. The Johansen Co integration analyses revealed a long run equilibrium relationship among rainfall, yield and prices of soya bean, rice and maize. Further analysis using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) on these variables showed that soya bean price had a negative influence (-0.11) on soya bean yield, variation in rice prices had no significant causal influence on rice yield. Contrarily maize price variation had significant positive influence on maize yield (0.08) though with low magnitude. Regarding rainfall generally, the study showed that rainfall had a significant negative influence (-0.44,-1.01,-0.21) on yield of soya bean, rice and maize respectively. Short run analysis of Granger causality test showed no causal influence in the short run for all the variables. Also the result of impulse response showed that shocks to any of the variables had a persistent effect on the others for more than ten years. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that Co integration model should be adapted in using time series data to achieve more effective and efficient result in prediction and policy evaluation in long run situations. Above all, sustainable productivity, increased growth and economic development can be achieved if marketing can be more efficiently organized for more attractive producer prices for increased production of soya bean and cereals annually.