Most poor people in developing countries make their living from agriculture; hence, their livelihood is subject to various risks such as livestock disease, flooding, drought, and fluctuations in the price of agricultural products. One method of dealing with risk is insurance. However insurance markets in developing countries are seriously impacted by adverse selection and moral hazard, derived from information asymmetry. Livestock insurance was introduced in Vietnam as a pilot project in 2011–2013. We examine the factors behind the decision to take out insurance, from the viewpoint of moral hazard or adverse selection in Vietnam. The results suggest that, if there are few trustworthy people locally, the rate of time discounting is lower and farmers will purchase insurance coverage. Further, the higher the number of calvings, and therefore the older the cows owned by a farmer, the more likely he/she is to take out livestock insurance. The analysis of results also reveals a low level of existence of adverse selection and moral hazard with respect to livestock insurance in the surveyed areas. The incidence of livestock diseases covered by insurance is currently low. Many dairy farmers expressed their wish for insurance coverage to be expanded to include other diseases such as mastitis and hoof disease. Expanding the range of diseases covered by insurance would introduce an additional financial burden. As a consequence, the system of surveillance and penalties would need to be strengthened.
For the success of India’s economic reforms, foreign trade has a pivotal role to play in the economic growth. Aquariculture, also referred to as ornamental fish culture is a promising alternative for employment and income generation in domestic and export markets. The study was taken up to analyze the economics of aquariculture by applying alternative costing techniques such as cost-plus method in Thoothukudi district during the period 2002-2003. The results revealed that about 44% of the farmers had aquariculture as their primary occupation and the estimated total cost was Rs. 30, 76,920 of which total variable cost and total fixed cost accounted for 67% and 33%, respectively. The benefit cost ratio on total cost and total variable cost bases were 1.35 and 2.03, respectively, indicating the profitability of the venture. While the mean mark-up by cost- plus method was the highest for Guppy, ordinary molly and sword tail (37.98%), net return was the highest for Cichlids (Rs. 23966.16). The estimated total cost function showed that the marginal costs were 38%, 29% and 23% lower than their average selling price for ordinary platy, guppy and ordinary molly, respectively, indicating the profitability in producing them more.
Aim: The study examines socio-economic factors influencing adoption of feed based dairy technologies among smallholder farmers in Ekerenyo Sub County of Nyamira County. This is occasioned by lack of proper understanding of factors influencing adoption of feed based dairy technologies which has resulted in lack of competitiveness in the dairy industry despite efforts by public, private and non-governmental players to generate and disseminate technologies.
Study Design: The study employed a descriptive survey research design involving quantitative data.
Methodology: The target population was small scale dairy farmers estimated at 600 in Ekerenyo Sub-County. The sample size consisted of 199 drawn from individual farmers, farmers groups and key informants identified using stratified sampling procedure. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques like chi-square, frequency distribution and measures of central tendency using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 and Microsoft Excel 2010. The yes or no dichotomous was used to measure adoption.
Results: Technologies with low adoption included fodder conservation (hay and silage making), Total Mixed Rationing and home-made ration formulation. On the other hand, technologies with medium adoption include mineral and concentrate supplementation, Tumbukiza establishment and legume establishment. Technologies with highest adoption rates were protein supplementation and use of feed structures/equipment. The results revealed that the level of adoption of feed based technologies by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory. It is highly dependent on family and land size, level of education, monthly income, labour availability, social exposure and participation, herd size and experience. Technology adoption rates decreased significantly with involvement in non-farm activities. There was no statistically significant difference in adoption with gender of household head.
Conclusion: There is need to enhance smallholders access to education, land ownership, labour availability and social participation. Further research is needed to find out innovative approaches that can uplift smallholder farmers’ adoption of feed based technologies.
The research aims to identify the social, personal, economic and communicative characteristics of farmers in Janowski County, as well as to identify the level of use of mineral fertilizers among farmers, identify the level of use of mineral fertilizers among farmers in each item of study, and to find a correlation between the level of use of mineral fertilizers and independent variables.
A questionnaire was designed to collect data from farmers for this research, it consist of two parts: The first part: Includes information related to farmers. The second part includes thirty (30) statement (item) related to the use of mineral fertilizers. The results showed that the level of use of mineral fertilizers to farmers is medium. The results also showed that there is a positive correlation between the use of fertilizers and variables (gender, educational level). While there is no correlation between the use of fertilizers and variables (age, size of farm, sources of information on the use of mineral fertilizers).
Increasing demand for fats and oil for industrial production has resulted in net import of palm oil. To resolve this problem, various interventions have been implemented to boost palm oil production in the small scale sector in Ghana. Yet, palm kernel oil production in the small scale sector is in a continual decline. This study examined gaps in processing palm kernel oil and ways to enhance production to supplement the demand for palm oil. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate information for the study. Respondents indicated that they were only engaged in the treatment of palm kernels and not in the production of palm kernel oil. Treated palm kernels were sold to other group of processors who owned modified equipment purposely designed to generate palm kernel oil. Findings about the profitability of this activity revealed that though women no longer produce oil, they earn average income of GHȼ 126.59 on a tonne of palm kernel. The viability of this activity was tested with a benefit-cost ratio, at a rate of 1.67. The test proved that treatment of palm kernels without the production of palm kernel oil is a profitable business. It was discovered that this menial activity generates employment for 10-14 number of people in a mill. In spite of the profitability of this activity, processors used the income derived from this economic activity to provide for various socio-economic needs. The study recommended that extension officers in the district should play a lead role by assisting processors to form cooperatives in order to gain access to innovative technologies, processing equipment, business skill development and other resources that are necessary for the growth of palm kernel processing industry.