The present study entitled “Integrated Farming Systems and Socio-economic characteristics of Punjab Agricultural university Awardee Farmers” was undertaken to study the socioeconomic characteristics and different types of farming systems used by them. A list of awardee farmers was taken from Directorate of Extension Education, PAU Ludhiana, and all of them were respondents for study. It comprised of 60 awardee farmers by PAU Ludhiana for their achievements in agriculture. The data were collected with the help of questionnaire. The results of the study revealed that 96.67 per cent of respondents were males and 3.33 per cent respondents were females. About half of the respondents were having the educational level up to matric, 45 per cent were graduates, over 3 per cent were post graduates and remaining were illiterate. Over 63 per cent lived in nuclear families and over 36 per cent respondents belonged to joint families with 54 per cent owned land. Majority of the members i.e 88.33 per cent had agriculture as a main source of income. All farmers have different integrated farming systems like crop + dairy, crop + floriculture, crop + poultry, crop + beekeeping etc. It was observed that majority of respondents i.e. 76.677 per cent had crop + dairy farming system. About 5 per cent had crops + poultry, 11.67 per cent had crops + beekeeping, 3.33 per cent had crop + forestry, 16.67 per cent had crops + fruits, and 8.33 per cent had crops + floriculture farming system.
Fruits have great importance in human dietary system and it is generally stated that the living standard of people can be judged by the production as well as consumption of fruits. Now a day’s citrus becomes a major commercial fruit crop in the Haryana state and keeping this in view the present study was conducted in Bhiwani district of the state as it have vast area under citrus cultivation. Further 3 blocks viz. Dadri, Badhra and Loharu were selected purposively and from each block 40 farmers were selected randomly, making a total of 120 respondents. The major thrust of study was the determination of citrus growers existing level of adoption towards recommended farm practices and association of their personality traits with adoption level. About 71 per cent of the farmers had medium to high level of adoption category. Time of planting, recommended cultivators, fruit drop were highly adopted agronomic practices, whereas least adopted agronomic practices were packaging, disease and their control and insect pest and their control. Personality traits like education (r = 0.563), extension contact (r = 0.233), mass media exposure (r = 0.339), risk orientation (r = 0.497), scienticism (r = 0.395) and economic motivation (r = 0.428) with adoption level had positive and significant correlation. To improve the adoption level, extension agencies should give more emphasis on the practices which require specialized skills like post-harvest technology and packaging.
Climate variability is one of the limiting factors to increasing per capita food production for most smallholder farmers in Africa. The adoption and diffusion of climate smart agriculture technologies, as a way to tackle this barrier, has become an important issue in the development policy agenda for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the adoption decisions for climate smart agriculture technologies using cross sectional household data, collected in 2014 from 619 farm households, in 2 districts of southern Malawi. In contrast to other studies that analyse technology adoption decisions separately, we analyse all four adoption decisions simultaneously using the multivariate probit method. This not only improves the precision of the estimation results and provides consistent standard errors of the estimates, but also enables us to analyse the interrelations between the four adoption decisions. This study shows how the estimation results, and particularly the estimated correlation coefficients, can be utilized to gain a deep insight into the interrelations between the different adoption decisions. The study reveals that gender, age, location, farmer type, level of education, livelihood status/ off-farm participation, land size and source/ownership, household income, household expenditure, anticipated weather pattern, climate variability knowledge/signs, access to credit, all influence the adoption decision of Climate Smart Technologies either positively or negatively.
Off season vegetable cultivation plays a unique role in the hill farming system. Being low volume and high value crops, they are rated to be potential cash earners. With increase in population, farm holdings are getting smaller and fragmented. Further, the agricultural practices of the farmers are making their crops more vulnerable to the attack of diseases and pests. The amount of profit on small farms is less, thus do not have capacity to bear any amount of losses. Therefore, integration of low-cost proven technology that can sustain a profitable production system holds promise. With this objective, a Common Minimum Programme (CMP) which works through improving soil ecology and includes proven technologies such as soil solarization, use of bio-control agents, bio-composting including vermi-composting and value addition of vermi-compost and FYM was designed and implemented at the end of about 6000 farmers in Uttarakhand. A comparative analysis of the conventional practices (non-IPM) and adoption of CMP (IPM) was carried out in 10 villages at the end of 50 farmers who continuously adopted CMP for three years. A drastic reduction in the use of inorganic fertilizers was observed after adoption of CMP. Further, losses due to seed and soil borne diseases and pests were reduced in the nurseries as well as fields of farmers adopting CMP in various vegetables. Significantly high amount of input cost could be saved due to reduced amount of pesticides required to be used. Farmers were satisfied with the adoption of CMP as there was a big difference between the yields of farmers adopting CMP and those relying on the conventional practices. The satisfaction and enthusiasm amongst farmers suggest that the CMP would have an area wide adoption since the programme also falls within the framework of organic farming.
One major problem facing maize production can be attributed to the fertility status of most Nigerian soils which is considerably low. The study was conducted to examine arable crop farmers’ perception of the use of organic fertilizer in maize production in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo State. A total of one hundred and twenty respondents were randomly selected for the study from 10 villages. Primary data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire and interview guide. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages and mean. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis of the study. Poultry manure (90.0%) was the major source of organic fertilizer and constitutes the most frequently used (70.8%). It was found that bulkiness of organic fertilizer was the most severe constraint that affect its usage (x=2.43). However, there was an unfavourable perception on use of organic fertilizer in maize production. Test of hypothesis revealed that age (χ2= 4.46, df= 1) and educational level (χ2= 8.54, df = 3) were found significantly related with the perception of respondents on usage of organic fertilizer (p = 0.05). Advocacy should be intensified on usage of organic fertilizer in crop production.