Open Access Short Research Article

A Review of the Development of High-tech Industries in the World

Liao Guoqiang, Yan Hao

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/12499

Nowadays, the high-tech industry is one of the world's fastest growing industries. Observed from its characteristics, the high-tech industry often refers to those business complexities based on high-techs, engaged in one or more high-techs, in research and development of products, production and technical services, so both high-tech manufacturing industries and high-tech service industries are included. The time for the world’s high-tech industrial development is not long. American Silicon Valley is the world's first high-tech industrial zone and the world's most innovative and dynamic high-tech park today. Since the 1990s, high-tech industries in the world went into a period of steady development. In 2008, the European Union had about 50,000 high-tech manufacturing enterprises and 756,000 high-tech knowledge-intensive service enterprises. The paper here aims to give a brief historical overview of the development of high-tech industries in the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Condition of Coastal People Involved in Kuchia Catching in South-Western Region of Bangladesh

M. S. Khatun, A. Ali, M. Ali

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30786

The study was carried to create a better understanding about the socio-economic condition of coastal communities involved in kuchia catching. The study area was Paikgacha Upazila under Khulna district and its two large markets; Paikgacha kuchia market and Kopilmony kuchia market. From the study area, 56 kuchia catchers were selected randomly which was 12% of total fishermen community. Data were collected over twelve months from January to December, 2012 by interviewing kuchia catcher at Paikgacha. The socio-economic condition of kuchia catchers is very bad. The study showed that the highest percentage (50%) of kuchia catchers belong to the age group of 31-40 years. From the survey, it was found that 89.29% of kuchia catchers were Hindu, while only 10.71% were Muslim. The highest percentage (46.42%) of kuchia catchers were found to be educated at the level of class one to two. It was observed that the highest percentage (42.86%) of the catchers had 6-7 members in their family. Highest number of Kuchia catchers (89.29%) were found to be dependent on village doctors. The study showed that the highest percentage (42.86%) of Kuchia catchers earned Tk. 30-60/day by selling their collected kuchias.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rural Women Empowerment in New Valley Governorate, Egypt

Hend M. Diab, Ahmed M. Diab

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/31076

Aims: The objectives of this study are to: i) Measure the rural women’s empowerment level, and ii) Determine factors affecting rural women’s empowerment level.

Study Design: One-time point cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Data were collected through personal interviews of 300 rural women (240 from Al-Mounirah village belonging to El-Kharga district and 60 ones from Al-Thaniyah (the second) village belonging to Darb El-Arbaien, Paris District), during the period from May to June, 2016 using a questionnaire form.

Methodology: Frequencies, percentages, range, average, standard deviation, weighted average (relative weight), T test, Pearson’s simple correlation, Step-Wise Regression Analysis, and verification of hypotheses were used for data processing and presentation.

Results: Findings revealed that dimensions of rural women’s empowerment could be ranked as social (relative weight = 60.8%), cognitive and psychological (RW = 60.7% for each), economic (RW = 58.7%), and finally the political dimension of empowerment (RW = 56%). Of the studied eleven independent variables, eight variables accounted for 71.9% of variance in rural women’s economic empowerment, seven accounted for 61.7% of variance in political empowerment, eight accounted for 69.6% of variance in social dimension, one accounted for 4% and 1.6 of variance in cognitive and psychological dimensions, respectively. Results also indicated that the eight independent variables (family type, average of sons’ education, average age of sons, family size, women’s age, women’s employment status, and husband’s age) accounted for 63.4% of variance in rural women’s overall empowerment.

Conclusion: The study concluded that rural women’s empowerment could be strengthened through support factors influencing it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Cassava Pest Management: The Case of Farmer Training on Integrated Management of Millipede Infestation in Outbreak Areas in Western Region, Ghana

Ibrahim Adama, Ken Okwae Fening, Moses Brandford Mochiah, Michael Owusu-Akyaw, Emmanuel Andoh-Mensah

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30586

Aims: Millipede infestation has been identified as a major contributing factor to low root yield of cassava and other root and tuber crops. Lack of knowledge in managing millipedes contributed significantly to reduction in cassava production. To address this challenge was to enhance the knowledge base of cassava farmers and extension agents. Integrated millipede management strategy training was thus organized for stakeholders in the Identified hot spots area.

Place and Duration of Study: Identified hot spots namely Nsuopun (Amenfi East), Tebe (Prestea-Huni Valley) and Krakye Akuraa (Wassa East) in the Western region of Ghana, between June 2012 and July 2014.

Methodology: All together 100 participants took part in the training. This included 62 male farmers, 28 female farmers and 10 male extension agents aged between 22 and 68 years with varied educational background. Among the topics treated during integrated management strategies training included promotion of tolerant cassava varieties and good farm sanitation. Training involved lectures, focus group discussion, field visits and evaluation.

Results: As a result of the training, 83% of the farmers who benefited from the training adopted the technology. Over 93% of the farmers expressed satisfaction with the intervention strategies.  30% of farmers who adopted technology transferred technology to their peers.

Conclusion: The training significantly increased level of knowledge of farmers and improved the measures employed to manage the millipede menace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soybean Value Chain Assessment Study in Northwestern Ethiopia, Metekel Zone

Addisu Getahun, Erimias Tefera

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/27048

This field assessment research has been carried out to identify the main value chain actors of soybean and their key roles in the product flow. In Metekel zone, the main soybean value chain actors were producers, traders, unions, truck owners, drivers and input suppliers. The supporting services of soybean value chains were Research Centers, BoA, Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, NGO’s, unions, rural saving and credit cooperatives and other governmental offices. This field research work has been conducted by arranged one-day focus group discussion (FGD) program venue at Paw town. The FGD program had comprises fifteen members brought from three districts in Metekel zone. Before focus group discussion program, we have interviewed twenty-two respondents from Pawe, Danger, Mandura, and Debate districts by prepared checklists to assess the capacity of a local organization and the casts of value chain actors at producers and traders level. Our assessment study results showed that farmers and other large-scale growers produced soybean for three purposes; one for income, two for household consumptions and three for rotation with cereal crops to improve soil fertility. 90% of soybean was produced for income generating, 3-4% for home consumption and the rest around 5% as a seed source. In 2010/2011 main cropping season in Metekel zone 11, 008.79 ha arable land was covered by soybean. From our result soybean central wholesalers, processors, and exporters determined transaction price. During our assessment study, we have evaluated the contribution of unions and cooperatives; fortunately, they have no significant contributions on value additions, except Qua union in Burie district. The inter-linkage of soybean value chain actors in this area was still yet not well organized. Therefore, from our research result, we deduced and noted that this area needs further value chain research work to create strong linkage between stakeholders and to enhance the benefit of local farmers who being deployed on soybean cultivation, because this area is the potential region of soybean production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Knowledge and Attitude of Extension Professionals to Climate Change in Anambra State, Nigeria: A Multivariate Logistic Analysis

M. U. Dimelu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/30701

Aims: It ascertained the knowledge and attitude of extension personnel to climate change, the determinant factors and strategies for improving knowledge and altitude to climate change.

Study Design: A survey design was used for the study.

Place and Duration: The study was undertaken in Anambra State using all the extension personnel (93) in Anambra State Agricultural Development Programme. The study was conducted between 2013 and 2015.

Methodology: Data were collected using questionnaire and analysed by use of descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

Results: Results show that majority (63.4%) of extension professionals had high knowledge of climate change and 93.5% expressed favourable attitude to climate change. The multinomial logistic analysis shows that position and year of experience in extension organization were significantly (p= 0.05) related to knowledge of climate change. Similarly, the binomial regression shows that year of experience and years spent in school had significant relationship with attitude of extension professionals to climate change. The respondents perceived that knowledge and attitude could be improved and sustained through adequate funding (M=3.85), short courses (M=3.82), orientation programmes (M=3.76) and workshop/seminars (M=3.77) and others.

Conclusion: The study concludes that extension organizations should provide training opportunities for extension personnel to sustain positive attitude and improve knowledge on emerging issues in climate change. Institutions of higher learning should increase climate change content of curriculum for training prospective extension personnel to encourage early exposure and commitment to climate change issues. Favourable policy and institutional environments should be promoted by the government to increase responsiveness of extension organizations to climate change.