Aim: Farmers’ groups were introduced in Kenya as cooperatives during the colonial period for the purpose of promoting commercial agricultural production by peasant farmers. However, there is still poor rural milk trade and supply. The informal sector is still the dominant force in milk trading. The study assessed the entrepreneurial behaviour of dairy groups under Smallholder Dairy Commercialization Program (SDCP) in Nyamira County, Kenya.
Study Design: The study adopted field survey and focus group research designs.
Methodology: The sample size of 220 respondents was drawn from 40 dairy groups using multistage and systemic sampling techniques. Interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) were the main data collection methods. Both descriptive and inferential statistics such as numerical counts, frequencies tables and coefficient of multiple determinant (R2) were used for analysis.
Results: Regression model revealed a statistically significant contribution of the program to the entrepreneurial behavior of the dairy groups (0.0019; p<0.05, two-tailed). SDCP contributed 81.74% of the variation in the entrepreneurial behavior (R2 = 0.8174). Majority of the respondents were in survival stage (60.91%) of entrepreneurial growth. In contrast, milk was mainly marketed by individuals and middle men (73.64%) in the informal markets. There were non-viable operational farms averaging 2.7 acres in the programme area.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the produced milk was locally consumed thus leaving very little surplus for processing and formal marketing. This could be attributed to both the consumers’ preference for the cheap unprocessed milk and inefficiencies in formal trading. The programme provided a platform by which constraints on livelihood strategies such as access to credit and investments in dairy farming (76.69%) could be prioritised for action to remove them and the links between them identified for sustainability. The study recommends development of holistic dairy policy that integrates both small and large dairy businesses. The Government, therefore, needs to up-scale the programme to other parts of the country especially those with higher poverty levels than the national average of 42 per cent. Crowd funding could also give a start-up capital for the smallholder dairy farmers.
Aims: The objective of this paper was to detect spatial change in the village of Shoeshay in Menoufia governorate, Egypt. The study focused on change in the residential area through the period 2003 – 2015, and some other aspects of spatial change.
Study Design: The study is a case study to apply GIS and survey data to explore spatial change in the village.
Methodology: Different types of data were collected using different techniques. The old maps were obtained from the Survey Agency in Cairo. Soft copies of the village maps through the period 2003 to 2015 were obtained from Google Earth. The residential areas were delineated and measured using GIS Arc Map 10.2 tools. The overlay method was adopted to show the expansion of residential areas through the study period. Data concerning other aspects of spatial change were gathered through the author’s observation and a survey carried out on owners of buildings and some knowledgeable persons of the village.
Results: Results showed a dramatic increase in the residential areas occurred as a result of encroachment on agricultural lands of the village. Over 82% of this increase has occurred during the last six years (2009 – 2015). Changes have occurred also in the shape of buildings, their identity, building materials and other types of spatial change.
Conclusion: Changes in the spatial distribution of the village may reflect improvements in housing conditions and standards of living of inhabitants. But these changes have occurred on the expense of agricultural lands and have a negative effect on land conservation and agricultural sustainability of the village. Great efforts are needed by the agricultural extension organization to make people aware of the importance of land conservation. Great efforts are also needed by the government to take and implement serious decisions to put an end to this critical problem.
The empirical research was conducted to observe the impact of Gross Domestic Product, Exchange Rate, and Relative Price on the exports in Pakistan since last three decades. By plotting the correlogram of the variables, the problem of stationarity was experienced. In this regard, Augmented Dickey Fuller test was applied in order to make the data as non-stationary. Additionally, with the help of Engle-Granger or Augmented Engle-Granger, all variables under study were found co-integrated (dµ = -0.32 µt-1) with t-statistic (-2.35). The results findings revealed that GDP and RP are positively correlated (+0.64) while Exports and ER are negatively correlated (-0.76). It was also noticed that GDP had positive significant impact on exports while ER observed negative significant impact on exports. Error Correction Model was also used and the insignificant value of equilibrium error term is (-0.11) with t-statistics (-0.95), therefore, it is concluded that the explanatory variables GDP, ER and RP had adjusted to changes in Exports in the same time period. Pakistan’s exports consist of limited commodities which mainly comprise of textile goods. So new industries should be set up in order to increase export goods volume. Pakistan direction of export goods is mostly with the traditional exporting Partner i.e. USA, UK, Germany, Hong Kong and UAE; nearly 40% of total export’s direction is to these countries but new market should be discovered to increase the export direction and volume.
The study was conducted to compare the livelihood adaptation of the disadvantaged people living in Polder No. 29 and LGED-managed sub-polder (Latabunia) in Dumuria Upazila in Khulna district of Bangladesh. Six villages under the Upazila were selected purposively. In total 120 respondents, in which 65 from Polder 29 and 55 from Latabunia Sub-polder were selected randomly. Slight differences were observed among the major socioeconomic characteristics of the disadvantaged people living in Polder No. 29 and Latabunia. There was also a variation in the sources of household income and income generating activities of the disadvantaged people in Polder No. 29 and LGED-managed sub-polder (Latabunia). No disadvantaged people in Latabunia were found to be involved in small trading and livestock keeping whereas it was common in Polder 29. It was also found that the disadvantaged people living in Polder 29 were affected less by different natural hazards than the disadvantaged people in Latabunia. As a result livelihood of disadvantaged people in Latabunia is more vulnerable than the livelihood of disadvantaged people inside Polder 29. So, Latabunia should be taken under BWDB polder area for protecting them from natural hazards.
“Many a little makes a mickle”. It is truly difficult to imagine how such tiny loan programmes SHGs could bring about fundamental changes in the economic and social structures responsible for the disempowerment of women in developing countries. Today the SHG is the largest community based programme in the entire world. Along with the government many NGOs came forwards to promote SHGs as a part of their service. In this context a study was endeavored to study the attitude of the rural women of both NGO promoted and government promoted groups towards SHGs. A scale was constructed using Scalogram analysis to assess the attitude of women towards the SHGs. Ex-post facto research design was adopted in carrying out study as the effect was already occurred. Study was employed in Data was collected from three districts, 6 Mandals, 12 villages of united Andhra Pradesh on a sample of 120 government promoted SHG women and 120 NGO promoted SHG women. Frequencies, percentage, range, Z test analysis were carried out and results revealed that majority of the government promoted SHG women had moderately favourable attitude and NGO promoted groups women exhibited highly favourable attitude towards the SHG and there was a significant difference (Z value 5.0601) was existed between NGO and government promoted SHGs.
The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of the various agricultural activities selected and adopted by producers in the cotton zones of Benin. With a multilogit estimation, a sample of 702 producers of different agricultural activities is extracted in a random way. Results of the estimation show that several factors inhibit the agricultural growth in the cotton zones of Benin. These factors are organizational, institutional, political and sociocultural order. The constant implication to decision-makers and producers in the implementation of sustainable agricultural growth have to be operated by, grouping farmers’ organizations in each agricultural sector, base training, complete distribution of new innovations. The structures of vulgarization have to integrate the perception or producers expectations and question about reluctances of producers to fully integrate recommendations relative to practices for improving durably productivity of production systems through agricultural activities selections and adoptions.