Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Determinants of Mass Media Usage by Urban and Rural Farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria

S. O. Adejoh, M. H. Edoka, U. M. Shaibu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30078

The study compared the determinants of mass media usage by urban and rural farmers in Kogi State, Nigeria. A three staged random sampling technique was used to select 320 respondents. Data obtained through structured questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit regression model. The study showed that 82.50% and 68.1% of the urban and rural farmers were males while 17.50% of urban and 31.9% of rural farmers were females. The result also revealed that urban farmers had a mean farm size of 2.5 hectares while the rural farmers had 5 hectares. Most (41.26%) of the rural farmers had no formal education. The result of the influence of socio-economic characteristics on media usage showed that age, education, extension contact, income and farming experience of urban and rural farmers were found to be positively related to the use of television, radio, GSM and internet at 5% level of probability. The study recommends improvement in educational status of farmers, especially those in rural areas through adult education programmes. Also, extension services in both urban and rural areas should be improved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differentials in Returns of Water Melon (Citrullus lanatus) and Sweet Melon (Cucumis melon) Production among Farmers in Gombe and Bauchi States, Nigeria

Y. Adamu, A. A. U. Jongur, J. I. Onu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27854

The study analysed the differentials in returns of water melon and sweet melon production among farmers in Gombe and Bauchi States, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect information from one hundred and twenty eight (128) and one hundred and twenty two (122) water melon and sweet melon farmers respectively. Primary data was collected through the use of questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics, gross margin model and Z test statistics. The results of the descriptive statistics show that the study area is male dominated, majority of the respondents are still in their productive age within a mean of between 39 to 44 years; married with large family size and not well experienced in water melon and sweet melon farming respectively. The results from the gross margin model show that both water melon and sweet melon production is profitable as indicated by a positive gross margin (GM) of ₦103,635 and ₦100,113 respectively. Moreover, the results from Z-test revealed that water melon farmers performed better than the sweet melon farmers in terms of yield and income indicating a highly significant difference at 1% level of probability. The results therefore call for relevant policies aimed at encouraging the farmers to increased their production and income through adoption of improved technologies. There is also the need for provision of free and affordable education to enable the farmer’s access and process information on improved production technologies available to them. Finally, the provision of loans and basic farm inputs could jointly contribute to an improvement of production output so that farmers can get more returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cooperative and Contract Farming for Export Crops in the Guatemala Highlands

Michele Bruni, Fabio Maria Santucci

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30765

This research describes two types of smallholders’ organizations (cooperative and pyramidal contract farming) which produce for an export oriented processor. The research took place in the Departments of Chimaltenango and Sololà, Guatemala. The survey was designed in 2011, with visits to the area, focus groups and semi-structured interviews with farmers and key witnesses. The first version of the questionnaire was tested in June 2012. After modifications, the interviews were by master students of a local university, with a sample size of 170 families; codification and data entry took place in August 2012; statistical analysis was realized with SAS version 9.1.

The farmers belonging to the two modalities do not show meaningful differences, with regard to age, household size, land availability, price determination, and access to credit. For other variables, the two groups are less similar: farmers in the pyramidal contract modality have more years at school, less diversified farming system, more formal and individual contracts, are paid faster, declare to have suffered hunger less frequently and reveal a higher willingness to change for new crops. The latent class regression analysis has determined two clusters: the Small Diversified Collective, which fits 99.95% of the cooperative members and only 0.05% with contract farmers, and the Medium Homogeneous Individual, 83.96% with contract farmers and 16.04% with cooperative members.

Both the cooperative modality and the pyramidal contract farming approach contribute to solve some of the problems of these very tiny smallholders in Guatemala. On the other hand, due to their extremely small land size, poverty and risk of hunger and malnutrition cannot be totally eliminated. In many cases, the lack of trust towards the buyers and the belief to be price takersindicate that these smallholders still feel to be exploited and that their efforts are not properly recognized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transaction Cost Analysis of Maize Marketing in Bangladesh

A. K. M. Golam Kausar, Mohammad Jahangir Alam

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30186

The present study analyzed the transaction cost in maize marketing which is the first and foremost study on transaction cost in Bangladesh which will help researchers and concerns to study further on it and helps farmers to consider transaction cost as separate cost. The study used primary data collected from 55 randomly selected maize farmers and maize marketing intermediaries from two upazilas of Gaibandha district of Bangladesh. It identified five components (search cost, screening cost, bargaining cost, monitoring cost and enforcement cost) of transaction cost in channeling maize from framers to feed mills. It was found that, total transaction cost incurred by all the intermediaries was Tk. 33.02 per 100 kg of maize. Among these cost items monitoring cost was highest (31.78%) and search cost was the lowest (11.53%). Farmers or maize marketing intermediaries had not to incur any enforcement cost for maize marketing. Transaction cost incurred for trading 100 kg of maize by Farmers, Farias, wholesalers, Aratdars was Tk. 2.82, Tk. 9.95, Tk. 12.91 and Tk. 10.16, respectively. Among all marketing intermediaries, transaction cost for Farias was lowest and highest for wholesalers. The study recommended to maintain clear marketing rules for the maize farmers and traders and avail marketing information to them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Vegetables Cultivation Messages for Development of Media Package for Rural Women of Haryana

Santosh Rani, S. K. Varma, Makhan Lal

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30362

The study was conducted in many phases during the year 2014-15 in Haryana state. Fifty rural women each from Bhimnagar, Pali, Milkpur and Bawanikhera villages of Hisar and Bhiwani districts, respectively were selected purposively thus comprising of total sample of 200 respondents. In phase-I assessing the need of the rural women, an inventory pertaining to critical messages and sub-messages was prepared. Messages having top three ranks and ten sub-messages from each selected messages got upper rank were finally selected for media preparation after consultation with experts. In phase- II, media in the form of CD for rural women and printed booklet for field functionaries was prepared on selected messages. Standard procedures for preparation of media package were adopted. In phase-III prepared media was administered to 30 judges of various departments for effectiveness and feedback.

Selection of messages related to vegetables cultivation practices revealed that out of nine messages selected only top three messages with high weighted mean scores and rank i.e. tomato, okra and cucurbits cultivation practices. The sub-messages were selected under the main messages. Ten sub-messages identified for the present study were land preparation, seed treatment/seed soaking, nursery raising, sowing/transplanting, irrigation, balanced fertilizer application, weeding, intercultural operations, plant protection measures, and harvesting and marketing of three crops viz. tomato, okra and cucurbits respectively were retained for media preparation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Knowledge on the Uses of African Nightshades (Solanum nigram L.) Species among Three Kenyan Communities

Edward Gizemba Ontita, Cecilia Moraa Onyango, Richard Ndemo Onwonga, Desterio Nyamongo

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/31099

In Kenya, the African nightshades (ANS) (Solanum nigram L.) are among the most widely distributed and consumed traditional vegetables. The current study was conducted to better understand the cultural variability in the use patterns and values of these vegetables. The study was conducted in Kisii, Kakamega and Nakuru counties of Kenya. Data was collected on ANS utilization using a survey of 630 farmers, 6 focus group discussions and 9 key informant interviews. The results indicated that the vegetable plays an important role in the communities as food (100%), medicine (78%) and spiritual (9%) use. As medicine, 75-85% of the respondents used the ANS to treat worms, stomach ache, diarrhea and ulcers. Additionally, ANS was used to treat eye infections (65%), boils and wounds (57%) and constipation (54%). The plant parts used for medicinal purposes were leaves (90%) shoots (66%), fruits (35%) and roots (25%). These findings demonstrate that ANS is an important vegetable with multiple uses across the counties surveyed. The study underscores the need to document and preserve indigenous knowledge on utilization of ANS for promotion in conservation and commercialization, and future scientific research on the plants’ efficacy and safety.