Adoption of snail production technologies by farmers in Onicha L.G.A of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, was studied. Percentage response and frequency distribution were used to address objective I, part of 2 and 3, while part of objective 2 was addressed using logit model analysis. Multi stage random sampling technique was used to select 100 farmers from 20 villages. Information for the study was collected from primary and secondary sources. The results showed that 80% of the respondents were above the age of 50-years, while the least (2%) were less than 30-years. 78% of the sampled famers had one form or the other of formal education, while 22% had no formal education. 59% of the respondents had household size of 6-8 persons, while least, 20%; 1-5 persons. Nevertheless, 94% of the respondents had no access to credit and 6% had access. On adoption of technology, 60% of respondents were high adopters, while 40%; low adopters. Logit model result of rate of adoption of snail production technologies revealed that the coefficients of age of the farmer and educational level were positive and significant at 1% and 5% probability level respectively, while the coefficients of credit and extension contacts were negatively signed. The constraints to snailry enterprise were; poor access to credit (80%), slow rate of snail growth (70%), high mortality (60%), pest problem (50%), theft problem (50%), high cost of building material (50%) and inadequate information (60%). Enhance farmers’ access to credit and use of wire gauge to ward off theft and predators were among the recommendations proffered the reasercher.
One of the important characteristics of the developing societies is the rural and subsistence agrarian economy. Agriculture, carried out by small land holders, face problems of technological and non-technological nature. Increase in marginal and small land holdings on one hand, and the withdrawal of state support to agricultural extension on the other hand is leading to unprecedented agrarian crisis in the country. Growing commercial and specialized nature of agriculture demands quick and technically sound advice, based on scientific analysis with appropriate marketing information. In this context, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged as important means of agricultural information communication dissemination. It is considered that ICTs disseminate knowledge to farmers to make choices and reduce the information asymmetry. In this context, the present paper discusses the nature and form of ICT based agricultural extension services. It problematizes the socioeconomic and political embeddedness of the ICTs in delivering agricultural information. The proposed study attempts to critically understand how ICTs help overcoming the structural barriers, social, economic, political, cultural, in delivering agricultural information to farmers in general, and the small and marginal farmers belonging to the lower strata of society in particular.
Globalization has led to increase in the trade between countries but it has resulted in several other new issues, one such issue is dumping of goods. This paper analyses the impact of anti-dumping duty imposed by India on the imports of raw silk from China during 2003 to 2013. There are certain exceptions, despite the fact that free trade is expected from the members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). One concern is that goods are being dumped in the foreign market, i.e. the exporter sells his product at a lower price in the foreign market than that prevailing in the home market. Article VI in GATT regulates this together with the Anti-dumping Agreement. In 2003 and 2013, Indian imposed an anti-dumping duty on raw silk imported from China. This measure was effective until 2014. As a result of this duty, it is expected that the imports of Chinese raw silk by India should have decreased. Accordingly by using a multiple regression analysis, we observed that the imports of Chinese raw silk to India decreased significantly. Since the industry’s overall sales in India increased during the same period, it can be concluded that imposition of anti-dumping duty has met its objectives.
The study investigates the impact of population growth on agricultural change, particularly on agricultural intensification, farm productivity and household welfare. We use a unique panel dataset that spans a 26 year-period, constructed from two waves of household surveys conducted in the northwest district of Rwanda (Nyabihu). The study finds much support for Boserupian land intensification hypothesis in the sample area. The results suggest that, demographic variables (such as household size) are highly associated with input intensity and agricultural productivity. However, the inverse correlation between family size and annual expenditure per capita warns for a sound population policy in the near future. In the long run, over intensive cultivation resulting from population pressure is likely to have decreasing effects on land productivity.
This study analysed the economic efficiency of irrigated vegetable producers in Borno State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Structured survey questionnaires were used and administered to 300 respondents to obtain primary data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. Descriptive statistics used were mean, frequency and percentage. The inferential statistics used was stochastic frontier cost function to analyze the level and determinants of economic inefficiency in the studied enterprises. The result of the socio-economic indicated that almost all (99.7 percent) of the respondents were male with 45.9 percent of them falling on the age range between 41-50 years. About 46 percent of the respondents had household size ranging between 6-10 persons. The result further disclosed that 70.9, 54.4 percent had less than 5 years of formal education, 54 percent had farming experience of 11-20 years in vegetable production and 28.7 percent had rented or leased their farm. About 28 percent of the respondents had farm size of 0.51- 1.00 hectare of land for cultivation, most of the respondents cultivate onion/tomato mix of the studied vegetable and 65 percent do not belong to any farmers association. Mean economic efficiency of the irrigated vegetable enterprises were 0.72, 0.86, 0.73, 0.78, and 0.78 for sole onion, sole tomato, sole pepper, onion/tomato and onion/pepper respectively. The maximum likelihood estimates of the cost function indicate sigma square values of 0.248, 0.031, 0.363, 0.228 and 0.122 for sole onion, sole tomato, sole pepper, onion/tomato and onion/pepper respectively and significant at one percent. Variance ratio (gamma) values indicate presence of economic inefficiency in irrigated vegetable production in the study area with coefficients of 0.945, 0.932, 0.945, 0.173 and 0.122 for sole onion, sole tomato, sole pepper, onion/tomato and onion/pepper enterprises respectively. The coefficients of production variables in the stochastic frontier cost function were positive and significant at one percent level. The most significant variables were costs of labour, planting materials, depreciation, seeds/seedling and fuel and maintenance. The economic inefficiency variables also showed negative coefficient and significant at different levels. The study concluded that there was economic inefficiency in irrigated vegetable production in the study area despite high levels of economic efficiencies among the studied farmers. It is recommended that there is need for the concerned agencies to promote both formal and none-formal education. It is recommended that government should provide support in respect to price stability, good market facilities and market information to enhance efficiently of vegetable production in the study area.
This paper reviewed the capacity and potentials of youth and farm children to sustaining agricultural development. Their knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour when nurtured and utilized are invaluable assets in the implementation of sustainable agricultural programmes. Findings revealed that majority of agricultural policies/programmes formulated for youth do not consider challenges confronting their participation in agricultural development. Nigerian youth and farm children perceive agriculture as hard, back breaking, dirty jobs with very little self-esteem and a profession of drudgery. Because of this perception, they seek employment in other sectors of the economy in order to empower themselves economically and attain social prestige. The effect has left bulk of agricultural production in the hands of aged farmers who produce at subsistence level that cannot sustain their families. In view of this, Nigerian government has introduced numerous agricultural programmes such as Children in Agriculture Programme (CIAP), Youth Employment in Agricultural Programmes (YEAP), etc. which aimed at reducing poverty and better the standard of living. However, efforts made at reviewing agriculture through youth programmes have not yielded the desired results. The paper therefore recommends need assessment of youths before programme planning and implementation and capacity building through extension education programmes.