Aims: The study was conducted in the combined state of Andhra Pradesh to investigate the socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers.
Study Design: Multistage stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in three regions of Andhra Pradesh viz., Telangana, Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions during the agricultural year 2013-14.
Methodology: The sample consisted of three districts, one each from the three regions of the state, six mandals (two mandals from each district), eighteen villages (three villages from each mandal) and 360 rice farmers (twenty rice farmers from each village).
Results: The average age, education and experience of the sample farmers was 46.04, 7.54 and 22.16 years respectively. Majority of the farmers owned small (54.44%) and medium sized (41.11%), nuclear families (68.61%), had agriculture as their primary occupation (99.44%), cultivated rice on own lands (71.94%), with canal as the major source of irrigation (71.11%), owned buffaloes (40%), had contact with extension agencies (67.22%) and had access to institutional credit (81.11%). It was found that 60.28% and 64.17% of the sample farmers were not members of Rythu Mitra Groups (RMGs) and cooperative societies respectively. The cost of cultivation for rice farmers was US$1048.65 ha-1 whereas the net returns were only US$179.62 ha-1.
Conclusion: Electronic media, mobiles and e-resources can be used to educate the farmers on improved technologies. Diversification in occupation within the farm families is to be encouraged by developing processing firms and creating non-farm jobs. Participation in farmers organization has to be encouraged. It is also essential to create awareness about the institutional sources of credit so that farmers may avail the credit from institutional sources.
The study ascertained practices of processors in processing and conservation of oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) in Enugu State, Nigeria. Seventy two respondents purposively selected from three agricultural zones, three blocks and nine circles constituted the sample for the study. Data collected during field work through structured interview schedule were presented in percentage, chart and mean score. Findings of the study reveal that middle aged and married people with relatively large house hold size and long years of experience in processing were involved in processing of oil bean in the area. They got oil bean they processed from people’s farm land and sourced information on/about processing the oil bean from friends and relatives. Boiling, de-hulling, washing, sieving, slicing, wrapping were activities the respondents undertook in processing of oil bean. However, there were variations in sequence or order of these activities among them. Little or nothing was done by the processors towards the conservation of the crop while poor storage and processing facilities and lack of knowledge on modern preservation techniques were major constraints to processing of oil bean in the area. It was therefore recommended that government and non-governmental organisations should assist the processors by providing processing and storage facilities for oil bean while research institute should conserve and generate improved species of the crop to arouse interest of the farmers and processors on the crop. These actions will help to boost output, yield and retain the crop in the universe.
The study aims to assess the political economy of rural-urban interfaces in the pace of rapid urbanization of Addis Ababa City, the capital of Ethiopia. It seeks to understand the rural-urban interfaces employing the political economy lens of dependency theory. Primary data were collected through qualitative techniques, such as KIIs and observation methods. 20 randomly selected rural and urban dwellers were interviewed to capture their views, experiences and reflections regarding the prevailing rural-urban interfaces such as people, environment and culture. Also, quantitative data were gathered from secondary sources. The data collections and analyses were carried out between February 2013 and February, 2014. It was observed that despite there are major shifts in development policies and strategies in poverty reduction in Ethiopia, the majority of the endeavours are urban centred but rhetorically rural focused. The rural-urban interfaces in Ethiopia, as explained and underpinned by dependency view, the urban-the metropolis extracted and exploited the rural-satellite for self-development and flourishing which left the latter at the heart of underdevelopment economically, socially, politically, and contaminated the rural landscapes and environments. The find concurred with the fact that urban are dependent on rural for economic growth, environmental services and sink of waste, political instruments, and aesthetic values. As dependency perspective dictates, against the Growth Pole theory, the bias to urban metropolis is evident that caused the underdevelopment of rural satellite or periphery and flourishing urban. Thus, there is a premium need to examine the pro-rural policies of Ethiopia as it seems pseudo-concern and paternalistic promulgation but systematic, structural and technical biased towards urban in practices.
Fisheries extension is an education and communication process of delivering knowledge and technical support to the fish farmers, fishermen, and other stakeholders connected with fishing and fish farming system. This study was preceded with the aim of evaluating the effect of public aquaculture extension service on the socioeconomic development of the clients in two selected sub-district namely Barisal Sadar and Babugonj under Bariasal district. To achieve its objectives, this study exerted importance on quantitative approach using face-to-face interview method. However, this research also considered desk studies to reveal the situation. Data were collected with a structured interview schedule for the month of October 01 to October 28, 2015, from 140 randomly selected fish farmers. To find out the effect of public aquaculture extension, 140 farmers were divided into two equal sized groups based on their contract with public aquaculture extension service. Findings of chi-square analysis represented that the farmers in contact with public aquaculture extension service, seems to be significantly in better position in terms of usages of communication media, organizational participation, income from fish farming, knowledge in fish farming, and attitude toward natural resource conservation., etc., than their non-contact counterpart. The findings of the regression modeling established the fact that extension contacts have significant impact on income from fish farming, and attitude towards natural resource conservation. Farmers in response to an open question indicated less frequent extension contact, political interference in selecting group member, lack of input supplies, the absence of regular subsidies, etc. as the main problems with the public fisheries extension service. This study also referred some concrete recommendations for up scaling public fisheries extension service in Bangladesh.
The objective of this study is to examine the training needs of agricultural extension workers in various provinces of Iraq. Validate them and develop a method of identification of training needs for agricultural extension agents. The data collected were analyzed by determination of the mean of the responses from the respondents and one-way of Variance (ANOVA). Using Borich need Assessment model for training needs,the questionnaire survey was adopted for a population of 300 professionals in clients, consultants, and contracting organizations. The majority of respondents were in all kinds of training needs were above the value of 3 meaning that all of them were strongly needed, the highest needed training was on the name of method with mean value 3.74, the moderate needed training was on use computer and ICT with mean = 3.26 and the lowest needed training was on the management with mean =3.15. The study revealed that the majority of respondents in the first categories in the age from 31 to 40 years 37.32%, experience from one to five years 40.94%, the number of training courses from 1 to 5 courses 39.86%, for the education level had a bachelor degree 71.74%, origin from the urban 80.80%, and attended training 81.16%, marital status 73.19%, the gender a male 63.77%, and specialization from agriculture department 71.38%. The results shows significant relationship with provinces, marital status, location of work, training, and the number of training courses. The Extension Agents agreed that they needed training in studies areas of their agriculture.
Modern agriculture has become highly knowledge intensive and requires appropriate, consistent, precise and timely information on various aspects like crop management, markets, weather information etc. The nature of information always depends on a number of factors such as the farm activity, land holding, climatic conditions, marketing opportunities etc. Using the available information further depends on various factors like literacy, and economic status etc. This study is attempting to undertake a micro level analysis of collected data to assess characteristics of the respondents using mobile phone through study of Independent variables in Madhubani District of Bihar. Total of 100 farmers were randomly selected from Block Lakhnaur in Madhubani district of Bihar. Lakhnaur block consists of 44 villages, out of which 2 villages were selected randomly for this study. The data was collected through personal interview with the help of structured interview schedule.