Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Community Participation on the Sustainability of Rural Infrastructure in Ondo State, Nigeria

I. E. Adesida, J. O. Okunlola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15756

In Nigeria, project sustainability has always been a serious issue. The evolvement of participatory approach to community development in the country is expected to improve infrastructural development and sustainability of the facilities. The study was carried out to examine the effects of rural households’ participation on the sustainability of rural infrastructural development in Ondo State. A structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from 144 respondents randomly selected from 12 communities that benefitted from IFAD/ Niger Delta Development Commission Community-based project. The results were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, likert scale and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The study revealed that majority of the respondents were adequately informed and participated in the implementation of projects carried out by IFAD/ NDDC in their various communities. Rural households contributed to the projects through the payment of counterpart funds, replacement of damaged project parts, provision of labour, security at project site by community police group called vigilante groups, thus protecting the properties, fencing of projects, and attending regular meetings to review project performance and problems. The effects of community participation in the project include – increased sense of belonging and ownership of infrastructure; sustainability of projects and increased level of commitment to communal work. From the study, age, status and gender has no significant relationship to participation in the Community Development based Projects. It is important that community involvement and participation in the design, planning, implementation and monitoring of community project should be encouraged in community projects to ensure its sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level and Determinants of Women Farmers Access to Informal Credit in Abia State, Nigeria

C. K. Osondu, S. I. Ogbonna, C. O. Emerole

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/18105

The study analyzed level and determinants of women farmers access to informal credit in Abia state, Nigeria. The study described socio-economic characteristics of the women farmers who accessed microcredit from informal sources; ascertained level of access to informal micro-finance; and determined socio-economic factors that influenced access to informal micro-finance. Primary data were collected from two hundred and thirty three (233) women farmer informal credit beneficiaries using multi-stage random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using likert scoring and descriptive statistics, and probit regression estimation. As large as 60.94% of the women had farm size of between 0.1 and 1.0 hectares with a mean of 15 years farming experience. Majority 72.10% of the respondents had no contact with extension agents and cumulatively 85.84% of the women had formal education with 73.82% of them married. Also, 63.52% of them did not belong to any agricultural association. They had relatively higher level of access to loans from friends and relatives compared to other informal credit sources. Probit regression estimate showed that educational level, gross monthly income and membership of association exerted positive significant influences at varied critical levels. Other factors namely farming experience and farm size exerted negative significant influences at varied critical levels. Policies should be made to forge strong linkages between informal and formal financial institutions to ensure that agricultural loans are channeled from formal financial institutions to women farmers through recognized informal credit units. The synergy from such linkage will increase women farmers’ productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Improvement of Tea Garden Workers: A Scenario of Marginalized Women Group in Bangladesh

Md. Kamruzzaman, Shahnaj Parveen, Animesh Chandra Das

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/18690

Aims: Tea is a profitable cash crop in Bangladesh but livelihood of its workers (women) is not emphasized properly. The principle objective of the study was to determine and describe the extent of livelihood improvement of tea garden workers.
Study Design: Livelihood was measured by its five assets i.e. human, natural, physical, financial and social capital. Interview schedule was prepared for livelihood improvement indicators accordingly with four point rating scale i.e. highly improved, moderately improved, slightly improved, not improved at all respectively. Survey was conducted with the women tea garden workers.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Doldoli Tea Garden, one of the three gardens of National Tea Industries, at east Shahi Eidgah of Sylhet Sadar in Bangladesh throughout September to October, 2014.
Methodology: Data were collected from 120 sampled women respondents using interview schedule.
Results: Livelihood status moderately improved for the tea garden workers (63.3%). Social & physical capital mostly improved and financial capital deprived off specially. In case of livelihood improvement indicators; participation in voting (panchayet, local & national elections), availability of pure drinking water and children education ranked top. Livelihood improvement status of tea garden workers was mostly influenced by their condition of formal education, monthly income and communication media exposure.
Conclusion: Financial capital of tea garden workers should be focused with proper importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fiscal Policy: Nigerian Experiences from 1960-2012

I. M. Shuaib, Ekeria O. Augustine, Ogedengbe A. Frank

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/14699

The paper examined the impact of fiscal policy on the growth of the Nigerian economy using time series data from 1960-2012. The study explored secondary data from the Central Bank Statistical Bulletin for the period of 1960 to 2012 and used various econometric analyses and/or statistical analytical (E-view 7.2) method to examine the relationship between fiscal policy and growth. The paper tested the stationarity—through Group unit root test, and stationarity found at first differenced at 5% level of significance. Factor method, Goodness-of- fit summary, VAR and its properties were tested. Also, the Co-integration Technique and Pairwise-Granger Causality were employed in this study to test and determine the long-run relationship among the variables examined. From the result of the empirical findings, it was discovered that fiscal policy has a direct relationship with growth. The paper however recommended that among others the government should ensure fiscal policy’s effectiveness in such a way as achieving economic growth. Government should increase its aggregate expenditure such a way that the citizens will benefit from it. Government should ensure that monetary policy is supplementary tool to fiscal policy in order to stabilize the economy. Government should ensure that inflation rate is maintained at single-digit level to enable the private investors to have conducive atmosphere for production of goods for export. Government should reduce the cost of domestic borrowing (i.e., interest rate) to enable both the domestic and foreign potential investors have an access to investible funds. Government should stabilize the foreign exchange market-where the foreign currencies are traded. Hence economic growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Informal Credit in Mobilizing Funds for Agricultural Production in Ijumu Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

S. J. Ibitoye, D. Omojola, V. B. Omojeso, U. M. Shaibu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/18266

The study assessed the use of informal credit in mobilizing funds for agricultural production in Ijumu Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics and mean score were used to analyze the data collected. The result showed that 63.3 percent of the sampled respondents were literate with an average farm size of 1.5 hectares. The major source of informal credit available in the area was ‘Esusu’. The result also showed that 64.2 percent of the respondents demanded for N 30,000 and below from informal source of credit while 21.3 percent of the available loan was invested on agriculture. The average loan volume per respondent recorded in the study area was N 23,080.00. Amount of credit obtained from informal source of credit, farming experience, educational status, household size and non farm income significantly influenced agricultural production in the study area. High interest rate, low lending level, inadequate number of financial agents and mode of payment were the major constraints militating against the use of informal credit. The study recommended that there should be an increase in the amount of loan per beneficiary to take care of both the production and consumption needs of the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulating Optimal Farm Plans with Child Farm Labour Reduction for Arable Crop Farmers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: An Application of Linear Programming and T-MOTAD Models

U. J. Udo, C. E. Onyenweaku, K. C. Igwe, K. K. Salimonu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/18634

This study formulates optimum farm plans with child farm labour reduction in the face of risk and uncertainties for arable crop farmers in Akwa Ibom State. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. A structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information from one hundred and fifty (150) stratified randomly selected arable crop farmers in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State. Linear Programming and Target-MOTAD (Minimization of Total Absolute Deviation) models were used to analyze the data. Eleven major crop enterprises were identified as the existing crop plans in the study area with average net return of N275247.03 for the State, The value of the normative (Plan IV) (single goal optimum net return) for an average farmer was N514110.4, indicating an increase of 86.78%, over the existing plans (Plan 1) This plan recommended the cultivation of four crop enterprises Cassava/Melon (Ca/Me) (0.10 ha), Cassava / Melon / Cocoyam (Ca/Me/Cc) (1.11 ha), Yam / Maize / Pumpkin (Y/Mz/) (0.61 ha), and Yam / Maize / Cocoyam (Y/Mz/Cc) (0.34ha)The net returns in the two risk efficient plans II and III were N467506.2 and N455565.8 respectively. This showed an increase of 69.84% and 65.51% above the existing plan and a decrease of 9.06% and 11.39% below the profit maximizing plan IV. The alternative risk efficient farm plans II and III prescribed the cultivation of Cassava/Melon/Cocoyam (Ca/Me/Cc) (0.52 ha, 0.52 ha), Cassava / Melon (Ca/Me) (0.10 ha, 0.11 ha),Cassava / Maize / Pumpkin (Ca/Mz/P) (0.83 ha, 0.79 ha), Yam / Maize / pumpkin (Y/Mz/P) (0.23 ha, 0.21 ha), and Yam / Maize/ Cocoyam (Y/Mz/Cc) (0.33 ha, 0.32 ha). Capital was the only limiting resource in the study area. The study showed that farmers existing level of returns were not optimal. It is recommended that the farmers adopt the prescribed farm plans in the study to improve their farm income and minimize risk. Farmers should be assisted and encouraged to form cooperative societies and other functional groups to raise capital and provide farm labour during critical farm operations. The existing laws on free and compulsory education and the child right act in the State should be strengthened and enforced to ensure that children are not withdrawn from schools for farm work.