Open Access Research Note

Assessment of Rural – Urban Migration in South – Western Nigeria

O. M Apata, S. O. W Toluwase, O. J. Saliu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 16-21
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/9782

The study examines rural urban migration in south – western Nigeria. Population of the study is the rural households of southwestern Nigeria Multi Stage random sampling technique was used to select two out of the six states that make up the south – western Nigeria. Five Local Government Areas were also randomly selected from each of the state while one rural community was randomly selected from each of the Local Government Area making a total of ten communities used for the survey. Twelve respondents were selected from each community making a total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents for the study. Data collected were analyzed using Descriptive Analytical tools while Chi-square were used to establish relationship that existed between respondents’ socio – economic characteristics and their annual income among others. Findings revealed that there are more male (62.2%) than the female (37.8%) migrants, that income was one of the major determinant of migration (23.300, p = 0.000). Also majority migrated as a result of lack of social amenities such as health facilities (69.2%), and job opportunities (65.0%) coupled with higher standard of living in urban areas (74.2%) than rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Activities of Self-help Groups in Social Protection in Southeast Nigeria

Augustine Odinakachukwu Ejiogu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14055

Aim: This paper assessed the activities of self-help groups (SHGs) in social protection.
Study Design: Members of registered and non-registered SHGs were randomly selected and interviewed based on the activities of the groups in the study area.
Place: Southeast Nigeria at Latitude 5â°N and 7â°30' and Longitude 5â°E and 10â°E.
Methodology: The study was conducted in the South-eastern states of Nigeria. Three states were eventually chosen for the study namely Abia, Anambra and Imo. A total of 108 registered SHGs were randomly selected and 540 members were interviewed; a total of 108 non-registered SHGs were also selected with; 540 members of the groups were interviewed. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of data.
Results: The results show that the identified SHGs were mainly made up of people operating in the informal sector and were predominantly engaged in agricultural activities. Majority of the respondents represented by 82% stated that the services obtained from the SHGs were inadequate while 18% stated that they were adequate for their purposes. This adequacy can be described as restricted adequacy as the services extended to the beneficiaries were tailored to the slim resources of the SHGs. All the social protection services provided by the SHGs were mainly based on social insurance services complemented by social assistance. The services were sufficiently deficient in labour market interventions. There was no form of interaction among the SHGs as they operated as stand alone. This lack of interaction tends to limit the possibility of the largely informal groups to be connected to a more sustainable formal social protection services.
Conclusion: The activities of the SHGs are inadequate for social protection services and to that extent cannot on their own engender inclusive growth. It is recommended that state-sponsored social protection services should be institutionalized, less ad hoc in delivery and should not be elevated to the level of handouts from the power holders to the core poor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Agro-Processors in Ikono Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria

B. I. Ekerete, J. T. Ekanem

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13839

This study assessed the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilization by agro-processors in Ikono Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. Specifically, it aimed at identifying the socio-economic characteristics of agro-processors; determining the level of awareness of ICT by agro-processors; identifying the ICT devices available, frequency of usage as well as ascertaining the constraints to ICT utilization by agro-processors in the study area. A sample of 107 agro processors from Ikono block in Ikot Ekpene zone was selected using proportionate random sampling technique. Data collection was done with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages, mean scores and ranking were used for the analysis of the data. The results show that majority (65.42%) of the agro processors were between the ages of 21-40 years with a mean age of 38 years. Most (58.88%) of them were males and married (45.79%), with family size of 5-8 (38.32%). They were mostly Secondary School Certificate (SSCE) holders who earned between 21,000 – 30,000 naira monthly. They were aware and had access to radio, television, and mobile phones. The result also indicated that high purchasing cost, erratic power supply and non- availability of ICT facilities were major constraints to ICT utilization by agro-processors in the study area. It was concluded that the benefits of ICTs were not fully utilized by agro processors as they were only aware of the conventional forms of ICT devices in the study area. It was therefore recommended that rural areas should be provided with the basic infrastructure such as electricity and good road network so as to bring modern ICT services closer to the people for ease of access. Also, agro processors should be encouraged to upgrade their educational level as well as their competencies in the utilization of ICTs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization Evaluation of ICTs Based Climate Change Information Sourcing for Households Agricultural Adaptation Practices in the Cross River Basin, Nigeria

Emem Bassey Inyang, Idongesit Michael Umoh, Samuel Awolumate

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 29-39
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14724

This study evaluated the use of ICT for climate change information sourcing among secondary school students and how it Influences their household agricultural practices in Cross River Basin, Nigeria between January, 2013 and November, 2013. The survey research employed multi-stage sampling technique in the selection of the respondents. Secondary schools in the two states constituting Cross River Basin (Akwa Ibom and Cross River States) were clustered into three senatorial districts in each of the state. Thereafter, simple random sampling technique was used to select both the schools and students in each of the senatorial district. Well designed Questionnaires were administered on the 200 Senior Secondary School Students selected for the study. Frequencies, percentages, independent T-test and simple regression analysis were employed to analyse the data. On the extent to which the respondents sourced for climate change information, findings indicated that 31% of the respondents lowly sourced for climate change information, 36% averagely and 33% highly sourced for climate change information. The results also revealed that the respondents mostly (71%) used textbooks, newsletters (57%), newspaper/magazines (52%) and radio/television (67%) to source for climate change information. Thirty three percent of the respondents provided low level advocacy on climate change adaptation farming practices to their households, 34% provided average level of advocacy and 33% fell into the high advocacy level. Findings from the study also revealed that female students did more advocacy on climate change adaptation farming practices to their households with a mean index of 0.6956 more than male students with a mean index of 0.6478 and the difference was statistically significant at P=.001. Extent of utilization of climate change information sources significantly influenced on the family advocacy on climate change. This study revealed that utilization of ICT to source for climate change information and students’ gender in some ways influence contributions to household agricultural practices among senior secondary school agricultural science students in Cross River Basin. Students need to be strongly exposed to the usage of more information tools so as to improve their degree of climate change information sourcing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preference for Improved Solid Waste Management Attributes among urban Poor and Non-poor Households’ in Delta-State, Nigeria

Anwuli B. Obidi, Adetola I Adeoti

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14422

This paper assessed the preference for improved solid waste management among urban poor and non-poor households in Asaba, Delta-state. A random sampling method was employed resulting in 115 households and information obtained from the state’s waste management board. Descriptive statistics, Alkire and Foster multidimensional poverty methodology, choice experiment and conditional logistic regression model were employed for analysis. The average age of household heads was 39 years and literacy level was high with an average of 14 years of schooling. Multi-dimensionally, 25.20%of households are poor at dimensional cut-off k=4. Households’ preference for improved waste management is influenced positively household head education, perception, number of income earners and negatively by poverty status. The mean willingness to pay estimate is N1546.32/ month but reduced to N619.80, with consideration of socio-economic characteristics. Households ranked waste separation top and collection frequency least important. This study recommends education, provision of free containers for waste separation and the introduction of graduated fees for any waste management plan.

Open Access Review Article

Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review

Lucy K. Njeru, Bernard M. Gichimu, Mary C. Lopokoiyit, John G. Mwangi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15178

Approximately 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth, most of which live in rural areas and lacks formal education and vocational or professional skills. In spite of this, youth participation in agriculture has been relatively low in the country. This may be partly attributed to, among other factors, thepoor perception of the youth on agriculture. Agriculture which is basically a rural-oriented sector remains the backbone of the Kenya’s economy contributing over 30% of GDP. The sector provides over 80% of employment opportunities in the country but remains unattractive to the youth. This implies that most of the Kenyan youth are not fully engaged in productive economic activities which put their dependency index quite high. If the perception of youth towards agriculture is not changed, they will remain a big burden to the society and to their families in particular. There are various activities along the agriculture value chain which the youths can engage in to ensure their self-reliance and create employment thus reducing youth-related social problems and improving national economic growth and self-sufficiency. The paper seeks to analyze and discuss the influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and required interventions. This information will be useful in developing policies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth.