Overuse of inputs in rice production results in not only lower profit but also environmental pollution. This study aimed to estimate the cost efficiency and to identify the determinants of efficiency gaps. Stochastic Translog variable cost was applied to the data of 199 rice farmers in An Giang, Mekong Delta. The study showed that the mean cost efficiency score was 90% suggesting that on the average these farmers could proportionally reduce their current variable cost by 10% without any reductions in the output level. The mean overused cost was estimated at 3,651 thousand VND (equivalent to 167.74 USD) per ha. This value is equal to the sales of 702.24 kg of output per ha or 10% increase in output level. To improve cost efficiency, rice farmers should cultivate three crops per year and use collective pumping. Regardless of output price, Jasmine and IR50404 rice varieties and the numbers of paddy plot had negative relationship with cost efficiency. The study further suggests that rice farmers are still using input mix inefficiently.
This paper will investigate the determinants of Vietnam’s trade deficit from an inter-temporal approach, in which the dynamic of the trade balance is the outcome of forward-looking consumption and investment decisions. The result shows that relative income, NFA, financial depth, exchange rate, FDI and the economy’s openness have significant impacts on the trade deficit during the period of 1997-2012. The paper then recommends changing the growth model and restructuring the economy, supplemented with FDI and exchange rate policies to sustainably solve the trade deficit problem in Vietnam.
The aim of this study was to assess the training needs of rural women in livestock production in Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect data from 180 women from two (Ibadan/Ibarapa and Ogbomoso) zones of Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP) using a well structure interview guide. The data was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean while chi-square was used to test the relationship between variables. Results from the study showed that more than half (57.5%) of women were into poultry production having less than 30 birds as stock size. Also, 82.2% and 42.3% indicated a need for training on general management of poultry and on sheep and goat production respectively. Credit (85%), lack of capital (90%), high mortality rate (51.7%) and inadequate information (63.5%) were some of the constraints in livestock farming as indicated by the women. Chi-square analysis result showed that primary occupation and age was significant (P= 0.05) to training needs of women in pig production. It is therefore recommended that government development strategies be modified to encourage and empower through training in livestock production and also allow women to have access to credit as this will allow them boost their production level.
Cocoa remains an important cash crop in Ghana and plays a major role in the country’s socio-economic development. The crop is the mainstay of many smallholder households and this has led to several efforts to enhance its production. The introduction of partial liberalisation has encouraged private sector activity in the Ghanaian cocoa sector, including the privatisation of input supply. A key strategy aimed at improving cocoa production is the adoption of inorganic fertilizer. The current study sought to determine the factors influencing farmers’ decision to adopt fertilizer in cocoa production, using cross-sectional data from 80 randomly selected farmers in the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai District of Ghana. The study revealed that income from cocoa production increases the probability of fertilizer adoption while farm size and the age of the household head decrease the probability of adoption. Based on the findings, it is recommended that fertilizer for cocoa production should be subsidised by the government to promote adoption. In addition, extension service delivery must be enhanced to ensure that farmers get information on improved production practices.
The place of cooperatives in the lives of rural households in Nigeria as in the case in many developing countries of the world cannot be overemphasized. This is because a sizeable number of households from this economy rely on agriculture and other small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) as their sources of livelihood. Worse still, the fact that the income they get from these activities is inadequate sometimes, make them look for other avenues of meeting their basic needs, hence they resolve to join or form cooperatives. Again, lack of collateral and imposition of other stringent measures by formal financial institutions make credit facilities inaccessible to these households, thus limiting scale of their activities and this invariably take a toll on their income. Meanwhile, participation in cooperatives has been found to be a veritable way of circumventing some of the problems predisposing rural households to food insecurity. The study area was Abia State, Nigeria. Multistage sample technique was used in selection of sample size. Abia State is made up of three agricultural zones, namely Umuahia, Aba, and Ohafia respectively. From this zones, Umuahia agricultural zone was purposively selected with one local government area (Isialangwa) was selected. From the local government area two blocks, three circles and thirty women belonging to registered women cooperatives were selected, thus bringing the total to 180 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and participatory observation. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive and inferential statistics, like probit regression model. Results revealed that mean age of the respondents was 53 years with a large household size 10 – 12 people. Respondents distribution by educational level show that majority of the respondents (67%) were educated up to tertiary level and with 23% of them no formal education. The Table further showed that 73% of the respondents were food insecure while 23% were food secure. On activities carried out by the women cooperative societies to enhance livelihood of its members, the result shows that all the responses made by the respondents were above 3.0. The implication is that the activities had a positive relationship in enhancing the well-being of the members. The probit analysis result reveal that age, education, household size, membership of cooperative, income were significantly related to Y. therefore based on the study of the findings cooperatives play a very prominent and significant role towards ensuring food security in rural Nigeria. And so cooperative societies need to properly guided and organized especially at their formative stages having seen it as a veritable channel of meeting the needs of rural women in Nigeria.
The function of extension is to transfer and nurture pool of knowledge within the rural industry. Thus extension embraces all those who contribute knowledge or transfer it to farmers. This paper sought to explore the prospects of involving grassroots organizations in agricultural extension program. Inductive and deductive reasoning through review of relevant literature was used in this paper. In terms of function, grassroots organizations in a community are expected to contribute their quota, be it moral, financial, physical, to the social progress and economic advancement of the community. Grassroots organizations have significant and tremendous roles to play in modern extension operation that is farmer-centred. The promotion of a wide range of organizations at the grassroots level has gone a long way to link both rural and urban people with development activities. The paper concluded that involvement of grassroots organization in extension services no doubt, will enhance social acceptability of extension programs, greater confidence on the part of the rural organizations in extension workers and overall effectiveness in achieving the desired goals of extension service.