Open Access Short Research Article

Economic Analysis of Outgrowers’ Sugarcane and Paddy Production Scheme at Ruembe Sugarcane Basin in Kilosa District, Morogoro, Tanzania: A Comparative Approach

Joel Chongela

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14190

An empirical study was undertaken to analyze economic resource constraints facing Ruembe outgrowers’ sugarcane and paddy production scheme by measuring quantitatively scheme’s productivity and profitability using Cobb-Douglas production function model and Gross margin.
The study adopted a quantitative study design. The empirical study was conducted at Ruembe Sugarcane Basin in Kilosa District in Morogoro Region Eastern part of Tanzania in 2007-2008 season. However, the multistage, purposive and systematic random sampling techniques were employed as sampling designs of the empirical study.
The empirical study found that fertilizer, labor, herbicides, land, credit and extension services are the main determinants of the sugarcane and paddy productivity as well as profitability in the study area. However, even though these farm inputs are the main determinants of crop productivity and profitability, still there is under utilization of it due to the fact that most of smallholder farmers are operating in the first region of the production function. Hence, according to the empirical findings, the study suggested that farmers should operate in the second region of production function in order to utilize resources efficiently so that to maximize productivity and profitability of their farm produces.
Moreover, according to the profitability of paddy enterprise found by the study, it is suggested that smallholder farmers could adopt warehouse receipt system model so as to protect them from price fluctuations which affect their profit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Rural Farm Household Food Security in Boloso Sore District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia

Tekle Leza, Berhanu Kuma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 57-68
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14833

The study was conducted to identify determinants of rural farm household food security status in Boloso Sore district of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. A three-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain a sample size of 90 rural farm households. Cross sectional data were collected through structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and personal observation. Data were analyzed using head count index, food insecurity gap index, food surplus gap index and binary logit model. The result showed that only 34.5% of rural farm households were found food secure while 65.5% were food insecure. The food insecurity gap and food surplus index showed that food secured households exceeded the food security line by 34.6% while 27.8% of food insecure households fall below the poverty line. The severity of the food insecurity gap among the food insecure households was found to be 11.7%. The binary logit model result revealed that the major factors determining food security of rural farm households were family size in adult equivalent, total cultivated land size, annual income of household, oxen ownership of households, access to extension and credit and age of the household head. Age of household head, family size and access to extension services had a negative effect on household food security status while household income, credit access, oxen ownership and cultivable land size had a positive effect on household food security. Limiting the increasing population pressure, promoting income-generating activities, enhancing micro-financing efficiency, creating employment opportunities, information dissemination, among others can contribute to food security status of households in the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Farm Succession and Farm Inputs use on Coffee Productivity in Kisii County, South Western Kenya

Javan C. Ngeywo, Anakalo A. Shitandi, Evans A. Basweti, Lameck O. Agasa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 69-75
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15397

Aims: The study aimed at establishing the effect farm succession on farm input usage and coffee productivity.
Study Design: The study employed a case study research design.
Place and Duration of the Study: the study was conducted in Kisii County, Kenya, between August 2013 and July 2014.
Methodology: Multistage, simple random and purposive sampling procedure was used to sample 227 respondents out of the 69,000 coffee farmers’ population in Kisii County. Structured questionnaires, focus group discussion, interviews were used to collect data and secondary data was achieved through literature search and existing record information.
Results: The findings indicate majority of the respondents are ageing with an average age of 57 years, coffee farming is done in small-scale, those farmers who have identified a successor have the successor between the age of 19-35 years .It was further found that most farmers (77.1%) do not use lime in their farms while majority of the farmers use fertilizer (83.7%) and pesticides (74.8%). On the effect of succession on fertilizer, pesticides and lime use, the research found a Pearson correlation p = 0.087, 0.026 and 0.395 respectively.
Conclusion and Recommendation: From the statistics computed, identification of a successor in relation to use of insecticides and pesticides has significant effect on production while use of fertilizer and lime are independent of farm succession. It is therefore prudent that succession plan is carried out in a timely manner to ensure that new energy and skills are put on coffee farming hence sustain its productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formalizing Informality for Increased Security: Customary Land Tenure Formalization in Ghana

Richard Ampadu-Ameyaw, Robert Aidoo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 76-87
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15524

Using an ethnographic data on land tenure arrangements in selected communities in rural Manya Krobo, Ghana and literature, this paper explains why land (tenure) reforms in Ghana have often produced discouraging results. The results of the study show that elite capture tendencies embedded in reform processes, do not always guarantee tenure security, equity and the protection that proponents of such reforms suggest. Rather such reforms have been ineffective, counterproductive, and only served the interest of the wealthy and more powerful in society and in some cases intensified poverty. This paper shows cases of State officials and institutions colluding with the more powerful in societies to influence and divert the direction of public policies which aim at protecting the land poor, to rather serve the interest of the non-poor and more powerful in society. It is suggested that until the laws are rightly enforced and other elite tendencies identified and corrected, any reform aimed at profiting the land poor may always end up excluding them to the benefit of the wealthy, who wields much power and resources. It is concluded that while land (tenure) reform is necessary, and unavoidable in developing countries, the processes of reforms should be made more democratic and able to minimize elite capture tendencies. The process should make frantic efforts to encourage the involvement of the poor at all levels to represent their own interest, constituencies and voices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agriculture in Place of Crude Oil Production as an Alternative Income Earner for Nigeria: A Cointegration Analysis Approach

Adebile Olukayode A.

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 88-97
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15731

Aims: To examine the contribution of agriculture as an alternative to crude oil production on the Nigerian economy using cassava production as proxy.
Study Design: Johansen-Juselius co-integration procedure and error correction models are adopted.
Place and Duration of Study: The data used in this study are from secondary sources. Data on gross domestic product per capital (GDPPC), and naira exchange rate (ER) are obtained from NGA_Country Meta Data_Agric 2013, while that on cassava production (CAS) are obtained from FAO Statistics Division 2013. Data covered 1980 and 2010.
Methodology: The study uses Johansen-Juselius co-integration procedure to examine a possible long run equilibrium among GDPPC, CAS, and ER. Unit root, Granger-causality, and cointegration tests were conducted.
Results: All variables are integrated of order one. Causality test indicates that both CAS and LEXH Granger cause GDPPC. The causality is one-way. Both trace and max-eigenvalue tests indicate 1 cointegrating equation with P=0.0296 and 0.0255 respectively. Johansen-Juselius co-integration procedure identified a long run equilibrium among gross domestic product per capital, cassava production, and naira exchange rate. GDPPC adjusts to disequilibrium at 21%, CAS adjusts at 9.2% while ER adjust to disequilibrium at a rate of 11% each year. The result shows that a unit increase in CAS produced over last period production will increase GDPPC by 5.6733 units, while a unit increase in ER over last period value will reduce GDPPC by 1.3098 units.
Conclusion: The adjustment rate of disequilibrium by LCAS and LGDPPC are statistically significant good policies to encourage the production of cassava should be put in place to boost employment opportunities and increase revenue to the government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize (Zea mays L.) Production Challenges by Farmers in Cheptais Sub-County, Kenya

Javan Ngeywo Chemiat, Samson Manono Makone

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-107
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15713

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the main staple food for the inhabitants of Cheptais Sub County as well as other parts of Country. However, its production is facing a number of challenges that have led to yield reduction. Maize production challenges can be technological, policy, socio-economic, abiotic and biotic challenges. This paper therefore was designed to evaluate the challenges facing the maize farmers in Cheptais Sub County of Bungoma County. 350 respondents were selected through stratified random and purposive sampling technique from Chepyuk, Cheskaki and Kapakateny wards. Data was collected from small scale, medium scale and large-scale farmers using questionnaires with open and closed ended questions. Farmers were interviewed using an interview schedule and data analysis was done using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed that maize farmer in Cheptais Sub County experienced financial constraints, high cost of farm inputs, inadequate and poor storage facilities, poor state of roads and markets. They also experienced high interest rates on credit from financial institutions and lack of improved maize seeds to use due to presence of many seed varieties in the markets from different seed companies, which have created an avenue for unscrupulous vendors to sell uncertified seeds in the study area. The paper recommends that, government to subsidies on farm inputs and imposes price control on essential farm inputs and also to direct the financial institution to lower the interest rates on credits borrowed by farmers. Demonstration plots be increased in the area by the seed companies and training be intensified by the extension officers. Farmers need to look for extension services from the government and even from private practitioners to overcome their production challenges.