Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Cooperative Member Participation in Agricultural Input and Output Marketing: The Case of Damote Gale District of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia

Tekle Leza, Berhanu Kuma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/22080

This study was conducted to identify determinants of cooperative member participation in agricultural input and output marketing at Damote Gale district of Wolaita Zone in Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to obtain a sample size of 120 cooperative members. Quantitative data from primary sources were collected through household survey while qualitative data were collected through key informant interview, focus group discussions and personal observations. Data were analyzed using liquidity ratio, debit ratio, profitability ratio and binary logit model. The result showed that 42% of cooperative members were participants in agricultural input and out marketing whereas 58% were non-participants. With regard to debt ratio and profitability ratio, Buge, Gacheno and Ade Charake cooperatives performed below the desirable rate. For example, the profitability ratio of Buge and Gacheno marketing cooperative was negative that couldn’t satisfy bank interest rate of financial institutions from which they borrowed money. The binary logit model result showed that participation decision of cooperative members in agricultural input and output marketing was significantly determined by household size, landholding, credit access, input and output marketing outlets, distance to cooperative marketing center from member home, perceived satisfaction of members due to joining of cooperative, distance from member home to extension office and off farming activities. Out of 8 significant explanatory variables, perceived satisfaction of members due to joining cooperative, distance from member home to extension office, distance from member home to cooperative marketing center and household size determined participation decision of members in agricultural input and output marketing negatively and significantly while the other four variables determined positively and significantly. Limiting the increasing population pressure, promoting income-generating activities, enhancing share capital contribution, enhancing micro-financing efficiency, infrastructural facilities and information dissemination, educating and training of members in cooperative marketing were recommended to enhance member participation in agricultural input and output marketing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Variables and Food Security Status of Cocoa Farming Households in Ondo State, Nigeria

K. A. Oluyole, O. Taiwo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/10077

The study investigated the effects of socio-economic characteristics on food security status of cocoa farming households. The study was conducted in Ondo State, Nigeria. There was random selection of four notable cocoa producing Local Government Areas (LGAs) and from each of the four selected LGAs, there was random selection of two communities. However, from the eight communities, a total of two hundred respondent households were randomly selected. The data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics as well as probit model. The study shows that the mean age for cocoa farming households’ head in the overall state was 52.2 years and the mean household size in the study area was about five members per household. The proportion of the food secure households was 43% while that of the food insecure households was 57%. The inferential analysis shows that six variables were found to be significant in determining the food security status of the farming households. The variables are household size (p<0.01), age of household head (p<0.10), farming experience of household head (p<0.05), output of roots and tubers (p<0.01), output of cereals (p<0.05) and output of cocoa (p<0.01). The study concluded that there is a need to increase the productivity of cocoa farming households (especially in the area of cocoa production) in order to increase their output. It was recommended that there should be an enlightenment programme in the study area on the need for birth control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gradually “Disappearing”: A Look at the Status of Area Harvested of Millet in Togo, Determinants and Policy Implications

Boansi David

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/22603

As a traditional crop in many developing countries, millet, by virtue of its high nutritive qualities, longer shelf-life, tolerance to drought and provision of multiple security has served and continues to serve as a relevant crop for enhancing food security and reducing poverty in Togo (and other West African countries). Limited marketing opportunities however, amidst shifting dietary patterns, low priority of millet in research support, and policies favoring production of tradable commodities at the expense of non-tradable staples has led to a general stagnation in yields, and significant declines in acreage  and output of millet in Togo. Prompted by fear of a possible disappearance/extinction of millet from the country’s agrarian landscape in the near future (thereby posing future food insecurity and poverty threat), the current study (with the objective of analyzing trends in area harvested of millet in Togo and determinants thereof), through the use of standard and improved acreage response models (within the Nerlovian framework) sourced drawing stakeholder attention to current state of the millet sub-sector in Togo and making vital future policy prescriptions. Given extremely low coefficient of adaptation and high long-run estimates observed in this study, should current neglect of the millet subsector continue, there exists a greater chance of extinction of millet from Togo’s agrarian landscape. Efforts to prevent such extinction and to revitalize the sub-sector should place much emphasis on increasing both acreages and yields (through investing in high yielding varieties and in research and development in line with production and trade) of millet in the country, on ensuring increased supply of cheap labor (through minimization of rural-urban migration), and on further promoting current upland rice/millet mixed cropping systems in the unimodal rainfall zones (to ensure the sub-sector benefits from production incentives for the rice subsector). Pricing policy governing the millet sub-sector should as well be revised to help minimize the high long-run responsiveness of millet producers to price incentives for the maize and yam sub-sectors (as this significantly accounts for drift of millet producers to the maize and yam sub-sectors). In addition, producers and other stakeholders should be given enough incentives to appropriately invest in the millet subsector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Integration and Price Dynamics of Sesame in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

T. A. K. Anzaku, S. A. N. D. Chidebelu, A. I. Achike

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/22312

The study was to principally determine the efficiency of the marketing system of sesame in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. This is to provide empirical knowledge on the level of efficiency and competitiveness useful for improving the marketing system for economic development. Analysis of spatial integration of 13 main rural and urban sesame markets was carried out in Nasarawa State of Nigeria, covering all the agricultural zones of the State. Time series data used in the analysis were monthly retail prices of sesame collected by Nasarawa Agricultural Development Programme (NADP) for 84 months. Cointegration analysis and error correction model (ECM) were the main analytical tools used. Steps to cointegration analysis involved augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF), Granger causality and augmented Engle Granger (AEG) tests on the retail prices from the 13 markets. Results showed that retail price series in many sesame markets were segmented. Only 34 pairs of market prices (about 21.8%) were integrated and the rate of price adjustment within one month was very high in nearly all the integrated pairs. Reversing the trend and improving efficiency will certainly involve, among others things, improving infrastructure such as rural roads and providing market information outfit that will disseminate timely information to the marketers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Gender in Family Farming in Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

C. M. Ekenta, M. O. Akinola, K. Usman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/22803

Family farming is one of the most predominant forms of agriculture world- wide and plays significant role in household food security. The roles of men and women in the household are very important in sustaining family farming. The study examined the role of gender in family farming in Kabba/Bunu Local government Area of Kogi State with the objectives to identify family farm activities by gender; identify the socioeconomic benefits of family farming; identify the socioeconomic costs of family farming on gender and identify the constraints to family farming in the study area. The study was carried out in Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area from February to August, 2015. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents (men and women) from the three districts in the Local Government Area. Primary data was generated through the administration of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to achieve objectives one, two and four while 4-scale ranking methods was used to achieve objective three. The major findings indicates that 87% of men were more involved in bush clearing while 92% of women were involved in processing; increased household food (95%) was the major benefit of family farming; increased workload on the household members was the major socioeconomic cost of family farming on gender while rural-urban migration was the major constraint to family farming in the study area. It was recommended Governments at all levels should provide conducive environment in the rural areas with basic social amenities so as reduce the level of rural-urban migration especially among youths and government at the local level should grant credit facilities and agricultural loans to farm family at low interest rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Rural and Agricultural Development Projects in Okehi Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

A. I. Age, S. K. Vihi, O. D. Adeiza

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/22462

The research study was carried out to assess the present state of the Rural and Agricultural Development Project in Okehi Local Government Area of Kogi State. The population of this study consisted of all the Rural farmers in Okehi Local Government Area of Kogi State. Data for this study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire alongside interview techniques. Secondary data were collected using journals, internet sources, conference papers and text books. Due to the enormity of this population, a sample size of 160 respondents was selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Data for this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, percentages as well as inferential statistics such as Factor analysis and Kruskal Wallis (H) test. The result obtained revealed that there was no significant differences (P<0.05) among the five council wards in Okehi Local Government  Area in terms of prioritized rural and agricultural development facilities needed by the people. The result showed that the available existing agricultural development facilities in the study area were agricultural extension office (5.35%), fertilizer distribution center (4.29%), poultry farms (4.2%), fish ponds (1.0%), veterinary clinic (0.35%) .The existing rural infrastructure include, pipe born water (3.6%), tertiary institutions (3.3%), bridges (3.0%), commercial banks (2.7%), bore holes/wells (2.6%) feeder road (2.5%),  electricity supply (2.9%), council hall (2.1%), recreational facilities (1.9%). It was however discovered that even the few existing rural and agricultural infrastructures were either in poor state or dilapidated. And there were two major categories of problems affecting rural and agricultural development in the study area Viz: Socio-cultural cum economic factors (factor1) and politico ecological factors (factor2). It was recommended that Government should always conduct situational analysis of the rural areas so as to have a clear view of the basic needs of the people. Agricultural development projects such as veterinary clinics, agricultural extension offices, fertilizer distribution centres and poverty alleviation programs should be situated in rural areas by government and non-governmental organizations so as to raise the standard of living of the rural people. Rural infrastructural facilities such as feeder roads, bridges, coverts, bore holes/wells, pipe born water, commercial banks, recreational facilities, tertiary institutions, electricity supply etc., should be provided by our well to do individuals, the private sector as well as Government. Government should put in place monitoring and evaluation machinery to ensure proper monitoring and evaluation of rural and agricultural development projects. Integrated Rural and Agricultural Development Approach (IRAD) should be adopted by the government in tackling the problems of rural and agricultural development.