Open Access Case study

Technical Efficiency among Women Cassava Small Holder Farmers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

S. I. Ume, N. C. Onuh, F. O. Jiwuba, B. N. Onunka

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/17839

This study was carried out to investigate resource use efficiency of women cassava producers in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. A multi stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 women farmers in the local government in the year 2013. Percentage response was used to determine the farmers’ socioeconomic characteristics, stochastic frontier and simultaneously, its’ determinant were addressed using the maximum likelihood methods. The results of the study show that level of education, farming experience and extension contact were positive and significantly related to technical efficiency while credit access had inverse relationship with technical efficiency. The mean technical efficiency was 0.56, the maximum efficiency was 0.97, while the minimum was 0.23. Policies aimed at encouraging both new entrant and older farmers into farming through provision of improved production inputs and as well as increasing farmers’ access to extension contact and educational programmes were therefore recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Agriculture Extension Training Programs on the Extension Services in Kenya

Noor Mobeen, Justin Varghese

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27525

Many studies have shown challenges and in some cases major failures toward the training programs sponsored by extension services. Extension services in Kenya are supposed to help local farming communities’ increase their productivity towards the survival of the agriculture industry in Kenya. Farming is the main source of income and survival for many Kenyans therefore; this research looked in to the perceptions of the farmers toward the extension services in Kisumu district, Kenya. Another part of this research was to discover the preference of the farmers toward different extension approaches to create motivation for the farmers, to participate in the extension training programs. The research showed a significant motivation factor presents in the farming community of Kenya, to learn new techniques to improve their farming practices and to become more profitable. However, due to lack of organization and planning by the extension services, farmers got discouraged to attend any training or workshop in their farming community. Another factor is the non-supportive government incentives toward extension services Many extension agents could not be found in the farming communities to provide farmers timely information and guidance toward their problems. Lastly, the extension workstations were without proper technology and resources due to lack of funding by the government, which created a dilemma for the Kenyans farming community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Resilience of Smallholders on Guatemala Highlands

Michele Bruni, Fabio Maria Santucci

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27070

Aims: The study assesses the resilience of smallholders against future climatic shocks, through the identification of different clusters of smallholders, and their awareness and behavior about climate change.

Study Design: The study has used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods.

Place and Duration of Study: The field part of the study took place during the months April – August 2010, while the data entry and statistical analysis were realized in the following months.

Methodology: The field work begun in April 2010 with visits to the area, focus groups and semi-structured interviews with farmers and key witnesses; six communities in two provinces were selected; in each community, 20 farmers were chosen, for a total of 120 interviews; a first questionnaire was validated through nine interviews; the improved version, with 80 questions, was submitted during July and August 2010, but only 28 questions have been retained for this study, being the other 62 of extremely technical nature; digital codification and data entry took place in September – October 2010; statistical analysis was realized with SAS version 9.1 in the following months.

Results: Landholding size averages only 0.27 hectares, ranging from 0.04 to 1.6; 85.8% of respondents had some education, 67.5 access to water and sanitation; 51.67 do not implement any soil protection practice; 88.33% however apply some crop rotation and 87.29 follow a sowing plan. 58.33% sell to the same processing firm, but 69.17% have no certification. 63.33% have access to credit, and 55.83% to some advice. Latent Class Analysis has been implemented twice: the first one has defined two clusters along human capital and the second one three clusters along climate change perceptions. In the first case, the groups are defined Small Unskilled (77.18%) and Medium Skilled (22.82%); in the second case the groups are defined Medium Resilient Aware (68,5%), Medium Adaptive Aware (21.74%) and Small Vulnerable Unaware (9.74%).

Conclusion: Even within a seemingly quite homogeneous society, there are diverse clusters of farmers, with different assets, behaviors, agronomic management and relationships to the market. The better off, in terms of land size, human capital and income, perceive the climate change and its connected risks more than the very small ones, who manage tiny parcels and have very limited contacts with the market and extension/training. In all cases, to increase resilience and to prevent further degradation of the natural resources, a combination of public and private interventions are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sources of Competitive Advantage Measurement in the Minor Export Crop Sector in Sri Lanka: Result from Pilot Study

Vilani Sachitra, Siong-Choy Chong, Aye Aye Khin

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27814

Purpose: This study aims to identify the items associated with sources of competitive advantage in the minor export crop sector.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The measures were identified based on literature review and expert opinions which took into account theories of resource-based view (RBV) and firm-specific dynamic capabilities. They were piloted on 30 farmers engaged in the commercial cultivation of minor export crops of cinnamon, cloves and pepper in Sri Lanka. The measures were subject to reliability and validity tests to ascertain the items to be retained to represent the sources of competitive advantage in the minor export crop sector.

Findings: The RBV comprises human asset (7 items), financial asset (7 items), physical asset (6 items) and reputation (5 items), whilst firm-specific dynamic capabilities consist of quality management capability (8 items) and marketing capability (8 items). About 19 items were identified as measures of competitive advantage. The statistical results showed that 5 items were retained for each of the human and financial assets, respectively; 5 and 4 items were retained for physical assets and reputation; 5 items were retained for each of the quality management capability and marketing capability, respectively; and 12 items were retained as measures of competitive advantage in the minor export crop sector.

Originality/Value: Although the results exemplify the initial step towards a more detailed research in the future, they shed light in terms of the future development of a simple specification model, as well as a diamond specification model specifically for the sector. Several implications are provided with the intention of advancing research in this important yet interesting area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges in Inland Fish Marketing among Stakeholders in Anand District, Gujarat

Shakti Ranjan Panigrahy, Dilip Vahoniya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27739

Anand district in Gujarat stands first in Inland fish production through ponds and tanks. Here one major objective was put forth by the researcher; that is, to understand different challenges faced by different stakeholders during marketing of inland fish. Fifteen female and fifteen male retailers were selected along with three wholesaler that was a census one and fifteen producers were selected purposively looking into their prevalence in the study area. Data that had been collected were analysed through Garretts ranking technique, weighted average mean. At the end it was found that perishability of the product and theft of the product was marked as a problem in wholesale and producer level respectively. Bargaining by the customer at the end of the sale was found to be a significant problem among all the stakeholders. Competition was found to be least significant among the stake holders due to implicit cartel among friends and relatives in each stages of marketing.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Committee Reports on Indian Sugar Industry and Partial Decontrol

P. Asha Priyanka, M. Chandrasekaran, E. Nandakumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27551

The article has attempted to organise the various committee reports on Indian sugar industry from 1974 to 2013 and explicit their relevance to partial decontrol of sugar sector in 2013. A careful review of various reports indicate partial decontrol in sugar sector as a long awaited and well recommended measure by policy makers and heads of the committees. Most of the Committees had mentioned at least one issue decontrolled from 2013. Though controlling the major export and import policy of sugar and allied products by the Government whether this liberalisation of few clutches over sugar industry will yield the expected uphill out of debts in sugar industry is a major study to be researched.