The study assessed the impact of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) rice project phase 1 on the socio-economic life of the rice farmers in Anambra and Ebonyi States of Nigeria. After more than five years of operation, the evaluation of the USAID project phase 1 in terms of its impact on rice production and socio-economic life of the rice farmers becomes pertinent. The population of the study included all rice farmers in Anambra and Ebonyi States that participated in the first phase of the project. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a total of 80 project participant farmers (PPFs) which constituted the sample size for the study. Primary data were collected through validated structured interview schedule. T-test and Chi square were the analytical tools used at P = .05 significance level. The results of the study revealed that the project made significant impact on the socio-economic life of project farmers in the areas of hectarages of rice land cultivated (t= 8.33, P≤ .05), rice production output (t= 10.58, P ≤ .05), annual farm income (t= 11.2, P ≤ .05 ), knapsack sprayer (t= 8.32, P ≤ .05), motorcycle (t= 12.90, P ≤ .05) and mobile phones (t= 14.79, P ≤ .05). Other areas of significant changes were access to agro-inputs (χ2= 50.19, P ≤ .05), ease of marketing rice (χ2= 40.14, P ≤ .05), knowledge of rice production and processing techniques (χ2= 61.00, P ≤ .05), attitude toward rice production (χ2= 23.00, P ≤ .05), aspiration to invest more money into rice production (χ2= 12.60, P ≤ .05) and improved standard of living (χ2= 51.00, P ≤ .05). Increase in access to credit by the farmers; and the need for state governments or USAID in partnership with relevant manufacturing companies to provide various farmers’ groups with improved parboiling tanks and low capacity set of rice milling machines at subsidized rate were recommended.
This study was an attempt to assess the existing potato value chain and seasonal price variation based on of primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected from the potato growers of Kahaloo upazila under Bogra district and potato retailers were selected from Bogra Sadar upazila by applying direct interview method during the month of February to April 2012. Different value chain actors were involved in production and marketing system, such as Faria, Bepari, wholesaler, retailer and cold storage owner. In Kahaloo upaziala the whole value chain of potato was completed through five separate supply chains of potato from the hand of farmers to the ultimate consumers. Longest supply chain included farmer, Faria, Bepari, wholesaler, Distance wholesaler, Retailer and finally consumer. Highest sales price of potato was received by retailer and the lowest sales price was received by farmer. Total value addition by different actors was found 338.12 Tk. per 40 Kg potato. In value chain, highest value was added by wholesaler and lowest value was added by Faria of the total value addition. Ratio to moving average method was applied to examine the price fluctuation of Bogra and Dhaka market with the help of secondary data. The price fluctuation of potato in Bogra and Dhaka market was relatively correlated.
This study examined the determinants of cocoa productivity in Ondo State of Nigeria. Primary data were used and collected by using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 140 respondents who were farmers from three selected local government areas which constituted the sampling blocks of the multistage random sampling technique. The methods of data analysis employed were both descriptive and inferential. Determinants of productivity were analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to estimate the parameters of estimates of the variables thereby giving the relationship between the output and the explanatory variables. The results of the study showed that cocoa production was in stage II of production in the study area with return to scale (RTS) of 0.956. The RTS is decreasing in nature being less than unity but positive. This showed that cocoa production in the study area is productive with rooms for improvement on the side of farmers by using efficient techniques that can enhance their productivity. The variables such as farm size, quantities of fungicides and fertilizers, age of farmer and farming experience are positively related to cocoa output while other variables insecticides, labour, age of farm (age of cocoa trees), family size and educational status (years spent in school) are negatively related to cocoa output. Of these variables, quantity of fertilizer used, labour and educational status of the farmers were statistically significant at 5% meaning they are the major determinants of cocoa productivity in the study area while other variables are statistically insignificant at any level.
Taming river flow to facilitate irrigation support for agriculture begets a group of beneficiaries and a group of sufferers. While implementations of such large scale projects are taking place by taming the natural resource hydrology, the economics of net welfare gain must be met. The estimated cost benefit analysis of a trans-boundary river is a complex issue than a river flowing within the domestic territory only. The dynamics of natural resource hydrology of trans-boundary rivers are often influenced beyond the national level policies. Thus, at lower stream, river dependent farmers’ often suffer from reduced flow of water for irrigation, if withdrawal of water occurs at upstream. It increases the cost of agricultural production. In addition, limits the choice of river dependent farmers’ to reduce their risk of cultivation by adopting crop diversification as a strategy. With reduced flow of water to facilitate adequate irrigation is costly. Hence, diversification of cropping further increases the cost of cultivation, if otherwise; farmers’ opt for low water intensive crops. Assuming soil condition is not sufficiently favorable for cultivating low water intensive crops, the study attempts to explain how taming (man-made) a river limits farmers’ choice to minimize the risk of cultivation by adopting crop diversification. Estimates using Logit and Probit analysis evince that riparian farmers’ depending on river water for irrigation are 11 percent more exposed to the risk of production compared to farmers’ who usually receive irrigation support from the project. Inadequate water flow in dry season arises the risk for riparian farmers’ by limiting their scope of cultivating diversified crops. Besides, the probability of crop diversification drops by 3.5 percent with each event of river erosions in Kharif (Rainy) season at Teesta Valley. These estimates will be useful a priory measures to calculate the overall loss of ecosystem services of a natural hydrology (in the Bangladesh part), which in turn will facilitate Bangladesh to negotiate for a fair distribution of water share in the ongoing trans-boundary water negotiations with India.
The study was aimed at examining and determining the effects of adoption of the recommended cassava production practices (RCPPs) on the yield and income benefit among farmers; as well as the constraints faced by farmers in adoption of the recommended practices. The study used a multi-stage sampling procedure to select 120 registered cassava farmers. Frequencies, percentages, means, and z – test were employed for data analyses. Result of the Z-test revealed that the mean yield of cassava before and after adoption were 3,832 t/ha and 6,387 t/ha respectively; with a differential of 67%. The mean income of farmers before and after the adoption was ₦464, 642.00 and ₦714, 833. 00 respectively; and the differential mean was 54%. The identified major constraints for low and non-adoption of some of the recommended cassava production practices were limited scale and uneven distribution of farmland, insufficient funds and complex nature of technologies to farmers. It was recommended that technology developers should develop technologies that are simple, cost effective and easily adoptable by farmers. On the other hand, promoters of technology adoption should intensify efforts targeted at improving service delivery and the promotion of the adoption of recommended cassava production practices by the farmers especially those technologies that recorded low levels of adoption. But more than this, it is recommended that the applicable technologies should be appropriate, adaptive, adoptive and sustainable.
Aims: Aims of the study were to determine the technical efficiency of rain-fed lowland rice producers and factors influencing technical efficiency of rain-fed lowland rice producers in Niger State.
Study Design: Primary data were collected from rain-fed lowland rice producers through the use of structured questionnaires.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in three local government areas comprising nine villages in Niger State, Nigeria during 2014 cropping season.
Methodology: Multistage purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection.
Results: The mean technical efficiencies were 63%. Findings further revealed that none of the sampled rice farms reached the frontier threshold. However, variables included in the model for the efficiency effects were seed, fertilizer, labour and agrochemical. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated simultaneously with those of the model of inefficiency effects. Results indicated that farm size, fertilizer and labour were significant (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Findings further revealed that none of the sampled rain-fed lowland rice farms reached the frontier threshold. Also, household size, educational status, farming experience and cooperative membership were the socio-economic variables responsible for the variation in technical efficiency of the rain-fed lowland rice producers. It was therefore recommended that timely and adequate supply of fertilizer and labour should be made available to farmers at affordable price in order to enhance the production of rice in Niger State.