Open Access Case study

Availability and Utilization of Crop by-products as Livestock Feeds for Small Ruminants in Khana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

G. A. Kalio, S. Emeya, B. B. Okafor

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/16203

A survey was conducted to investigate the availability and utilization of crop by-products as livestock feeds for small ruminants in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty copies of structured questionnaire were administered to crop (40.00%), livestock (8.00%) and crop-livestock farmers (52.00%). The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that 54.00% and 46.00% of farmers were males and females respectively with majority (42.00%) falling within the age brackets of 35 – 44 years. Greater proportions (52.00%) were crop – livestock farmers who rear goats as their most preferred livestock. The predominant crop by-products in order of availability and utilization as livestock feeds are cassava peels, yam peels, sweet potato peels, plantain peels, banana peels, cocoyam peels, maize sievate and fried garri sievate. Their use is highly recommended because of their ready availability, cheapness and acceptability that can help to solve the problems of food deficits for small ruminants in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Agro-net Technology on Financial Profitability of Cabbage and Pepper Production in Benin

Lauriane S. Yehouenou, Barthélemy G. Honfoga

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/18889

Aims: Chemical pesticides have been the main option for pest control adopted so far by vegetable growers in Benin, in spite of the health risks involved. In order to reduce such risks, researchers developed insect nets (agro-net technology), as a means of physical pest control. This study aimed to assess the financial profitability of the use of that technology in cabbage and pepper production, so as to advice on its better management and enable greater adoption.

Study Design: Comparison was made of key indicators of resource management and financial profitability of a farm (productivity, profit ratio), among users and non-users of insect nets in the main vegetable production systems in southern Benin.

Place and Duration of Study: Benin’s National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRAB), in collaboration with the Faculty of Agronomic Sciences (FSA), from 2010 to 2011.

Methodology: Stratified and random sampling and a structured questionnaire were used to collect data from 205 farmers (consisting of 20% insect net users and 80% non-users) in Mono and Couffo departments of Benin. Component analysis, K-means, cluster analysis, Student’s T test were used to identify the different vegetable production systems. Crop budgeting was used to evaluate and compare resource management indicators (labor and capital productivity) and profitability indicators (gross revenue, cost of production, net revenue, benefit / cost ratio) between these systems.

Results: Three vegetable production systems were distinguished in the study area: Intensive system, semi-intensive system and extensive system. Only 20% vegetables growers use insect nets; they practice intensive and semi-intensive systems. The technology improved profitability, only for cabbage in the intensive system where the benefit / cost ratio and capital productivity increased slightly by 15.6%. On the contrary, due to large increases in labor costs, pepper production using the nets in intensive and semi-intensive systems led to 42.8% and 25.7% profit reductions. Decreases in labor productivity worth 48.3% and 72.6% were also observed.

Conclusion: Overall the agro-net or insect net technology increased labor costs, while output values did not increase more than proportionally. The study provides evidence that an agricultural technology should substantially reduce labor costs and improve labor productivity before it can be widely adopted by farmers, especially the poor. Technology adaptation to crops’ specific growth requirements is also needed to go beyond existing productivity and profitability advantages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Farmer’s Awareness on the Safety and Health Implications on the Use of Agrochemicals: A Case Study of Afife Rice Farm in Ghana

M. Nyatuame, F. Ampiaw

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/19594

Introduction: The quest to meet the food demand of people and the low food productivity in Ghanaian agriculture has necessitated the use of agrochemicals massively by small scale farmers. This study examined the farmer’s awareness of the health and safety implications of massive agrochemical usage in Afife irrigation scheme in Volta Region of Ghana.

Methods: One hundred and ten farmers were sampled randomly from the Afife rice farm. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information about farmer’s practices, knowledge and attitude about agrochemical application and personal protective equipment (PPE) usage coupled with personal observations. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics.

Results: A great significant number of respondents (p≤0.05) were aware of PPE and were trained on its usage. About 88% of the respondents put on protective attires during spraying activities with most farmers using relatively good clothes as working gear on the farm.

Conclusion: In effect the farmers have satisfactorily adopted and practised a precautionary method of Agrochemical use.

Practical Application: The results of this research would assist policy makers, government agencies, and extension agents involved with Afife farmers to know the specific training needs of the farmers in Afife Irrigation Scheme. This would also help them to build capacity of the farmers in the specific area they are deficient in.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Climate Variability on Wetland and Fishing Households in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

V. A. Solomon, G. I. Okoro, G. S. Umoh, E. J. Udoh, G. E. Edet, C. A. Uwem, N. E. Bassey, O. D. Akpan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/19360

The study assessed the impacts of climate variability on wetland and fishing households in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Three hundred and twenty four respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Primary data were collected using questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group discussion, while secondary data was collected from literature. Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were used for data analysis. Climate variability has brought about drought, flood, sea level rise and erosion. These have adversely impacted on farm households in various ways including loss of farmland and farm produce, displacement of residents and loss of property including residential buildings and fishing gadgets. Other adverse impacts include health problems, conflict, increased expenditure, poor yield and loss of income. Gender analysis of the impacts of climate variability shows that both men and women are equally impacted upon. Adaptation strategies should be developed to help in reducing the impact of climate variability on farm households.

Open Access Original Research Article

Large Scale Foreign Land Deals and Agricultural Trade in Africa

Adeyemi A. Ogundipe, Opeyemi Akinyemi, Oluwatomisin M. Ogundipe

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13231

This study investigates the implications of foreign land deals in Africa especially with regard to agricultural trade. It is motivated essentially by large scale foreign land deals in Africa, Latin America, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. The empirical model adopted is based on institutional development theory and estimated using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The study found that large scale foreign land deals (LSFLDs) impact negatively on agricultural export in selected countries and the indexes of institutional framework used were found to be significant. Likewise, agricultural land becomes highly significant with relatively larger magnitude when interacted with institutional indexes. This therefore implies that as more agricultural land is acquired, agricultural export tends to dwindle and incidences of food insecurity are heightened. The evidence from empirical investigation suggests the need for controlling the issue of massive foreign land deals through viable institutional framework, which can be engendered by building sound legal and procedural measures that will protect local rights and take into account the aspirations of local farmers and the welfare of citizenry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Supply and Demand Functions for Dairy Cows Milk Production

Mohammad Altarawneh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/19662

The aim of this study was to estimate supply and demand functions for dairy cows milk production and to suggest recommendations to overcome problems related to the supply and demand of milk. A sample of 90 respondents was selected from Ad Dulay area. Multiple regression technique was used in this study Log-log demand and supply functions for raw milk production, milk price, and number of milking animals. The variable cost were considered to be the most influential variables in raw milk supply function, while milk price and consumer’s income were the variables to be considered in the demand function. Therefore, encouraging farmers to establish dairy industry is needed to accommodate surplus milk.