Understanding peri-urban farmer’s socio-economic characteristics is a prerequisite for successful planning and implementation of developmental programmes in peri-urban areas. In view of this, a study was undertaken to analyze socio-economic characteristics of farmers who sold their farmland (sold category1) and farmers who retained their farmland (retained category2) in the peri-urban area of Bengaluru. A total of 160 respondents selected using multi-stage sampling procedure constituted the sample size and data collection was done through semi-structured interview schedule. Post stratification of respondents was made into sold (n=93) and retained (n=67) categories based on their farm land selling behaviour. Results of the study revealed that majority of sold (41.9%) and retained category (41.8%) belonged to middle age group (36-50 years). More schedule caste and schedule tribe respondents were found in sold category (24.7%) as compared to retained category (11.9%). More graduate and above educated (9.7%) were present in sold category as compared to retained category (4.5%). Around 46.3 per cent respondents belonged to medium category (5-8 family members) in case of both sold and retained category. More than half of respondents (55.9%) in sold category belonged to marginal farmers as compared to retained category (37.3%). Sold category had high (>2) family education status versus retained category. The study recommends the need for considering socio-economic conditions of peri-urban farmers for the suitable design and successful implementation of Governments’ developmental programmes in complex peri-urban settings.
High growth in agriculture sector was observed in Gujarat during recent years. This was mainly attributed to shift in cropping pattern of the state towards high value crops. Hence this particular study was conducted to know the status of cereal crops in the state by assessing the performance of cereals crops on long term basis using most recent and powerful statistical tools. Secondary time series data on area, production and yield of cereal crops was collected from Season and Crop Reports, Department of Economics and Statistics (DES), Government of Gujarat, online data bank of International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics and Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) data bank for the period from 1970-71 to 2011-12. Best fit non-linear model was fitted and parameters of the model were estimated using Marquardt algorithm. Instability was estimated by constructing Cuddy-Della Valle Index. Result shows that, production of cereal crops in the state has increased mainly because of improvement in the yield. The productivity of cereal crops was notably improved after the year 1991 in all the parts of state. Area under cereals has registered negative growth during entire study period at state as well as at district level also. The significant reduction in the magnitude of yield instability was recorded in the second sub-period of study, which helps to reduce the instability in production during the same period. More fluctuation in area under cereals crops was observed in second sub period of the study. It was observed that, yield variability was a most important source of instability in production of cereal crops. Hence, it is appropriate to adopt the yield stabilisation measure in cereal crops in the state.
Poverty incidence in Nigeria is higher among the rural-folks, that is, households that rely mainly on agricultural income. Income diversification is therefore seen as a way to secure income and to increase welfare of the farm households. This study investigated livelihood and income diversification strategies among farm households in Niger State, Nigeria. The study utilized data obtained from administering questionnaire to 287 farming households who were selected using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and Herfindahl diversification index. The study revealed that mean age, household size, and farm size of the respondents were 42, 7, and 2.82 respectively. A total of 46.4% of the respondents had no formal education and only 12.9% had attained formal education up to the tertiary level. Majority, i.e 94.8% had no access to credit. The study further revealed that Farm income accounted for 63%, while off-farm income accounted for 37% of the total income of the sampled farm households. Over whelming majority of the farm households had more than one source of income representing 91.3%, meanwhile non-farm activities identified in the study area are forest production, agricultural trading business, agricultural processing, business (fuel, telecommunication services, spare parts dealers, etc), transportation business, blacksmith, civil service, domestic duties, handcraft, artisanship, construction worker, tailoring, health worker, and traditional medical practitioner which jointly accounted for 93.96% participation rate and 36.9% of the total income. The result of income diversification pattern and strategies adopted by the respondents were full time farming, farmer and farm worker, farm and skilled non-farm, and mixed (from all these activities). The study therefore recommend that farm households should diversify their sources of livelihood into non-farm activities available in the study area so as to increase their earnings to bridge the poverty gap and improve their livelihood, and also the level of literacy among rural farm households, and financial markets should be looked into by the government when formulating policy and developmental issues.
The main aim of this study is to measure rural income inequality and assess its disparities across zones, planting periods and socioeconomic characteristics and also to determine the defining factors of income inequality in rural areas. The study covered 3,164 rural households across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. They include; North West, North East, North Central, South West, South East, and South South. In addition, the study designs also featured classification based on the two main planting periods in Nigeria which are post-plant periods and post-harvest. Data were extracted from the 2012/2013 General Household Survey under the Living Standard Survey Measurement programme of the World Bank. Data analysis approach include the use of descriptive statistics, Gini and Theil index methodology and regression based decomposition analysis. The result showed that income inequality among rural households in Nigeria is 0.3460 and 0.2500 Gini and Theil index respectively. Among the geographical zones, inequality is highest in the North West with Gini and Theil indices of 0.3726 and 0.4338, and lowest in the North East with Gini and Theil index of 0.2972 and 0.1516 respectively. While the result showed that rural households are more income insecure in post-plant periods; gender, rural household size and number of dependants were identified factors influencing rural income inequality in Nigeria. The study recommended the need to restructure the concept of rurality to create rural job opportunities, integrate rural policies across geopolitical zones and create equal access to skills and educational opportunities across age group and gender.
The present study was conducted to assess the impact of MGNREGA on quality of life of rural poor in Punjab. The 11 districts of Punjab were selected from 3 socio-cultural by using probability proportionate to sampling size procedure. A total of 396 respondents were selected randomly who worked under MGNREGA from last five years. Before-after assessment based on recall method by assessment of quality of life of beneficiaries was used to assess the impact on quality of life. It was observed that in Malwa region, maximum change was observed in household possession aspect ( x̅=2.74, Rank 1st). Improvement in sanitary conditions obtained x̅=1.13 and Rank 2nd as significant change in conditions of kitchen, toilets, cleanliness was reported. As far as housing conditions were concerned the beneficiaries reported same improvement ( x̅=1.09, Rank 3rd) by way of moving from mud house to cemented house with cemented floors and walls or adding rooms etc. As far as impact of MGNREGA in the Majha region was concerned maximum impact was observed with respect to material possession having obtained ( x̅=2.66, Rank 1st). As far as food conditions were concerned, beneficiaries reportedly improvement in food consumption pattern ( x̅=0.88, Rank 2nd). Least impact was observed in the area of education with ( x̅=-0.49, Rank 8th). In Doaba region of Punjab, maximum improvement was found in acquiring material possessions ( x̅=2.79, Rank1st) followed by housing condition ( x̅=1.08, Rank 2nd) and consuming quality food ( x̅=0.90, Rank 3rd). MGNREGA had significant impact on housing conditions, household possessions, food consumption and sanitary conditions of beneficiaries (p=0.05). Though the socio-economic conditions of households have improved gradually, but to hasten the pace of improvement some developmental initiatives can be integrated with the scheme mainly targeting those households who are working regularly under the scheme.
China has experienced unprecedented economic growth for more than three decades now and this is presumably attributed to the reforms and openness started in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping. However, in recent times some issues have been raised by policymakers on whether the economic growth has contributed to poverty alleviation or not. This paper therefore examines how economic growth and farmer entrepreneurial activities influence rural poverty in China using national and rural household survey data. Based on capability approach and structural equation modeling, the paper identifies socio-culture, education and economic capabilities of farm entrepreneurs as key influencing factors on rural poverty. The results showed that socio-cultural capabilities (democratic decision-making, social ties, open expression of ideas) by farmers exerted greater influence on rural poverty than education (access to education, improved school conditions, higher education level) and economic (higher earnings, access to market, technology and management information) capabilities. This finding is based on the social and cultural embeddedness of Chinese business relations. We suggest government promotes inclusive and pro-poor growth in rural areas by empowering the poorest to participate in farmer entrepreneurship to alleviate rural poverty than relying merely on economic growth as a panacea.