Open Access Policy Article

Employment Effects of The 40% Cassava-Wheat Bread Policy in Nigeria; the Smallholder Model

Elijah I. Ohimain

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 158-163
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/16670

Aims: The rate of unemployment in Nigeria was 23.9% in 2012. Unemployment is linked to youth restiveness and crime all over the world. In Nigeria, ethnic militias who are mostly youths are threatening the oil and gas industry in the Niger Delta (southern Nigeria), while Islamic militants are threatening agriculture in the north. The government wants to boost employment and wealth creation in Nigeria using the 40% cassava flour inclusion in bread policy, because cassava is locally grown. The employment effects of the cassava bread policy have not been quantified. The aim of this study is to estimate the employment effects of the 40% cassava bread policy.
Methodology: The study utilized secondary data for the estimation of employment effects of cassava bread policy in Nigeria.
Results: Implementation of the policy could create a demand of 1.3 million tonnes of high quality cassava flour (HQCF), which will require about 5.2 million MT of cassava, which has potential local employment effects. Results show that implementation of the policy could create employment for 260,000 persons in the cassava farming enterprise, 43,333 persons for cassava processing to HQCF, and 3,350 persons for equipment manufacturing. Applying the multiplier effect of 2, the implementation of 40% cassava bread policy could create direct employment of over 613 thousand persons excluding transportation and bread improver’s value chains.
Conclusion: The study shows that several people could be employment in the 40% cassava flour inclusion in bread policy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Participation of Crop Farming Households in Non-farm Activities in Ghana

Gifty Sienso, Franklin Nantui Mabe, Joseph Mbeah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15814

Agricultural sector is facing serious challenges (low productivity, inadequate investment, changes in climatic conditions etc) in developing countries. The challenges facing Ghanaian agriculture had led to the increasing participation of farmers in the non-farm activities. It is therefore incumbent on researchers to investigate factors that can be modified for farmers to fully participate in non-farm agriculture activities to complement their livelihoods. This study investigated factors that influenced farming households’ decision to participate in non-farm activities using data from fifth version of Ghana Living Standard Survey. The sample size used for the study is 1368. A binary logit estimation model was used for the analysis. The results obtained from maximum likelihood estimation showed that households with greater probability to participate in non-farm activities were as follows: female-headed households; households headed by the young; households whose heads were married, households whose heads had formal education, larger households, households living in urban areas and households living in the forest zone. Crop farming households who are male-headed, had no formal education, had small household sizes, lived in rural areas and in savannah areas should be encouraged and supported to diversify activities by engaging in non-farm activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forced-Urbanization: The Alienation of Urbanization in China

Huixia Cheng

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 126-135
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/16227

Aims: Forced-urbanization that deviates from the intended purposes can lead to the alienation of some societies, especially those that had been forced to migrate to urban areas. This holds potential threats to the sustainable development of the urbanized communities. This likelihood mainly comes through the erosion of well being rights and lack of improvement of social welfare for migrated communities. Rooted in GDP-oriented mechanical paradigm, forced-urbanization damages the dynamic mechanism of urban. The New-style Urbanization strategy proposed by Chinese Government in 2011 which seeks to curb the forced-urbanization. The research tries to answer the question i.e. could the New-style Urbanization really curb the forced-urbanization in China?
Study Design: China’ urbanization is a process of wellbeing rights erosion which is described as Forced-urbanization. The research begins with the harm caused by Forced-urbanization, and then focuses on the generation logic of Forced-urbanization. After that, a discussion about the effect of New-Style Urbanization Strategy to curb the Forced-urbanization is taken.
Methodology: This research did a random survey of 210 landless farmers in some provinces such as Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Fujian etc. in 2010 and 2011. The main aim of the survey was to understand some special issues, such as the identity and role confirmation, recognition of urban life and the emotional memory of the respondents.
Results: Forced-urbanization has caused serious harm to farmers, including restriction on economic rights, violation of political rights, and deprivation of migrants’ cultural rights. The foundation of civil social supports was damaged as well in the process. The primary reason of forced-urbanization is that the value paradigm of urbanization in China was GDP-oriented rather than wellbeing-oriented. In order to curb the forced-urbanization, Chinese Government established New-style Urbanization Strategy in 2012. The random survey shows that some kinds of risks of forced-urbanization still exist in the implementation process of New-style Urbanization strategy.
Conclusion: It is necessary to avoid the unintended purposes of New-style Urbanization by breaking the generation logic of forced-urbanization. Some local governments have offered certain successful experiences. But there is still a long way to go because of some real constraints. However, the way out of forced-urbanization in China is still urbanization but preferably through the New-style Urbanization strategy that takes various possibilities into consideration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Impact of IBBL Microfinance on Rural Women in a Selected District of Bangladesh

Ishrat Jahan, Md. Mamun-ur-Rashid

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 136-148
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/17356

Aims: Rural Development Scheme (RDS) under Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) is an innovative typology of microfinance, envisaged to answer the need of rural poor. This study was planned to reveal the socioeconomic impact of RDS microfinance on the women beneficiaries in a selected district of Bangladesh.
Place and Duration of the Study: This study was conducted in the district of Barisal. Data were collected from July to August, 2014.
Methodology: This study was mainly based on primary information, however the secondary information was also collected to compare the before and after situation of loan withdrawal. To achieve study objectives data was collected from 206 randomly selected, RDS beneficiary women who engaged with the program for at least one year. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, etc., were used to describe the selected characteristics of the respondents. Z-statistics was employed to compare the before and after situation of loan withdrawal. This study also used OLS regression to see the contribution of selected factor on the improvement of women beneficiaries.
Results: The values Z statistics confirmed that highest change was taken place in social capital development followed by yearly income from non-agricultural sources, ownership of sanitary toilet, and ownership of tube-well. In case of social capital highest improvement was found in participation in family-decision making followed by self confidence, and consciousness about self-economic development. OLS regression confirmed that among the eight selected variables three variables, namely the number of earning members per family, the total amount of loan received, and yearly expenditure together can explain 46.5% variation in income growth.
Conclusion: This study analyzed both monetary and social impacts of RDS microfinance and arrived at a general conclusion that this program grossly has a remarkable impact on selected socioeconomic aspects of the women clients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Women Farmers in Practices: Opportunities and Challenges in Accessing Potato Production Technologies in Welmera Ethiopia

Berhanu Kuma, Beliyu Limenih

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 149-157
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/16773

Women farmer empowerment project was launched in the year 2006 to organize women farmers into Farmer Research Group (FRG) and improve their livelihood through accessing potato production technologies. Women farmers were targeted because they were disadvantaged with regards to this. Initially, 25 women farmers in Robi Gebeya kebele of Welmera district formed FRG. Consecutive trainings on potato production, gender roles and responsibilities, decision making, entrepreneur skills, among others were given to FRG. Each women farmer prepared and allocated 20 m×20 m plot of land for potato production. Initially Jalane potato variety with recommended packages was given to FRG, both Gudene and Jalene potato varieties were given in subsequent years. Five years data indicate that the number of women farmers who accessed potato technologies increased from 25 to 236. A total of 137 diffused light stores were constructed by women FRG which enabled them to store seed potato tubers. Women FRG reserved about 1,251 quintals of seed potato and made own plantation in consecutive years. In addition to own plantation, women FRG sold 2,521 quintals of both seed and food potatoes. During these years, price of food potato increased from 70 birr to 450 birr per quintal and that of seed potato increased from 180 birr to 600 birr per quintal. Women capacity building, bylaws formation and enforcement, knowledge and information sharing, spirit of competitiveness, accessibility, respect and patience, wisdom and interest, persuasiveness of other farmers were opportunities for women farmers. Difficulty to handle heavy duties, burden of workload, poor leadership and decision making ability, men influence over women intervention, prioritizing home activities and poor concept of entrepreneurship were among the challenges encountered. Further empowerment of women farmers through training on market outlet choices, home economics, entrepreneurship skills, facilitation, decision making and leadership capacity are potential areas for interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Practice of New Sericulture Technologies Based on Education and Experience

M. Beula Priyadarshini, N. Vijaya Kumari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/16405

The present study was accomplished in sericulture villages of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh during 2011-2013 with an objective to interpret the socio-economic conditions which effecting the adoption of technology among sericulture. The data on two factors such as education and experience were collected, the results acknowledge that the sericulture farmers who had good education and experience have adopted all the improved technologies and were getting higher income. The sericulture farmers who had less education and experience were not adopting improved technologies resulting in poor income.