Trade of medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs) is age old practice throughout the world to increase household income. Over harvesting decreased their populations and a number of species became threatened in natural habitat. Survey was conducted on trade of important MAPs from wild in Jammu and Srinagar districts of J&K State, India. Information was collected on MAPs, by directly interviewing the people involved in the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in mandis of two districts. Trade record was also collected from LOC at two locations I,e. Poonch and Uri. Even after ban on commercial exploitation of some MAPs, trade continued through illegal ways. The highest trade was recorded for Curcuma longa, Punica granatum, followed by Phyllanthus emblica in Jammu district. But in Srinagar it was found that Phoenix dactylifera, Lawsonia inermis and Rauwolfia serpentina recorded maximum trade. In this paper we have given the present status of herbal medicines, their quantity, per kg cost & part traded.
The paper examined the existing production systems in the mountains of Himachal Pradesh and suggested further improvement on the existing, which can help farmers to sustain. The study undertaken in low and mid hills of Himachal Pradesh is based on both primary and secondary data collected from 160 farmers (80 farmers from each zone). Under rainfed farming, maize-wheat was the main cropping system, but returns were better in maize-peas (Rs 71,239/ha). In irrigated areas, tomato-tomato-peas was the most profitable farming (Rs 5, 02,378/ha). Consumption of fat was the biggest gap in all categories of farmers.
This study is an attempt to investigate the short run and long run determinants of National Saving behavior of Pakistan for annual time series data from 1981 to 2010. The study applies Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model under the framework of bound testing approach. All the variables used in the study are taken as percentages of gross domestic products (GDP) and annual growth rate. GDP growth rate is found to be stationary in level and the remaining variables are first difference stationary in this study. The results show that in the short run and long run, GDP growth rate, exports and worker’s remittances have positive significant impact on national savings of Pakistan. On the other hand government investment, total debt services and inflation rate have negative significant impact on national saving of Pakistan both in the short run and long run. The value of error correction mechanism or speed of adjustment is found highly significant. The empirical results fully support the previous studies as well as theories about national savings and its determinants, yet studies having more than 30 observations and incorporating additional variables have the possibility to improve these results further.
A survey was conducted to determine the effect of the socio-economic and institutional factors on farmers’ adoption of Bambara nut as food security crop. Purposive survey research design was used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data. 384 respondents were interviewed in the study. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 131, respondents from Kakamega North Sub- county, 127 from Butere and 94 from Matungu and 32 respondents from Mumias sub- counties based on population. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire, interview schedules alongside focused group discussion. Findings indicated that that seven variables were statistically significant and contributed to adoption. These factors include: sub-county of farmer’s residence, gender, farm size, on-farm income, labor, member of social group, marketing problems, access to extension services and respondents’ access to credit. Four other factors (age, level of education marketing and credit) were not significant. Chi-square test showed that the estimated model fitted the data reasonably well and indeed the variables were jointly significant in explaining adoption of Bambara production and utilization in Kakamega County. In order for smallholder farmers to benefit from neglected food crops there is need for stakeholders to contribute towards formulating relevant policies and impliment research programmes that will promote and commercialize amongst others Bambara amongst smallholder farmers. This would lead to increased smallscale growing of Bambara nut and thus contribute to ensuring food security at household level among resource poor farmerss in Kakamega Count of Kenya.
Self help groups (SHGs) have been instrumental in women empowerment by enabling them to work together. Members engaged in development activities have the potential to empower them through the capacity building that underpin sustainable agriculture. The findings of the study reveals that women who never used to step outside the four walls of their home is now becoming business women and supplementing their family income. The results indicates that majority of the respondents are young, matriculates, labourers, belongs to SC category, have family size of 4-6 members and earn up to Rs. 65000 per annum. The economic benefits gained from enrolling in the groups are found to be high in terms of selling products individually, understand banking operations to avail credit facility, develop courage to think independently, understand group activity and manage group activities after joining the group. Furthermore the social empowerment of the members in terms of team spirit, talking freely within family, confidence in dealing with people is enhanced. It indicates that self help groups bring economic upliftment, leadership skills in managing the group and inculcate great confidence in the members of selected groups to succeed in their day to day life.
Aims: The study examines the value chain analysis of captured shrimp and tilapia from Keta Lagoon in Ghana.
Study Design: The research employs cross sectional study design including simple random sampling and stratification of the sample frame. The sample frame for the research include: fishermen, agents, traders and fish processors.
Place and Duration of Study: Data was sampled from seven major fishing communities: Anloga Lashibi, Fiahor, Kedzikope, Tegbi, Kordzi, Deta and Woe along the Lagoon between November 2014 and February 2015.
Methodology: Data was collected with designed semi-structured questionnaires on socio-economic characteristics, costs & benefits, marketing channel of shrimp and tilapia and challenges in fishing. A total of 70 canoe owners, 14 agents, 35 traders and 35 processors were sampled.
Results: Economic analysis of shrimp and tilapia fishing shows that both total investment cost and revenue for shrimp was higher than tilapia. The price per kilogramme of the former was higher than the later. Return on investment for Shrimp and tilapia were 1.05 and 1.10 respectively. Shrimp fishermen made US$2.9 margin more than those of tilapia. Also, retailers of shrimp made US$4.2 more margin than the retailers of tilapia. The sector is faced with decline in fish stock, sizes, catch and pollution of the lagoon environment among others.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The lagoon fishing is profitable because the fishermen employed few fishing inputs. Shrimp is more profitable than tilapia. Within the value chain of both fish species, retailers made the highest margin with the least being the fishermen. The price per kilogram of shrimp was far higher than that of tilapia because is high value fish species. It is recommended that there should be implementation of close seasons to enhance fish growth and recovery of fish stock to boost catch thereby improving income of actors within the value chain. There is the need to also regulate the sector.