Open Access Case study

Validating Farmers' Adoption for Salt-tolerated Crop Seeds in Jordan

Mohunnad Massimi, Moh`d Al-Rifaee, Jamal Alrusheidat, A. Al-Dakheel, Botrous Al-Qawaleet, Shahir Haddad

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/24291

The information on farmers’ adoption of local seed systems is based on field visits undertaken in the Zarqa and Mafraq Regions in Jordan. Farmers’ adoption depends upon social relation, locally developed seed exchange methods and private companies which are presented as leverage mechanisms for the survival of local seed systems. Farmers' decision to acquire seeds is an act of making a choice between maintaining old germplasms or searching for renewable physical input (seed) or to take advantage of each merit in specific situations. This clearly underscores the need to value the seed lot yield before putting in place any type of variety selection or seed multiplication.

This paper presents a brief overview of the seed system in Jordan with particular emphasis on the role of extension services in local seed supply. Field visits and yield estimates leads to the conclusion that the extension services should focus on farmer yields in order to validate the complementary role of local seed systems, research trials and extension program demonstrations in the development of a national seed industry.

Open Access Short Research Article

Estimation of Price Transmission of Food Grains along the Food Grains Supply Chain: A Comparative Approach between Prior and Post Trade Liberalization Era in Tanzanian Context

Joel Chongela, Vasudev Nandala, Suhasini Korabandi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/19347

Aims: The empirical paper was undertaken to estimate price transmission of food grains along the food supply chain prior and post trade liberalization era.

Study Design: The paper adopted an observational research design based on time series data set.

Place and Duration of Study: The empirical paper was conducted in Tanzania Mainland by employing time series data set collected for thirty (30) years period (1981 – 2010).

Methodology: The Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) model was employed to measure the price transmission of producers’ and consumers’ monthly prices of food grains along the food supply chain. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) was employed to estimates the ECM model. Unit root test was carried out by the Dickey-Fuller (DF) technique. The Augmented Engle-Granger (AEG) method was employed to test cointegration. The Serial Correlation Matrix (SCM) was employed to compare price transmission of producers’ and consumers’ monthly prices of food grains prior and post trade liberalization era (1981 - 1995 and 1996 - 2010) in Tanzanian context.

Results: Empirical results revealed that price transmission of producers’ and consumers’ monthly prices of food grains were cointegrated from upstream to downstream during prior and post trade liberalization era. The serial correlation matrix results showed that producers’ and consumers’ monthly prices of food grains were positive correlated during prior and post trade liberalization era.

Conclusion and Policy Implications: According to empirical findings, the study suggested that the price stabilization policies formulated and implemented by the Tanzanian government should focus much more on prices of food grains as the main food staples consumed by the majority of food consumers in rural and urban areas of the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Constraints to the Adoption of Improved Fish Farming Technologies by Farmers in Yola North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria

I. S. Usman, A. A. Girei, B. I. Tari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/20729

The study analyzed the constraints to adoption of improved fish farming technologies by fish farmers in Yola North and South Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Primary data which were obtained through the use of questionnaires and personal interview administered to 98 respondents were used for the study. The study revealed that ten technologies were available for the farmers in the study area. Results on the adoption of the technologies shows that site selection (soil testing) and preservation after harvesting (chilled storage) were the least adopted technologies by 2.0% of the respondents respectively. Pond maintenance and pond stocking with fish based on recommendation were the most widely adopted technologies by 73.5% and 89.8% of the respondents’ respectively. The result of the correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship at 5% level of significance between constraints and adoption of recommended fish farming technologies. Insufficient funds, high cost of feeds and inadequate extension visits were the major constraints faced by fish farmers in the study area. It is recommended that agricultural credit schemes should be pursued and implemented and supply of quality fish feeds should be facilitated by all stakeholders at the right time and controlled prices. Extension workers should rededicate their efforts towards dissemination of information and visiting farmers’ fish farms so as to supervise and advice on the best methods of fish farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Management Practices and Technical Efficiency of Food Crop Farmers in North Central Nigeria: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

W. L. Agboola

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/23791

The study examines the effect of Land Management practices on technical efficiency of food crop farmers in North Central Nigeria. Data for the study were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire from 345 food crop farmers, while data analyses were carried out using Data envelopment analysis and tobit regression. About 12.17% of the farmers were relatively technical efficient in their use of resources, with mean technical efficiency being 0.576. Return to scale reveals 6.67% of the farms to be operating under increasing return to scale, none under decreasing return to scale while 93.33% were found to be operating under constant return to scale. Slacks were reported in the use of such inputs as planting materials, quantity of manure, family and hired labour as well as quantity of agrochemicals. Factors that significantly reduced the technical inefficiency of farming households in the study area (P=.05) were education, age, farm size, crop diversification, practicing alley cropping, bush fallowing, cover cropping, crop rotation, mulching and inorganic fertilizer. The need to sensitize farmers on the importance of adopting soil enhancing technologies or enhance retention of soil fertility and introduce policies against land fragmentation since this would help reduce technical inefficiency were recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Sorghum Productivity in the Rain-fed Sector of Gadarif State, Sudan

Nuha Saeed Elameen Ahmed, Mutasim M. M. Elrasheed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/23372

The aim of the study was to determine, analyze and compare the socioeconomic factors affecting sorghum productivity of small-scale farmers (male and female) in the rain-fed sector of Gadarif state, Sudan. Multistage random sampling technique was used to collect data from 175 farmers from three villages, by means of questionnaire, in February 2013. Descriptive statistics, F-statistics and robust regression analysis techniques were used to achieve the stated objectives. Results revealed the existence of substantial differences between male and female socioeconomic characteristics affecting rain-fed sorghum productivity in Gadarif State, with various degrees. Unlike male-farmers whom they respond significantly to only three independent factors (age (.015; P=.04), education (.29, P=.002) and marital status (.49, P=0001)); sorghum productivity of female farmers was substantially responded to changes of all studied independent variables: age (-0.03; P<.01), education level (-0.05; p<.001), marital status (0.36; P<.001), family members (0.06; P<.01), experience (-0.05; P<.006), and off-farm income (0.0001; P,.04). Accordingly, it is very important to take gender difference in consideration in setting any improvement plans for sorghum productivity in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria: An Analysis of Benefits

B. O. Akinwalere

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/23464

The study examined the benefits of agroforestry practices among farmers in South West Nigeria. It highlighted the extent of agroforestry, the ownership and management of agroforestry practices, the utilization and sustainability of the practices, the benefits derived from agroforestry, as well as the challenges faced by farmers practising agroforestry. In the study area, multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 200 agroforestry farmers, while a validated structured questionnaire was used with other participatory techniques to obtain the required data. Descriptive and inferential statistics which include Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and T- test analyses were used to analyse the data. Most of the respondents (82%) are married and the respondents mean age was 52 years. Majority of the respondents had formal education while 92 percent are involved in farming as their primary occupation. The analysis in the study area revealed the growing adoption of agroforestry with sustained environmental and economic benefits. The mean income before and after adoption of agroforestry practices were $1462.89 and $2131.82, respectively. It was shown that various determinants cutting across personal factors, social factors and environmental factors contributed to adoption and sustainability of agroforestry practices in the study area. Given the fact that farmers derived substantial benefits from the practice, the avenue of agroforestry practice could further be effectively exploited to enhance sustainable food production and environmental management.