Aims: Pigs have been described as one of the most prolific and fast growing livestock that can convert food waste to valuable products. However, diseases pose significant challenge to efficient management and profitability of pig production. The study assessed pig health management strategies among farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Survey.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Enugu State, Nigeria between January-June 2015.
Methodology: Two agricultural zones (Nsukka and Udi) out of six were purposively selected for the study due to high pig production in the zones. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data from 96 farmers. Data was presented using mean scores and percentage.
Results: Mange (M=2.77), trypanosomosis (M=2.33) and agalacia (mastitis) (M=2.21) were the major disease conditions in the study area. Disease preventive/biosecurity measures practiced by respondents include: constant observation of animals (M=0.90) and good health hygiene by staff (M=0.89). Farmers however poorly practice washing of hands thoroughly before and after visiting the pens (M=0.11), use of disinfectant in cleaning the pen among others. The indigenous method used by respondents in the treatment of diseases include: used of red oil (15%) and used dregs of palm oil preparation (13%) for the treatment of toxins/poisonings. About 4% used okwete (Costus afer) leaves. For the treatment of mastitis, 4.1% of the respondents used eriri agwo-monkey rope (Parsonia straminea) leaves while 6.1% and 1.0% used Ogwu obara leaves and okwete (Costus afer) leaves for the treatment of piglet anaemia.
Conclusions: Although farmers use preventive measures in their farms and also attempted to treat some of these diseases, efforts should be made by extension to further educate farmers on the need to improve on the use of disease control measures like the use of disinfectant in cleaning the pen and the provision of foot deep.
To cope with the high decrease of the cotton price on the international markets, the Government of Benin has emphasized the promotion of other crops like pineapple. To increase the competitiveness of this promising commodity and its links with other value chains, a study on value chain analysis was carried out to map out the different actors, their relationships, to put out the best chains and the factors influencing the availability of this commodity on some local markets. A methodological approach based on added values chains (AVC) analysis and on chains cartography is used. From a random sampling based on actor categories, 365 producers, 40 traders, 25 processors and 5 transporters were selected. From this study, seven (07) chain values animated by several unorganized actors in a competitive environment have been identified. The main chains of this commodity are fresh pineapple chain and juice processed. Fruit exportation is mainly directed to Nigeria (70% of the total pineapple produced) and to UE countries (5%). On the other hand, about 85 percent of juice produced is exported to hinterland African countries (Burkina, Mali, Niger, Morocco and Senegal). According to the recent development of the value chain network, pineapple appears as an important element of regional integration. Innovative policies should be provided to break down or to reduce the barriers that hamper the promotion of this commodity.
Focus group discussions were carried out with rainfed rice farmers in Central Java, Indonesia to understand their rice production system and assess their adaptability to current and future climate change. Results show that the farmers dealt with various stresses such as water shortage, weeds, insects, and pathogens and they spent a significant amount of money for the prevention or reduction of yield loss due to these stresses. As a result, their production cost ranged from 33% to 40% of revenue in the first season and hovered around 30% in the second season. The majority of funds used to prevent or mitigate crop losses from stresses was sourced from debts borrowed from commercial and non-commercial sources. The farmers were therefore vulnerable to any additional damage caused by stresses. Drought is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses but farmers do not have any effective countermeasures to mitigate its effects. This situation results mainly from their inability to access accurate and timely information on the type and start/end of the rainy season. This lack of information prevents them from selecting and planting the correct varieties and adopting the appropriate cultural management practices. Research needs to focus on this particular constraint to help rainfed farmers reduce crop losses from stresses, drought in particular, and to substantially move forward the process of designing more responsive and sustainable rice production models for Central Java and other similarly-situated drought-prone areas.
Tur is the most important Kharif pulse crop of northern Karnataka. Over the years, the farming community is shifting to cultivation of cash crops due to higher profitability leading to decrease in acreage under pulse crops in general and Tur in particular. The current study was carried out in Vijayapur and Bagalakote districts of north Karnataka to analyze the profitability in Tur cultivation and to document various constraints faced by the Tur growers in the study area. The data pertained to the agricultural year 2014-15. The yield per ha of Tur crop in was 15.08 quintals. The average price received by the sample farmers per quintal of Tur was Rs 5825.50. The total cost of cultivation was Rs 60260.37. The net returns per hectare of Tur cultivation was found to be Rs 27588.17, leading to an undiscounted benefit to cost ratio (Profitability ratio) of 1.45. The sample respondents ranked non-availability of labour as the greatest constraint in manual harvesting and mechanical threshing of Tur with a Garrett score of 70.73. The problems ranked as second, third and fourth place were high cost of labour, delay in harvesting and loss of crop due to unexpected pre-monsoon rains, respectively. Efforts should be made to bring more area under Tur crop in the study area. In spite of more yield and higher price of output, the net returns for Tur growers is less due to their higher investment in labour for carrying out various farm operations. To address this problem, mechanization of various operations such as ploughing, harrowing, sowing, harvesting and threshing should be done.
The study was designed to assess the costs, returns, profitability, and food security status of Pangus farm households. Samples were collected from two villages namely Baganbari and Konabari at Trishal Upazilla under Mymensingh district, Bangladesh in 2013. 100 sample farmers were selected randomly of which 27 were marginal farmers, 42 small farmers, 26 medium farmers and 5 were large farmers respectively. Tabular and statistical analysis was done to achieve the major objectives of the study. The average annual production of Pangus for all farms was 28860 kg which valued at Taka (Tk.) (1$=80 Tk.) 1010100 per hectare per year. The farmers earned the highest profit from the medium scale of Pangus farming. All the included variables such as human labour cost, fertilizer cost, and lime cost, and manure cost (except fingerlings and feed) had significant impact on yields and economic returns of it. Farmers changed land use patterns to increase farm income and food security. It’s playing a significant role to develop road and communication, marketing system, social and economic institutions to improve overall economic condition and also have some adverse impact on environmental issues. As policy measures, it may be suggested that Pangus farmers should be provide fingerlings, credit, training and reasonable price for sustainable development of Pangus farming.
This paper investigated perception of Nigerian cocoa farmers on Hazardous Child Labour. More importantly, in accordance with International Labour Organisation Child Labour Convention. Accidents, exposure to chemicals, bacteria or viral infection, ergonomically inappropriate tools, child molestation, minimum age requirement, awkward posture, and poor academic performance were identified as farm hazards. Multistage sampling technique was used for the methodology, the selection of study areas, Ondo and Cross-River states was purposive and 240 respondents were randomly selected. Information were solicited by issuance of questionnaires and interview schedule. Data were analysed using percentage, mean, frequency counts, standard deviation, pie chart, bar chart and correlation analysis. The study revealed a mean age of 45.32±8 years and 66.67% of the farmers, who employed children between 5-17 years of which 80% of them were attending secondary schools as labourers. Cocoa farmers (63%) had one form of education which is an indication of being able to read and write. Almost half of the respondents (49.58%) attested that, they can call upon these children, to work at any time on their cocoa farms. Respondents (60.40%) employed only family labour for their farming activities. Population of 50.80% of the respondents held the view that, child labour was part of socialization and 52.50% saw it as a way of building children up for future. Farmers (55.80%) reported that, child labour was a source of cheap labour and 82.50% of respondents had worked on the farm as labourer during their growing up years. It was revealed that, majority of farmers have high awareness and knowledge on hazardous child labour based on the listed farm hazards, however their practice also was high. Correlation analysis showed that, there was positive and significant relationship between perception and practice of hazardous child labor, r = 0.628** (P≤0.01) which indicated that, majority of respondents are still in the practice of exposing children labourers to hazards. It was concluded that, cocoa farmers should change their perception on hazardous child labour, as it negatively affects the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of a children. Furthermore, awareness should be created to educate farmers in the study areas, on definition and why hazardous child labour should be eliminated. This will contributes to households breaking out of the cycle of poverty and the country to advance in human development.