Climate Change has got far reaching adverse effect on Agriculture in developing countries accentuating rural poverty. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been advocating for Climate-Smart Agriculture which encompasses, among other things: Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; adapting and building resilience to climate change and reducing and/or removing greenhouse gases emissions, where possible. Adaptation measures include many agriculture techniques. The extension agencies in developing countries have the key challenge of enhancing the adaptation skill of small holder farmers to reduce their vulnerability.
Aim of the Experiment and Locale: The aim of this experiment was to test the comparative effectiveness of Video Teaching vis-a-vice Method Demonstration in imparting skills among smallholder farmers of a climate technology namely “Preparation of Enriched Farm Yard Manure”. This six-month long experiment was conducted in drought-prone villages of Erode district of Tamil Nadu, South India.
Methodology: The sophisticated experimental design- The Randomized Block Design (RBD) was used to test the effectiveness of the treatments. The RBD was particularly chosen to follow the principles of the experimental design namely Replication, Randomization and Local Control. Three replications of experimental treatments: Video Teaching, Method Demonstration and Video Teaching + Method Demonstration were set up to expose 45 smallholder farmers carefully chosen as experimental subjects. The homogeneity of the technical content (Preparation of Enriched Farm Yard Manure) among all the three treatments was ensured through systematic standardization procedure with help of panel of experts. The possible extraneous variables arising out of differing socio-economic characteristics of subjects were controlled through pretesting and matching for homogeneity. The dependent variable was the Skill Gain among the subjects while the independent variables were the three treatments. Sequentially, first the subjects’ skill level in handling the skill practice was assessed prior to the experiment. The subjects then were exposed to the treatments as per the design. Finally the skill levels of the subjects were again assessed immediately after the treatments. The Skill Gain was measured and the effect of the treatments was compared using Paired‘t’ test and ANOVA test.
Results: The results showed that all the three treatments: Video Teaching, Method Demonstration and Video Teaching + Method Demonstration significantly raised the skill levels of subjects. At the end of the experiment the subjects exposed to these three treatments respectively possessed adjusted Mean Skill Scores of the three treatments were 13.90, 17.50 and 17.87 respectively. They were to possess 45.26 per cent, 77.53 per cent and 90.16 per cent of the skill sets required for scientific preparation of the Enriched Farm Yard Manure. ANOVA test showed F value of 10.37 (<.01) indicating significant effect of treatments. Thus, the treatments exposed to the subjects had the rank order of effectiveness as: Video Teaching + Method Demonstration, Method Demonstration and Video Teaching in terms of Skill Gain among the subjects.
Conclusion: Video Teaching is comparable, though not equally effective, with Method Demonstration, implying that it can be used to transfer climate adaptation skills across geographies.
Smallholder rice farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana lack access to credit and this can hinder adoption of technologies introduced in the region, eventually impacting on productivity of rice which is one of the major cereals cultivated and consumed in Ghana. A total of 140 rice farmers were sampled for the study in Kassena-Nankana district in the Upper East Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. This study employed the probit model to estimate factors that influence rice farmers’ access to credit. The result of the study revealed that rice farmers invested the credit they access from formal and informal sources into non-agricultural activities which are mostly not what the credit was taken for. This implies a diversionary behaviour of farmers from what is expected. Also, majority of the farmers received cash credit below GH¢ 1000. The probit result revealed that age, marital status, membership of farmer based organisation, extension visit, record keeping and farm income were the significant variables that influenced rice farmers’ access to credit. Age and farm income negatively influenced farmers’ access to credit while marital status, member of farmer based organisation, record keeping and extension visit positively influenced farmers’ access to credit. The study recommends that rice farmers should be encouraged and sensitized to use the credit for agricultural activities in order to increase productivity. Extension agents should train rice farmers on record keeping since record keeping was seen to be a key factor that positively influenced farmers to receive credit especially from formal credit sources. Lastly, rice farmers should be encouraged to form groups, given that it also positively influenced farmers’ access to credit.
The major purpose of this research was to determine farmers’ problems’ and prospects of fish farming and its implications on increased fish production. The study was conducted in 15 villages of Kaijuri union of Faridpur district of Bangladesh. An interview schedule was used for data collection. The data were collected during 20th March to 12th April 2013. Appropriate scales were developed in order to measure the variables. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, range and percentage were used to describe the variables under consideration. It was found that about 50.5 percent of the pond farmers had medium problem (low price in pick period) compared to 40.6 percent of them having low problem (insufficient credit) and only 8.9 percent having high problem (lack of proper marketing facilities). Thus, the vast majority (91.1 percent) of the pond farmers had low to medium problem. The pond owners faced such major problems as: proper marketing facilities, poor communication system, natural calamities, shortage of pond water in dry season, insufficient credit and low price of pond fish in pick period.
The study assessed use of Information and Communication Technologies among farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 80 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire. Frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Majority of the respondents were males (70%) and married (82.5%). A greater percentage (98.8%) of the respondents was using radio, about 96% were using television and 91.2% used mobile phones, among others. Benefits of ICTs as indicated by the respondents include obtaining information on weather forecast (M=2.0), increasing access to markets (M=1.8), obtaining information on best time to plant given weather conditions (M=1.8), obtaining information on best time to harvest given weather conditions (M=1.7), ensuring effective communication with fellow farmers and extension agents (M=1.7), providing information on weather, pests and diseases outbreak (M=1.7), etc. The study recommends adequate provision of rural infrastructure such as electricity by three tiers of government (federal, state and local) to enhance use of ICTs like mobile phones, television, computer, Internet, etc for access to agricultural information for optimum productivity.
Disasters like Floods, Cyclones, Droughts and Earthquakes are increasing in India and almost all parts of the earth, due to environmental degradation, deforestation, increasing population, global warming, nuclear explosions, and air pollution. There is also worldwide concern to mitigate the growing incidence of disaster and their toll on human life, property, and environment. The role of Panchayats (local self governing institutions) is important in view of their proximity to the local community, universal coverage and enlisting people’s participation on an institutionalized basis. The major role of the Panchayati Raj Bodies in respect of disaster management is in the preparedness planning and its implementation during the pre and post- disaster phase. The village people are the most vulnerable for disasters and therefore the gram panchayats have to play a major role in association with the higher level bodies of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) as well as with the government agencies and others. Keeping this in view a study was undertaken in disaster prone areas in West Bengal on role of gram panchayat in disaster preparedness. A total 150 respondents were selected randomly for this study. Majority (94%) of the respondents opined that disaster forecasting system of the local government was not up to the mark and majority (74.67%) were getting information from electronic media like T.V and Radio about occurrence of disasters. 70% of the respondents were getting information from friends and relatives. there was no significant association was there between the socio personal traits of the respondents and the disaster preparedness. As because most of the respondent belongs to low social strata as found from the socio-economic profile of the respondents.
The study investigated the challenges to adoption of ICT by extension workers in Anambra State of Nigeria. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 69 respondents sampled from each cadre of the Anambra State Agricultural development Programme (ASADEP). Findings revealed that majority (92.8%) of the respondents had access to mobile phone. The ICT tool most frequently used was mobile phone as was indicated by majority (88.4%) of the respondents. Results showed that majority of the respondents agreed to some positive attitude statements to adoption of ICT tools including: making use of ICTs will help improve linkage between research and extension (94%.2); however, majority of the respondents agreed to some negative attitude statements including: I am very afraid of the internet because of the rampant fraud done through it (97.1%). Challenges to adoption of ICT tools include: power/electricity instability (M=1.68), lack of training on ICT use (M=1.4) etc. The study concluded by identifying major infrastructural, capacity and attitudinal challenges to adoption of ICT tools by extension workers in the area. It is recommended that ICT-enabling opportunities should be provided to extension personnel in the state through provision of ICT infrastructure, technical training and attitudinal re-orientation.