The aim of this research is to evaluate the knowledge level of agricultural employees of Nineveh province towards the tasks of agricultural extension in general, evaluate the knowledge level of agricultural employees in each item of tasks of agricultural extension and identify a correlation between the employees’ knowledge and independent variables: (age, the scientific certificate, number of years of agricultural employee service, specialization in the field of agricultural extension, career title) in this study.
In order to obtain the research data, it has used questionnaire form. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Part one included information’s about the personal, social, economic variables which related to the respondents, namely (age, the scientific certificate, the number of years of agricultural employee service, specialization in the field of agricultural, career title). The second part included (30) items. In order to measure the knowledge of employees agricultural in the tasks of agricultural extension, it was put in front of each item (3) alternatives are (I agree - I agree something - I don’t agree) and it was gave it the numeric values (3- 2-1) which respectively. This study included all agricultural employees in the Directorate of Agriculture Nineveh and in all disciplines and they were distributed on the agricultural sections. The total sample of this study was 165 employees from deferent sections of Agriculture Nineveh.
The results showed that the knowledge level of agricultural employees in Nineveh province in tasks agricultural extension in general is medium tends to high degree. Also, the results showed that the items which came in the first three ranks according to the mean and respectively, are (Help farmers to identify the main problems they face in the rural community, help farmers to identify opportunities available to them to solve their problems and the development of educational goals in the Action Plan. The results also include that showed that there are a positive correlation between the employee’s knowledge towards the tasks of agricultural extension and the independent variables (age and career title), and there is no correlation between the employee’s knowledge towards the tasks of agricultural extension and the independent variables (the scientific certificate, the number of years of agricultural employee service, specialization in the field of agricultural). The Author concludes from this study: the knowledge of employees need to development and increase in these topics (giving the leading role of the groups participating in the extension programs, clarifying the role of extension in the advancement of rural life and assess progress in meeting the educational needs of growers).
The present study was conducted to assess the livelihood status of ornamental fish producers in the Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra. A total of 30 ornamental fish producers were taken as the sample out of 90 for present study of which 22 are men and 08 are women. The semi-structured interview schedule was prepared as per the livelihood profile of the Department for International Development (DFID) framework. The socio-economic status indicates that the majorities of the producers were literate, middle-age group and had more than 05 years of experience. The sustainable livelihood framework indicates five type of capital i.e. natural, physical, financial, human and social capital with 05 indicators each. Primary data were collected through surveys using semi structured interview schedules and stakeholder meetings. Altogether 30 ornamental fish producers out of 90 as per MPEDA (2012) from Mumbai and Thane districts were interviewed once during the study. The study revealed that the normalized mean score of natural, physical, human, financial and social capital was 0.31, 0.70, 0.56, 0.39 and 0.49 respectively. Further, the pentagon diagram of the DFID model indicated the higher score of physical and financial capital in the districts signifies that the location advantage as Mumbai is metropolitan city and Thane is rapidly developing adjacent to Mumbai with high demand for ornamental fishes. It can be seen that natural, human and social capital relatively plays a lesser role in the production activity. For improving social capital, the formation of cooperative societies of the ornamental fish producers as well as SHG’s or producer’s company will be most appropriate measure. Human capital can be improved by organizing training in sector of ornamental fisheries like breeding, feeding, disease management and marketing and export for entrepreneurs, technicians and skilled and unskilled labor which will also increase the income of the producers.
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of applying different rates of urea treated with nBTPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) alone, or a combination of both nBTPT and DCD (Dicyandiamide) and DMPP (3, 4-Dimethylpyrazol-phosphate), on spinach productivity at experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-13. The experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with nine treatments and four replications. Composite soil samples were collected before the experiment for various physico-chemical analysis viz soil texture, soil pH, organic matter, bulk density, NH4-N, NO3-N, extractable P and exchangeable K. The results showed that treatment (T6) with dose of Urea@150 kg/ha + GA3 @60 gram/ha was more effective than agrotain alone i.e tallest plant height (11.54 cm), maximum number of leaves (69), highest fresh weight (22.37g), highest dry weight (4.64 g), maximum biological yield (227 g pot-1) and highest net return (13.42 million). Such findings may be due to availability of nitrogen for longer period and reduced loss on nitrogen by volatilization. The results further suggested that applying urea treated with Gibberellic acid (GA3) or Agrotain significantly increased the spinach growth. However, combine application of Urea, Urease, Nitrification Inhibitors and Plant Growth Regulators on Spinach productivity was better than urease inhibitor alone (agrotain).
The issues of World Trade Organization (WTO) are more confined to social sciences in general and economics in particular but in reality the changing situation demands involvement of every stakeholder for efficient deployment of resources. The fact is that the professionals who have direct link with farming community lack knowledge about WTO and its impact and implications on Indian agriculture. The present study was designed to study the extent of knowledge extension personnel have about WTO, relationship of various profile characteristics with knowledge level and their training needs with respect to WTO issues. The study was carried out in randomly selected three districts of Indian state of Maharashtra namely Nashik, Aurangabad and Yavatmal. A total of 60 extension personnel were selected using stratified random sampling from District level, Sub-division level, Taluka level and Mandal level. The study found that 80 per cent of extension personnel had low to very low level of knowledge on WTO issues. Only 63.33 per cent of the extension personnel knew that WTO is an institution administering trades between nations. The present investigation also revealed that none of the extension personnel had undergone any training on WTO, Plant Variety Protection and other related aspects. Extension personnel’s knowledge had positive and significant relationship only with education and mass media exposure. The study also found that dimension ‘Agreement on Agriculture issues’ was the most important training need with gap of 88.10 per cent followed by “Structure and functions of WTO” and “Tariffs and quantitative restrictions”. The study concluded that extension personnel must be given trainings on various basic aspects of WTO like basic structure and its agriculture related issues like Agreement on Agriculture.
The study carried out an empirical analysis of egg production functions, a case Study of Ikot Ekpene and Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Specifically, this study was carried out to estimate the egg production functions in the study area, determine the resource use efficiency of egg producers in the study area and to make recommendations based on the findings. Data for this study were obtained from primary source collected from thirty – seven (37) purposively selected poultry farmers using personal observations and interview method while the secondary data were obtained from farm records kept by the farmers. Regression analysis was carried out to show the relationship between egg lay and several input explanatory variables namely; feed intake, mortality rate, culling rate, labour and floor space. Resource use efficiency analysis was used to determine the rationality of the firms in their use of resources. The result showed that the effect of feed intake and labour on egg lay was significant at 0.01% level, Floor space was also significant at 0.01. Further analysis showed that sum of elasticities for feed, labour and floor (EP) is1.59 indicating an increasing return to scale scenario, implying that a 1% increase in the variables; feed, labour, and floor space will lead to a 1.59% increase in egg lay. Of all the four egg production function estimated in this study, it became clear that the exponential function was found to be the lead equation since four out of the five variables employed in this study were significant where as other forms had less numbers of significant variables. The analysis with respect to resource use showed that feed, labour and floor space were over utilized during the period of egg lay.