Aquaculture represents the most efficient and sustainable way to guarantee that there is enough protein to feed the world with increasing population. Since carp farming is a promising enterprise, study on the economics and technical bottlenecks on regional basis is highly necessary. Kaveripattinam block of Krishnagiri district was selected purposively because of its rich inland resource endowments. The study was conducted to understand the technical and economic viability of carp culture (Integrated and backyard) and to identify the operational constraints in farming practice. Totally, 31 carp farmers were randomly selected and information based on the specified objectives was collected using a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, costing and Garette ranking techniques were used for analysis. The study revealed that the experience in farming activity lie with a mean of 4.77 years and small farms occupied the major share (81%). Among the reported, three species combination was adopted by 67.74% of the farmers. The economics of carp culture was calculated through estimation of Cost A, Cost B and Cost C with an average output of 586.75 kg/ha/yr and a net income of Rs. 23,623.35/ha @ Rs. 75/kg on an average. Among the variable inputs, seed cost accounted the major share (16.11%) followed by feed (13.58%). Non availability of credit (59.15), lack of quality seed (63.25) and improper guidance (69.00) were perceived as major resource, production and management constraints, respectively. Other constraints include uncertainty in demand, competition and absence of government institutions for marketing.
This study aims at examining determinants of Success in Coffee Farmer Organisations (CFOs) in Mbeya and Kilimanjaro region. Based on FO members and expert informants interviews, the study was conducted in two FOs and outlined the importance of marketing system, transparence, FO opportunities and member commitment in influencing FOs success, it revealed that well performing FOs have several linkages including marketing, input and finance; have transparent business transactions. Descriptive statistic analysis was used to analyze the influence of (marketing system, transparence, FO opportunities and member commitment) independent variables (IVs) while MLRA methods were used to determine the significance of the same IVs on the sustaining FOs. The findings recommends that FO facilitators and producers strive in using strategies that encourage member commitment, opens several opportunities within the FO and enhance transparence in the organization’s operations. Transparence service linkages in FOs should be enhanced while marketing and member commitments engineer the overall sustainability of the organisation.
This study develops a model of institutional economics that involves consumers, producers and government, as well as the dishonest agents that work in the public sector. This model is useful for determining the optimum institutional level that must be set by the government in order to attain economic and environmental balance in the country under an oligopolistic scheme of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Furthermore, the proposal enables the calculation of the optimal pollution quota.The results of the model can be used to deduce a series of recommendations for the area of environmental policy, which have the objective of maximizing welfare levels in the FDI host country.
Food security is critical to the economic, social, religious, political and cultural development Worldwide. It plays a great role in economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development in Kenya. A study was carried out in Kilifi sub- County in the coastal areas of Kenya, one of the areas where food insecurity incidences are prevalent. The study assessed the effect of household characteristics on food security status among smallholder farming communities through interview schedues. Non experimental design using descriptive survey was adopted for the study. Household and farm characteristics data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The results indicated that 80% of all the farmers were food insecure. Elderly farmers were 1% food secure while adults were (40%) food secure. Households with at most two members were more food secure (10%) while households with >10 members least food secure (2%). Household heads with secondary school level of education were more food secure (10%). Women were more food secure (12%) than males (8%). There was a significant (P= .05) positive relationship between food security and household heads age, marital status and education level. This implies that household heads age, education level and marital status, are some of the most significant issues affecting food security in Kilifi sub-county. To further enhance the understanding and improvement of food security status in Kilifi sub-county, initiation of both formal and adult education is necessary. This will improve households understanding, decision making and adoption of new agricultural innovations hence improved food production and food security levels.
This study investigated the factors affecting credit accessibility in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo state. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaire from 7 purposively selected institutionalized credit sources and 60 randomly selected credit beneficiaries, comprising 20 farmers from each of the 3 purposively selected LGAs in the study area. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR). The result showed that (78%) of the farmers were in their active working age (40years) and majority (92%) of them were married; with a mean family size of 8 persons. This study has identified interest rate, lack of collateral and guarantor as major factors that negatively affected credit accessibility in the study area. The study recommended that the farmers should take advantage of the various credit facilitates offered by institutionalized sources in order to expand their production. The institutionalized credit sources should also put in place a comprehensive credit risk management process to identify, measure, monitor/control credit risk and where appropriate, hold capital against these risks in order to reduce risk of delinquencies and defaults.
Farmers’ life in the developing world is full of risks. Yet risk management has been a science for companies and industrial process management. This study has tries to develop a process for managing the agricultural risks. In doing so, the study has amply defined the major agricultural risks and pinpointed the consequences of them on farmers’ life in Bangladesh. Government policy failures in managing the agricultural risks and lack of known management strategies have inspired the researchers to develop a process of dealing the agricultural risk. In this article, the risks have been broadly organized into five categories concerning production, financial, marketing, institutional, and personal factors. All those agricultural risks have chronic and far-reaching negative impacts on farmers’ life. The agricultural risks in peasant farming systems of Bangladesh deserve adequate attention of extension systems for sustainable management. In addition, the ways farmers do cope with the situations are still concealed. Therefore, the study proposed a framework for effective risk management in agriculture of Bangladesh. However, much more work will be needed to create an effective risk management environment in Bangladesh agriculture, to build on the outlines laid out here.