Women are considered to be the backbone of hill economy in Uttarakhand state. Women’s contribution to agricultural activities like cropping, composting, winnowing, animal tending and other related work is far greater than the men. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse participation of rural women in homegarden agroforestry in Kumaun Himalaya, India. Two blocks each were selected in hill and bhabhar region and in each block five villages were selected at random. Participatory interview and direct observation technique was used to collect gender specific data and the sample of the study consisted of 100 farm families in each block. In this region, except ploughing, women carry out almost all crop production tasks to help their menfolk. In hill 68% women were participating independently while in bhabhar only 36% were working independently. Participation of rural women was greater in hill compared to bhabhar. The high level of participation of rural women in homegarden agroforestry makes it necessary to formulate policies and strategies to strengthen the technical knowledge of rural women in homegarden management.
The paper analyzed constraints to the adoption of improved cassava varieties among rural cassava farmers in Imo state, Nigeria. Specifically, it analyzed the sources of information on improved cassava varieties, identified improved cassava varieties planted, determined level of adoption of the improved varieties and identified constraints to the adoption of improved cassava varieties in the state. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 120 farmers. Data were elicited from the farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire and interview schedule and were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean, and bar charts. Results revealed that majority (92.7%) of the farmers obtained information on improved cassava varieties from farmers’ groups. It also revealed that NR 8082 (91.3%), NR 8083 (76.7%) and TMU 30572 (76.7%) varieties were the most planted. The result further showed that NR 8082 (63.6%), TMS 30572 (57.6%) and NR 8083 (55.0%) cassava varieties were adopted. Inadequate credit facility (M = 4.65), inadequate information (M = 4.47), land tenure system (M = 4.24) and poor government support (M = 4.11) constituted constraints to adoption of improved cassava varieties in the study area. It was recommended that innovative measures should be introduced to enhance the capability of agricultural extension service to carry out its responsibilities, particularly in enhancing adoption of improved cassava varieties in the study area.
This study examined the impact of government agricultural expenditure on the growth of the Nigerian economy from 1960 to 2012. The study employed secondary data and sourced from National Bureau of Statistics, and Financial Review of Central Bank of Nigeria. The study employed E-view 7.2 statistical output as a window in exploring the possible links between government agricultural expenditure and economic growth. The results revealed that government agricultural expenditure has a direct relationship with economic growth which statistically significant at 5% level. From the results of the findings of the paper, the paper however recommended that government should ensure that credit is made available to farmers with relatively low interest rate, intensify effort on how to control inflation rate, increase the budgetary allocation to agricultural sector to 25% as recommended by agricultural development capital budget , Nigerian economy is to be diversified in order not to make crude oil as the mainstay of Nigerian economy rather agricultural(agrarian) sector because it helps in terms of food supply, employment generations, poverty reduction etc., hence economic growth.
The study examined the sources of risk and management strategies of monocropping and intercopping systems in Kebbi State, Nigeria with the aim of identifying the most important sources of risk and coping strategies. The study is based on primary data gathered through a questionnaire survey of the sampled farmers in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 256 farmers comprising 98 monocrop farmers and 158 intercrop farmers. A Likert-type scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (very important) was presented to the respondents in order to establish the important sources of risk and risk management strategies of the monocrop and intercrop farmers. The respondents were asked to score a list of 21 and 20 potential risk sources and risk management strategies respectively, according to their importance. The most important risk sources and management strategies were ranked based on the mean scores of the variables on the lists. The results from the study revealed that the most important sources of risk for both monocroppers and intercroppers are diseases, erratic rainfall, changes in government policy, changes in climatic conditions, price fluctuation (of inputs and outputs) and floods/storms. The most important risk management strategies for monocroppers are spraying for diseases and pests, spreading sales, borrowing (cash or grains) and fadama cultivation. The intercrop farmers perceived family members working off-farm, spreading sales, intercropping and borrowing (cash or grains) as the most important coping strategies. These factors should be considered when designing extension programmes and insurance schemes.
The study investigated indigenous mitigation and adaptation to climate change among small holder farmers in Arochukwu area of Abia state, Nigeria. The study described the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, ascertained their indigenous mitigation and adaptation to climate change and determined constraints to indigenous mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the study area. A total of 160 farmers randomly selected constituted the sample size, while structured interview guide was employed in data collection. Analytical tools such as frequencies, percentages, mean rating and factor analysis techniques were adopted. The results show that majority (57.5%) of the farmers were within the ages of 31-50 years and large (50.6%) numbers of them had secondary school qualifications. Majority (63.8%) of farmers had 6-15 years of farming experience, while 61.3 percent had estimated annual income of N51, 000.00.- N150,000.00. The farmers reported indigenous mitigation such as cover cropping (M=4.1) and controlled burning (M=3.8) and indigenous adaptation as adjustment in planting dates (M=4.5) and use of organic manure (M=4.4). The study revealed inadequate planning, scarcity of inputs, lack of basic infrastructure and poor institutional support as principal factors and constraints to indigenous mitigation and adaptation to climate change in the study area. Effectiveness in indigenous mitigation and adaptation to climate change depends on the extent indigenous issues raised and constraints identified can be addressed and sustained. The study recommends extension training for group farmers on indigenous practices, participatory approach to inputs procurement and provision of infrastructure as well as improved government policy on indigenous process.
Aims: The socioeconomic status is considered to be a multi-dimensional indicator, and there is no definite standard to measure it.The aim of the present study is to perform a systematic review to evaluate whether there are the same indicators for measuring socioeconomic status in the published articles in the medical sociology in Iran. Study Design: Systematic Review. Methodology: We searched the English language literature on socioeconomic status in health researches in Iran between 1990 and October 2014: MEDLINE using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct. In addition, we searched these Iranian electronic databases: Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) and IranMedex. Results: Our finding indicated the three factors – education, occupation, and income – were the dominant indicators for measuring socioeconomic status in both English and Persian articles. Only four studies (English articles) had composite measure and made a standard indicator in their studies. Eleven studies had no clear categories for measuring socioeconomic indicators. Conclusion: We encountered various definitions and indicators, mostly because of poor quality of the studies with diversity in methods and populations.