This paper sheds light on one key aspect of the liberalisation of export crop marketing in developing countries which has received a lot of research attention, namely pricing. The government of Ghana has been criticised by many researchers for its stance against price liberalisation in the cocoa sector, owing to its stringent monopoly over pricing. The current study does not delve into the pros and cons of price liberalisation, but seeks to investigate the factors influencing producers’ satisfaction with pricing. Using cross-sectional data and a log it model, the study revealed that farmers’ age, educational status and farm income were the significant factors influencing producers’ satisfaction with the price of cocoa in Ghana. The paper concludes that attempts to draw the youth into cocoa farming is not likely to be successful considering the disenchantment of younger farmers with cocoa pricing in Ghana.
Aims: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitudes of mango growers towards the pesticide risk reduction.
Study Design: Eighty four (84) respondents were selected as sample from a recent list of 335 mango growers using multi-stage random sampling method. The population size consists of the mango growers of the sadar upazila of Dinajpur district.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sadar upazila under Dinajpur district. Data were collected by a pre-tested interview schedule during 23rd April to 26th May 2014.
Methodology: Scales were used to measure information transfer. An open form question was designed to obtain information like knowledge on pesticide use which was measured by rating scores. Five point Likert scale was used for ascertaining attitude towards pesticide risk reduction.
Results: Two-thirds (66.2 percent) of the respondents had less favorable attitude followed by 21.3 percent had medium favorable and only 12.5 percent had high favorable attitude towards pesticide risk reduction. Among the independent variables educational qualification, information transfer and knowledge on pesticide use of the respondents showed positive significant relationships with their attitude towards pesticide risk reduction. Most of the mango growers i.e. 70.24 percent use safety shoes, 60.71 percent use cap, 23.81 percent use gloves, traditionally 22.62 percent use towel as mask, 11.90 percent use safety glasses and only 4.76 percent use shirt as apron during pesticide application. However, some complained that they were not aware about PPE.
Conclusion: To promote awareness and minimize the risk of pesticide exposure in using PPE and there is a need for better sanitation facilities and hygiene that improves the attitude of the mango growers.
Bac Giang province, Vietnam has potential for growing lychee. However, the price of lychee is low and unstable. Consumers are seeking higher quality lychee by accessing international standards and control systems. In order to improve the quality of lychee, Good Agricultural Practice (VietGAP) was implemented in Bac Giang province. This paper discusses the status of the lychee industry and evaluates the extent of and factors affecting adoption of VietGAP in lychee industry in the province. Results showed that the volume of lychee production of the province grew from 29,027 tons to 213,000 tons from 1997 to 2011. The prices of lychee were different across districts and depended on the lychee class and season. Fifty-six percent of VietGAP farmers who were considered high adopters were applying 8 or more of the prescribed practices; the rest were considered low adopters. The logit model showed that farm size, net profit, accessibility to VietGAP information, and membership in lychee farmers’ group significantly influenced the probability of high adoption of VietGAP. The study recommended improving the VietGAP program implementation; providing greater access to capital, and better equipment and tools for lychee production; and encouraging membership to lychee farmers’ group.
A baseline survey was conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana to assess current postharvest practices and factors influencing long and bulk storage of maize. The research tools employed were field survey, farm visits and key informant interviews. Twenty farmers were randomly selected from each community making a total of 120 farmers. Household structure on average is made up 7±5 individuals, mean age of household heads was 47 years compared to their wives age of 38 years. Maize is mostly stored in polypropylene sacs and jute sacs on raised platform in household stores. Majority of respondents indicated that post-harvest losses during storage are critical challenges to production and household food security. The main causes of loss were insect pest, rodents and grain moulds. Majority of farmers store maize for 5-8months. Though some local and synthetic grain protectants were used, post-harvest losses in 1 year of storage were still beyond acceptable limits. However, there was high willingness to adopt new efficient methods of crop protection like biological control. The idea of community storage methods was still not a technology farmers may adopt; due to a myriad of socio-cultural reasons. The results of the baseline study will guide the implementation of the project as well as serve as reference point for future impact assessment. Overall, integrated strategies involving clean farm operations, use of appropriate storage technologies and provision of improved storage structures are required to reduce current losses.
Random sets are common spatial statistical concepts that allow quantifying uncertainty in spatial objects. For objects extracted from remote sensing images, quantification of the uncertainty is important, as many objects are relatively small with respect to the pixel size and are sometimes poorly defined. Remote Sensing (RS) data are important in land cover identification, classification and estimation. The aim of this paper is to address problems associated with the presence of edges between objects. Such edges occur on images in different shapes, for example as borders between agricultural parcels. The study was applied on an NDVI map of a Landsat 5 TM image. Field boundaries are normally irregular and often transitional. Modeling agricultural fields as spatial objects helps to identify the extensional uncertainties and therefore to characterize inaccuracy in parcel size estimation. The study was carried out in the Sharifabad region in Iran. The Douglas Paucker algorithm was used to establish a single boundary that separates different parcels of agricultural fields. The results of the study indicate that Gaussian thresholding of image segmentation generated random sets for six agricultural fields. Quantification of extensional uncertainty presented two parcels with a larger extensional uncertainty than the other four parcels. A question we addressed in this study was identification of the boundaries between two adjacent parcels. An overall accuracy of 91% shows that random sets were effective for modeling the extensional uncertainty of the agricultural fields and for the delineation of the agricultural field boundaries. We conclude that the geometric model used to delineate the agricultural field boundaries is able to properly handle irregular shape boundaries.
Front line demonstrations (FLD) of integrated technology package of muga culture were conducted at 10 adopted farmers’ fields each in Golaghat and Dibrugarh districts in Assam State (India) during 2014-15. To demonstrate the production and economic benefit of adopting improved technologies, 200 g disease free laying (dfls) was brushed during kotia commercial crop (Oct-Nov) in each of the 20 adopted farmers’ field. Impact assessment of FLD recorded higher yield as well as higher economic return as compared to the farmers’ traditional practices. The demonstration of technologies registered higher yield of 66.8 cocoons per dfl with 41.9 per cent improvement as against 47.5 cocoons per dfl under traditional practices. Study also registered very narrow technology gap in the demonstration yield i.e., 3.15 cocoons per dfl over the potential production. Extension gap of 19.5 cocoons per dfl is found to be wide but, mean technology index calculated only 4.5 per cent which prove the feasibility of technology packages at farmer’s field. The improved technology packages also gave higher net return of Rs. 4855/-with higher benefit cost ratio 1.32 as compared to net return of Rs. 2045/- and benefit cost ratio 1.17 under traditional practice in 0.202 hectares of plantation. Findings of the present study in Golaghat and Dibrugarh districts of Assam indicated that FLD of integrated technology packages of muga culture have shown highly significant impact (P ≤ 0.05) on cocoon production in terms of average cocoon yield per dfl and total cocoon yield against the traditional practices adopted by the farmers. Similarly, the comparative economic analysis of FLD and traditional practices of both the districts have found highly significant (P ≤ 0.05) Net Return of FLD over that of traditional practices. The FLD of the integrated package is one of most effective tools for transfer of technology to enhance the productivity and hence, the integrated technology should be adopted in every potential pockets of muga culture for enhancing the productivity.