Agriculture used to be the mainstay of Nigeria before crude oil was discovered in commercial quantities in 1956. However, Nigeria neglected agriculture in preference to oil due to the oil boom in the early 1970s, resulting in the country to become a major importer of food, particularly of wheat and rice to the detriment of the country’s economy. Hence, the government of Nigeria, which wished to reduce the food importation bill of the country, pursued a presidential intervention on cassava (PIC) programme. The government created policies that supported the industrialization of cassava, such as 10% cassava bread policy, 10% bioethanol in gasoline and replacement of paraffin with ethanol gel fuel as the cooking fuel. The paper presented both the success and challenges of the PIC in Nigeria. The PIC brought massive investment and employment in the cassava subsector, reduction in the food import bills of Nigeria and increase in cassava yield from 10.8 t/ha to 20 t/ha. As a result, Nigeria became the largest producer of cassava in the world. However, the PIC led to some problems, such as the expansion of cassava farm into virgin forest, cassava gluts in some areas of the country whereas scarcity in other areas and increased amounts of cassava processing wastes which were among the challenges of the policy.
Smallholder duck producers are considered to be more susceptible to contracting the HPAI H5N1 infection. Occurrence of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) usually results in the complete loss of the producer’s entire flock due to high mortality rate and stamping out conducted to contain the virus. The extent of the economic loss from culling of the flock (stamping out) depends on the time of the disease occurrence during the production cycle. This study aims to explore the expected economic impacts of HPAI H5N1 on smallholder duck producers in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A conceptual model is developed to describe how a producer responds at each week of duck production to maximize profit and evaluate expected profits/losses of the producer in light of HPAI H5N1. The results suggest that in the case of no disease occurrence, the optimal time to sell ducks is at week 10 of the production cycle when ducks reach the age of 8 weeks. Maximum profit gained is US$ 805.10 for a producer with an average flock size of 794 ducks. However, the producer would suffer serious losses once the disease occurs. The expected investment loss is far higher than the maximum profit received at each production cycle and is estimated to be 3 times higher (US$ 2665.19 expected loss vs. US$ 805.10 maximum profit). The sensitivity analysis results also show that with 95% confidence, the producer gains profit ranging from US$ 803.95 to US$ 821.25 in case of no HPAI H5N1 disease, but suffers expected losses ranging from US$ 2659.23 to US$ 2670.60 in case of the disease occurrence. This severe loss can have long term consequences and producers may face severe difficulties to recover without financial assistance.
The study examined the various strategies adopted by yam farmers of Delta State in coping with the menace of yam beetle (Heteroligus meles). The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of yam producers in Delta State; ascertain the economic losses caused by yam beetle in Delta State; determine the various strategies adopted by farmers in Delta State in coping with the menace of yam beetle; examine the effectiveness of the various coping strategies. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to compose a sample size of 225 respondents. Primary data were obtained from respondents with the use of structured and validated questionnaire. Various descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used in data analysis. The result showed that majority of the farmers (98.2%) adopted the use of multiple cropping in combating the menace of yam beetle; about 93% adopted late planting and 55.1% agrochemicals. Most of the farmers thus witnessed minimal losses in their farmers since they adopted one form of coping strategy or the other. The study further revealed that the use of agrochemical was the most effective coping strategy. The regression result showed that with the exception of gender, marital status and household size, all other factors were statistically significant at ρ ≤ 0.05, indicating that they influenced respondents’ adoption of coping strategies. The implication of these findings for food security was that yam production in Delta state is likely to improve, thereby leading to increase in food supply in the area since farmers are combating the menace of beetles. However, it was recommended, among others, that farmers should be enlightened on the need of using effective coping strategies.
This study investigated the extent of performance of modern functions among milk cooperatives in Western Kenya. Data was collected from all the ten active cooperatives, Kenya Dairy Board and the livestock department through interviews using checklists. The study found that milk cooperatives in the region have not taken off on a business path due to inefficiencies in management, technological and entrepreneurial skills. Assessment of extent of performance of modern roles showed that they were still far from embracing vertical linkages. Owing to a large number of inactive members (91%), idle capacity (91%), inadequate technical facilities and non professional managers, it is recommended that re structuring into new cooperative models should be done to enable them remain relevant in competitive value chains.
Aims: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the self-coordination of private regulation and self-regulation schemes in food industry to promote sustainability. Study Design: This study uses sustainable development to achieve a common goal for the business and public sectors. Different steering mechanisms and diversification emerge even though there is a need to achieve cohesion among them. Methodology: The study uses different theoretical viewpoints of regulatory governance, club theory and positioning following the methodology of theory triangulation. These theories and cohesion mechanisms will be discussed when the sustainability standards are analysed. The analysis is based on the evaluation of the emergence, implementation and enforcement of the best-known certification schemes in the coffee industry. Place and Duration of Study: The empirical data of this study was collected in the international research project, ‘Transnational private regulation and system level innovations in global food value chains’ at the Turku University of Applied Sciences from 2011 to 2014. Results: Positioning among customers is a very important marketing approach when there are several competing certification schemes. The national aspects of consumer behaviour should be taken into account in standardization. The survey of Finnish consumers indicates that Food from Own Country, Nordic Ecolabel and Fairtrade were the best known sustainability labels in Finland. Conclusion: The study is valuable for those who want to improve private regulation throughout the global value chains.
The study was on resource use efficiency among tomato farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. The data were collected from 240 tomato farmers through purposive sampling in 2014. Questionnaire design was the instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analysed through the use of simple descriptive statistics, OLS regression analysis and efficiency ratio. The result of the study showed that majority of tomato farmers in the State were married males with an average family size of 7 members. Farmers’ educational status, farming experience, contact with extension workers, and farm size were positively related and significant at 1% in influencing the output of tomato produced in the State. Resources such as pesticide, labour, years spent in school, quantity of seed and farm size were positively and significantly related to tomato output in Kogi State. Quantity of pesticide, seed and fertilizer were over utilized while labour and farm size were underutilized. It is recommended that government should implement policies that will facilitate the efficient utilization of agricultural resources among tomato farmers in Kogi State.