Open Access Case study

Meeting Maize Requirement Production Targets through Utilisation of Potential Irrigable Area: Case of Zimbabwe

L. Musemwa, P. Matsika, C. Gadzirayi, J. Chimvuramahwe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 171-185
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13227

Zimbabwe, the once bread basket country of Southern Africa is experiencing recurring food shortages as a result of poor maize harvest. Researchers and politicians have blamed recurring droughts coupled with and lack of timely planting as the main cause of poor yields. This paper assessed whether Zimbabwe could meet its maize requirement if it revamp irrigation infrastructure and utilise its potential irrigable land for maize production. Data for the 8 rural provinces of Zimbabwe on potential irrigable area for the year 2013 was obtained from Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development. The study assumed four scenarios of average maize yields namely 0.8 tonnes, 2 tonnes, 5 tonnes and 10 tonnes per hectare.
From the analysis it was found out that Zimbabwe has a total of 374 598 hectares of potential irrigable area in its 8 rural provinces of which the majority is occupied by A2, ARDA and Large Scale Commercial Farmers. Of the potential irrigable land, Manicaland Province has the largest area (117 163ha). Assuming that the maize output for the 2013/14 agricultural season of 1.2 million metric tonnes is maintained in the next coming agricultural season, the use of potential irrigable land for maize production of an average yield of 0.8 tonnes will result in a shortfall of a 0.6 million metric tonnes. At an average yield of 2 tonnes per hectare, a shortfall of 0.2 million metric tonnes will be experienced. All the other assumed scenarios, 5 tonnes and 10 tonnes per hectare, will result in Zimbabwe producing surplus maize. In order to insure that all the potential irrigable area is used for maize production the study recommended the issuing of maize starter packs for all those owning potential irrigable area, subsidisation of maize inputs by the government as well as setting of price floors for maize production and ensuring ready and reliable maize markets.

Open Access Minireview Article

Critique of Baseline Conditions of the Third National Fadama Development Project in Kogi State of Nigeria: Beneficiaries’ Perspective

M. U. Dimelu, C. D. Innih, A. I. Emodi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 186-194
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11283

The study reviewed baseline conditions of the third National Fadama Development Project in Kogi State from beneficiaries’ perspective. The synthesis was based on interview with 100 randomly selected members of adama - users, focus group discussion and official document of the project. Majority (71.0%) of the respondents were males, married (88.0%) with household size of seven persons and with a mean age of 45 years. The study revealed several shortfalls and gaps in the planning, execution and management of the project. The approach of the project though supposedly community driven seems not to have accommodated the priority needs of beneficiaries because the farmers were probably not actively represented in the planning of the project. Fadama beneficiaries did not benefit from the Agricultural Development Program (ADP) Support and Adaptive Research component and the advisory service was not demand responsive as designed to be. Moreover, the strength of the project in terms of resources was more on maintenance/logistics than the actual implementation process at the farmers’ level. The study recommends that development planners should evolve appropriate and stringent measures to ensure effective monitoring and increased involvement of the beneficiaries and other stakeholders in the planning and implementation of development project. The design of project should be flexible to accommodate various geographical peculiarities. Development intervention should be gender sensitive with specific projects and funds for women and the vulnerable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acreage Response of Cotton in Benin: Macro-level Response and Some Policy Implications

Boris Odilon Kounagbè Lokonon

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 101-112
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12785

Cotton is very important for the economy and for poverty alleviation in Benin. However, cotton lint production started having a decreasing trend since 2003, and this is due to the decline in cotton acreage. Thus, to help inform policy decisions on how cotton production could be boosted, this study estimated acreage response of cotton by the means of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) over the period 1971-2011. In this regards, the model is estimated using the Hendry Error Correction Model. The results reveal that, in the long run, cotton acreage depends positively and significantly on the exchange rate, total number of tractor used, and lagged real producer price of cotton seed, and negatively and significantly on lagged producer price of rice paddy. In the short run, cotton acreage is significantly driven by rural population growth, and lagged real producer price of cotton seed, and is negatively influenced by lagged producer price of rice paddy. These results suggest that Benin could improve cotton production by putting in place measures to increase area devoted to cotton production, reduce labor shortages, eliminate inefficiencies in cotton sector management, and promote tractor use. Moreover, the central bank could maintain current exchange rate policy and reinforce it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Competitiveness of Banana Production in the Mampong Municipality of Ashanti Region of Ghana

Fred Nimoh, Sarfo Yaw, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 113-124
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11605

Using household-level survey data, this study investigates the relative competitiveness of banana production in the Mampong municipality of Ashanti region of Ghana. Empirical results from discounting and non-discounting technique of project evaluation show that banana production is relatively profitable than other staple crops such as maize and cassava, despite the relatively higher investment required. Production of banana is also constrained by lack of funds and lack of labour in the study area. Policy efforts should be geared toward addressing the problems that discourage farmers from cultivating crops such as banana. Farmers should also be educated and encouraged to cultivate banana as an alternative crop that can maximize their long-term returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Poverty Determinants in South Sudan: The Case of Renk County

Adam E. Ahmed, Somaia Roghim, Ali Saleh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 125-136
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12724

This paper aimed to identify and analyzed the main determinants of poverty in South Sudan prior it secession from Sudan in 2011. Primary data were collected using structured household questionnaire. A sample of 200 households was interviewed in Renk County. Multiple Regression analysis was used for estimating poverty determinants. The results of the determinants analyses indicated that secondary education, widow household heads, female household heads, government and private sector employees, petty traders, Gango, dysentery infection, mixed source of water are the main poverty determinants in the urban area. While university education, married household heads, household size, female household heads, farmers, Gango, petty traders, total agricultural land, goats’ ownership and numbers of chicken per households are the rural poverty determinants. As spending on education, health, drinking water and electricity are not only the responsibility of the households but also of the government. It could be concluded that most of poverty determinants could be resolved if the government shoulder its responsibility in providing education, health, drinking water, electricity services as well as providing sufficient salaries for the government employees' and creating, supporting and financing the income generating activities for the non-government employees for both urban and rural households in the State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Women in Artisanal Fishery: Implication for Food Security in Rivers State, Nigeria

F. E. Nlerum, A. Bagshaw

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13186

Aims: The aims of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of respondents, determine their roles in artisanal fishery, identify their marine food resource outputs, analyze contributions of artisanal fishery to food security and determine constraints of women artisanal fishers in fish production.
Study Design: A survey method involving the random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study.
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in Akuku-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria and it was conducted from 1st of March, to 31st of August, 2012.
Methodology: The sample size of the study was made up of 116 women artisanal fishers which constituted the respondents of the study. Data were elicited from women fisher-folks with a structured interview schedule which were randomly administered by trained enumerators. Percentage, mean and multiple regressions were used for analyses of data.
Results: Result shows that the mean age of the respondents was 38.4 years, while the mean years spent in schooling was poor (6.5 years). Contact with extension agents per month was poor (0.2 times). Further, results indicate that, actual fishing for marine food resources (93.1%) and sales of fishing gears (87.9%) were the major roles performed by the respondents. Their mean performed rate index of 31.5% was poor. Results of multiple regression shows significant relationship between the roles performed and socio-economic characteristics of respondents such as age (0.001), educational level (0.089) and monthly contact with extension agents (0.001) at p ∠0.05 level of significance. Periwinkle harvesting was the major (70.7%) marine food output in the study area. Artisanal fish production was the primary (75.7%) source of livelihood of the respondents. Water pollution by crude oil and gas spillage constituted the major (75.9%) constraint to artisanal fishery in the study area.
Conclusion: Poor mean performed role recorded in the study may have been caused by poor contact of respondents with extension agents and water pollution by oil and gas spillage. In order to improve the role performed by artisanal fisher folks, the study recommends enhanced contact of extension agents with respondents and stopping of water pollution by crude oil and gas companies in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Price Risk: An Application to Organic Tea Production in Vietnam

Nghia Dai Tran, John F. Yanagida

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 146-157
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13095

Traditionally, tea famers have been used chemicals to protect products. But an over usage of pesticides or preservation compounds has negatively affected on the environment and human health. When the living standard has been improved, consumers have changed into buying cleaner and safer products. Therefore, conventional tea production has been gradually converted into organic ones health requirement standards. However, lacks of researches about profit level as well as potential price risk for organic tea industries might be hard to pursue famers and policy makers about that movement.
Thai Nguyen province, one of Northern mountainous provinces, has been well-known for its high quality and quantity tea production in Vietnam for along time, which mainly contributes to make tea become one of the country’s primary industrial exports. In this field, Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was applied to estimate profit levels for 180 tea growers selected from four representative communes of two tea producing districts of the Thai Nguyen province. A risk analytical model using the Monte Carlo method was developed to link risk levels to profit for organic tea producers when the premium price for organic tea and market conditions change.
This study shows that organic tea production has a higher profit efficiency level (0.836) than conventional tea production (0.454). If the price premium is removed, the probability that organic tea farmers incur a negative profit is about 22.5% and the probability that the farmers receive profits below the average observed profit increases by 42.5%. Maintaining the price premium is a policy option promoting a smoother transition to organic tea production by stabilizing income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Productivity among Women in Development Activity: A Case Study of the Cassava Women Farmers of Benue Agricultural Development Project, Nigeria

Atagher Monica Mwuese, E. C. Okorji

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 158-165
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/12986

The need to improve productivity and local production of cassava to meet internal demand, and the export drive in the Nigerian economy necessitated this study. Factors affecting productivity levels achieved by cassava women farmers of Benue agricultural development project (ADP) were investigated. Structured questionnaire were randomly administered to 87 ADP cassava women farmers across the three agricultural zones of the state. Data analysis was through descriptive statistics, total factor productivity and regression techniques. Results showed a total factor productivity of 2.66 across study farms implying that the respondents’ farm enterprises were productive. Regression analysis indicated that the use of improved cassava stem cuttings (x5), amount of agrochemicals used (x6), farm size (x7) and access to credit (x9) significantly explained variations in the respondents’ output. Therefore, the study recommends that enhancement of respondents’ access to better farm sizes, credit, agrochemicals and improved cassava varieties would improve productivity across farms in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic and Inorganic Manure Use among Vegetable Farmers in Owerri Municipal of Imo State, Nigeria: A Comparative Approach

A. Henri-Ukoha, J. S. Orebiyi, I. J. Uhuegbulam, I. O. Oshaji, A. Ikenna

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 166-170
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13068

The study compared the use of organic and inorganic manure among vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) farmers in Owerri Municipal of Imo State. Random sampling technique was adopted to select six organic manure users as well as six inorganic manure users from each of the five randomly selected communities making a total of 60 vegetable farmers in the area. The sampling frame was obtained from the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) extension agent in the area. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics and net return model. Results show that both organic and inorganic manure use were profitable but inorganic manure use among vegetable farmers was more profitable. It was recommended that farmers be enlightened and encouraged to use inorganic manure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of a Long-Run Cost Function for Bananas Cultivation in Jordan

Bassam Aldeseit, Ali AL-Sharafat, Maher Yousef

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 195-201
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/11419

This study aimed at investigating bananas production in Jordan in terms of estimating the long run cost function and deriving the associated parameters. A field survey was carried out to collect the primary data in Ghore Area of Jordan (Jordan Valley). Simple random and purposive sampling procedure was followed in this study. Interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was constructed to collect the needed information from 66 sampled farmers. The findings of the study showed that both the long run marginal costs and long run average costs were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.13 JDs/kg of bananas respectively. The optimum size of production and the production level with maximum profit for the sampled farms were 8695.65 kgs 13043 kgs respectively. Both the optimum size of production and the production level with maximum profit of the sampled farms were much higher of the average production of these farms by 2260 and 3997 JDs respectively. The sampled farmers have a chance to increase their profits by adopting practices to decrease their long run production costs or by achieving cost efficiency.