Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability and Competitiveness of the Main Crops Grown under Rain-Fed Sector of Gadarif State, Sudan

Nuha Saeed Elameen Ahmed, Mutasim Mekki M. Elrasheed

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/23438

The aim of this study was to examine the profitability and competitiveness of the main crops grown under the rain-fed sector of Gadarif state: sorghum, millet, sesame and groundnuts. The study used both primary and secondary data. Primary data covered the three scale of semi-mechanized farms in the state (small, intermediate and large scale). Primary data on small-scale farmers were collected by means of questionnaire from 175 in Gadarif State, during 2012/2013 season. Primary data on large and intermediate-scale farmers were collected from unpublished records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Gadarif State. Secondary data were collected from Central Bureau of Statistics and Federal Ministry of Agriculture. Policy analysis matrix was used to reach to the stated objective. Results revealed that, the four grown crops in the study area are proved to be financially and socially profitable despite the discouraging policies. The taxes on domestic input transfer for the four crops and output for groundnuts negatively affects the profitability, competitiveness and comparative advantages of all crops and give fragile results under shocks, except sesame which showed strong results under all conditions. Policy-wise, government should reduce taxes and provide incentives for farmers participating and adopting extension programs. It should also invest on the infrastructure to link farmers to a high value markets. Likewise, they should expand microfinance to cover all farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Public Agricultural Expenditure on Agricultural Output in Nigeria (1981-2014)

Abula Matthew, Ben D. Mordecai

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/25491

This study investigated the impact of public agricultural expenditure on agricultural output in Nigeria for the period 1981 to 2014 with time series data obtained from the Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Central Bank of Nigeria, 2014. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, Johansen Co-integration test, Error Correction Method (ECM) and Granger Causality test were employed as analytical tools in the course of the study. Agricultural output was explained by public agricultural expenditure, commercial bank loans to the agricultural sector and interest rates. The Johansen Co-integration test revealed that there exists a long-run relationship between agricultural output, public agricultural expenditure, commercial bank loans to the agricultural sector and interest rates in Nigeria. The results of the parsimonious ECM model showed that public agricultural expenditure has a significant negative impact on agricultural output while commercial bank loans to the agricultural sector and interest rate have insignificant positive impacts on agricultural output in Nigeria. The value of the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.630677 showed that the exogenous variables in the ECM equation viz; public agricultural expenditure, commercial bank loans to the agricultural sector and interest rate explains over 63% of the systematic variations in agricultural output. The error correction term was highly significant at the 5% level with the appropriate negative sign, indicating that the adjustment is in the right direction to restore the long-run relationship. The study concluded that the negative impact of public agricultural expenditure on agricultural output may have resulted due to discrepancies that existed between the amount allocated to the agricultural sector and the amount actually spent on the sector in the country. We therefore recommended that monitoring agencies be established by the federal government to ensure that the amount allocated to the agricultural sector is actually and judiciously spent on the sector in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marketing Efficiency of Maize in Bangladesh

A. K. M. Golam Kausar, Mohammad Jahangir Alam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/26170

The present study was undertaken to determine marketing efficiency of different maize marketing channels. The study used primary data randomly collected from 55 farmers and intermediaries from two upazilas of Gaibandha district of Bangladesh. The study identified five most prominent maize marketing channels. The channels were (i) Farmers-Farias-wholesalers-Aratdars-feed mills (ii) Farmers-wholesalers-Aratdars-feed mills (iii) Farmers-Aratdars-feed mills (iv) Farmers-wholesalers-feed mills, and (v) Farmers- Farias-Aratdars-feed mills. Among the identified channels, channel III (i. e., Farmers-Aratdars-Feed mills) was the most efficient channel. Channel IV was the next best alternative of channel III. The study explained the plausible reasons why channel III was most efficient one. The study suggested to reduce the number of intermediaries by developing a system of direct buying from farmers and selling directly to Aratdars or feed mills. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Organization and Challenges of Contract Farming in Tanzania: A Case of Mtibwa Sugarcane Outgrower Scheme

Respikius Martin, Jeff Sharp

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/26281

Aims: To analyze the organization and challenges of contract farming in Tanzania.

Study Design: Cross sectional.

Place and Duration of the Study: Turiani division in Mvomero District. Data collection began in February 2013 and ended in March of the same year.

Methodology: The paper utilizes the qualitative data to answer the research questions.

Results: Sugarcane growers are contracted through their organizations. Five main challenges of contract farming in the study area were identified. They include delayed payment, lack of fairness in allocation of quotas, lack of transparency in determining the content of sucrose (rendement), lack of transparency in determining the weight of sugarcane and low price of sugarcane.

Conclusion: Contract farming in the study area has the potential to overcome sugarcane marketing constraints. However, the challenges identified require an immediate attention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude of Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabian Farmers towards Extension Employees in Leadership Ability and Communication of Innovative Adoption

Noor Mobeen, Shaan Shahabuddin, Sajid Faiz, Fahad Adosri

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/24543

The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of the farming community towards adapting an innovative technology. A sample of 300 extension agents and farmers from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia completed a self-assessment of two instruments: the educational/experience behavior battery and innovation adoption instrument. Using descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis showed that 6% of the farmers had low adoption behavior, 51.31% had moderate adoption behavior, 36% had high adoption behavior, and 3.33% had very high adoption behavior. It was also revealed that the following three variables were significant determinants of the decision to adopt new innovations: trustworthiness, problem resolution, and future incentives. Surprisingly, knowledge and social skills were not significant and were attributed to resentment and attitude formation. We recommend the following changes: training and retraining of extension workers on communication, improving incentives provided to extension workers, removal of bureaucratic benchmarks, and involvement of farmers in the planning for extension programming.

Open Access Review Article

Reducing Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa through Agricultural Development: Lessons from the Chinese Experience

Joseph Agebase Awuni, Jianguo Du, Eric Yaw Naminse

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/21507

Improving agricultural growth and productivity can guarantee the food security and poverty reduction in much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, improving agricultural growth and productivity is not an easy task since it needs the right strategies and a strong commitment from African leaders to invest into agricultural development. The present paper explores on the agricultural and rural development of China and draws lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa. After discussing the challenges facing African agricultural development and the recent efforts to improve growth and productivity, the paper concentrates on lessons from the Chinese experience. The link between the lack of sufficient progress against food insecurity and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and the weakness in local institutional structures mandated to provide services directly to smallholder farmers is the main conclusion of this study. Feasible solutions revolve around strengthening these institutions beside the recent efforts to improve agricultural growth and productivity.