In the present social - economic conditions of our country, the problem of objective analysis and research of the population’s everyday social life, of its wellbeing, of the living standard and lifestyle, of the quality of life as a whole, becomes more and more present and significant. The level of pensions in Romania has been a favourite topic of debate and analysis since 1990 until now. Aging and reducing the number of jobs produce structural changes in socio-economic terms over the active and inactive population. The growing number of pensioners, has led to the inability to create a social system for older people able to provide a decent income for them. The phenomenon requires concrete and concerted social action to influence developments in the sense of autonomy and welfare of life of elderly people, for a healthy aging and to ensure a good quality of life. Focus group interview is an interview the group focuses on a specific theme, strictly defined, which is led by a moderator and belongs to the category of qualitative techniques for data collection for the analysis of perceptions, motivations, feelings, needs and opinions of the people. This technique is a planned panel discussion organized to obtain perceptions related to an area of interest strictly delineated, deployed in a permissive environment; the discussion is often relaxed and enjoyable for the participants who share their ideas and perceptions. Research conducted with the help of the art focus group highlights the strengths and critical elements in analysis of the quality of life of the pensioners in the Jiu Valley (Hunedoara County, Romania).
Apart from its industrial uses, soybean is a cheap plant food source that the low-income population in Nigeria depends on for protein and nutrient needs, but there is a decline in its production and productivity. Identifying the production constraints is critical to formulating policies and programmes that would boost soybean output for domestic and industrial utilization. This study was undertaken in twelve villages of Benue State, Nigeria where a random sample of 120 soybean farmers was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The findings showed that the average age of the farmers, mean household size and mean soybean farming experience were 43 years, 12 persons and 16 years respectively. Also, the mean farm size was 2.1 hectares with an average annual soybean farm income of 61,758 Nigerian Naira (US$385.99). The study further found that the constraints of marketing, production and linkages hampered the increased production and productivity of soybean in Benue State. In the light of the above, there is need for training and re-training of extension workers to effectively disseminate soybean improved technologies to farmers. In addition, extension agents should provide soybean farmers marketing information, establish viable links between respondents and relevant stakeholders in order to improve access to inputs and modern technologies while the local and state governments establish rural markets with good marketing infrastructure and good rural roads to enable farmers have high returns on soybean investment.
Aims: This study assesses the efficiency of the micro credits of MEDINO in attaining food security via sustainable production with a case study of Maize under the Grass Field Participatory and Decentralised Rural Development Project (GP-DERUDEP). Study Design: It adopts a survey research design Place and Duration of the Study: MEDINO’s registered Maize farmers of the Mezam Division of the North West Region for a period of four months; January 2013 – April 2013. Methodology: The logistic method of estimation was adopted with data gotten from a systematic selection of MEDINO’s registered Maize farmers with a total of 250 farmers sampled with 30 percent being women and 70 percent being male as well as falling between the ages of 20 – 60 years. Results: It was realised the micro loans and agricultural educational scheme contributed significantly to the rural transformation but the rate of change in levels of production is impeded by the conservativeness of farmers in adapting to the present challenges towards food security. Conclusion: Thus, the study recommends a more sustainable training of agriculturist in a complete curriculum as a sustainable solution. MIDENO should train farmers on writing sustainable agricultural projects that fetch real funding.
The study examined the determinants of credit accessibility among cotton farmers in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was adopted to select two hundred and forty (240) cotton farmers for enumeration. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and the probit regression model were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that formal education, off-farm income, household size, farm size and farming experience were factors that significantly influenced credit accessibility to cotton farmers. Farmers had more access to informal sources of credit than the formal sources and the rate of accessibility to credit is highest among those sourcing from relatives and friends. The study recommends the need to educate farmers and create awareness on the importance of attaining higher level of formal education as it influences their farm output, credit demand and making rational choices.
Aims: This paper empirically investigated the impact of major risk mitigation strategies employed in the pineapple supply chain on the chains’ performance. Study design: A survey method involving the random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents for the study. Place and Duration of Study: The survey was conducted in Ghana between 13th April 2014–18th August 2014. Methodology: The ordinary least squareregression model was employed to analyze the primary data were collected through a survey with a sample of 303 top executives and participants operating in the pineapple supply chain. Results: The analytical results revealed that, not all the five (5) major mitigation strategies, mostly employed in pineapple supply chain significantly improved the performance of the chain. Risk acceptance, as a strategy to mitigate any of the risks studied undermined the performance of the chain. With the exception of acceptance as mitigation strategy, all studied strategies employed to mitigate demand related risk, significantly improved the chains’ performance. The adoption of control and coordination as strategies to mitigate supply and logistics related risk, significantly enhanced the chain’s performance respectively. Even though, none of the strategies embraced to mitigate political and weather related risks, significantly improved the chain’s performance, the used of coordination as a strategy to mitigate policy and regulatory risks, yielded significant improvement of the chain’s performance. With the exemption of avoidance and control mitigation strategies, none of the studied strategies employed to mitigate biological and environmental related risks significantly improved the performance of the chain. Also, the adoption of strategies such as avoidance, control and coordination to mitigate management and operation related risks significantly improved the performance of the chain. By mitigating finance related risk, with strategies such as control and coordination, the performance of the chain significantly improved. Conclusion: Therefore, to improve the pineapple supply chain performance, this study advocates the use of mitigating strategies such as avoidance, control and coordination to mitigate all the risk studied with the exception of political and weather related risk.
This study made a comparative analysis of two extension approaches, Farmer Field Schools and Master Farmer Training with the objective of finding out the effectiveness of these approaches as regards farmer knowledge gains, skills empowerment, farmer adoption of recommended practices and cost effectiveness. Structured, semi structured questionnaires and informal interviews were used to collect data from farmers, local non-governmental organizations and extension workers. The results indicated that farmer field schools were more effective in terms of improvement in farmer’s knowledge, skills empowerment and change in crop husbandry practices. Master Farmer training improved farmers’ marketing strategies because of assistance rendered by extension workers. Use of farmer field schools is therefore recommended when implementing extension programs targeted at large groups of farmers inclined towards crop husbandry. Where emphasis is on change in marketing strategies use of master farmer training programs is recommended.