Open Access Original Research Article

Reasons for Seasonal Potato Prıce Fluctuatıons in Turkey

Erdal Dağıstan, Tuğçe Kızıltuğ, Ahmet Duran Çelik

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/34647

In this study, potato price fluctuations in Turkey were presented by examining the changes in prices between 2005 and 2014. The objective of this study was to present the fluctuations in potato prices and their reasons, and offer solutions to deal with the severity of price fluctuations. In the study, secondary statistical data that were gathered from the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Turkish Statistical Institute were used as parent material. Seasonal and annual price fluctuations were calculated by means of the Basic and Chain Index, and the Table Analysis Method. Projections were conducted by the Least Squares (Regression) Method. According to the research results, during the time period between 2005 and 2014, potato prices generally had an increase trend, and followed a fluctuating pattern in 2 and 3 year time periods. Seasonally, it was examined that potato prices started increasing by January and continued until the harvest season. Prices started to decrease slighly by harvest time, and started increasing again by September. In the time periods that were examined, the current price average of potato was 0.62 TL/kg and the real price average was 0.70 TL/kg. It could be said that potato real prices decreased in general. One of the important outcomes of this study was that although price fluctuations are limited in agricultural products that can be stocked like potato, an opposite result was observed because of the speculative stockpiling in 2014. It is neccessary to take some precautions, such as licensed warehouses, in order to prevent speculative actions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Existing Meat Handling and Hygienic Practices among Butchers and Meat Retailers in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir: A Socio-Economic Analysis*

Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, S. A. Khandi, Rohan Sharma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/35202

The present study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir State to study the assessment of existing meat handling and hygienic practices among butchers and meat retailers in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir. Three slaughter houses of Jammu district situated at Nagrota, Old Rehari and Gujjar Nagar were selected for the study. Ten butchers from each slaughter house were selected. Thirty retail meat shops were selected and from each randomly selected retail meat shop, one meat retailer was selected. Thus, a total of thirty butchers and thirty meat retailers were selected for the study. Data was collected through a well structured interview schedule. The data was coded, classified, tabulated and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 16.0). The presentation of data was done to give pertinent, valid and reliable answer to the specific objectives. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were worked out for meaningful interpretation. Transport of animal to be slaughtered was not carried out properly. Animal were fatigued and soiled with faecal material and considerations were not given to avoid undue stress that might adversely affect the safety and suitability of meat. There was no standard method of bringing the animal to the floor for slaughter. The animals were slaughtered without restraining them properly and are slaughtered in front of other animals causing great fear in them. Butchers used to bring even more than ten animals at a time and slaughter them one after other, even butchers and other workers moved freely over carcasses without caring for hygienic measures. Animals were slaughtered (by both Halal and Jhatka method) and dressed in unhygienic way. Butchers do not care for preventing the intestine from puncturing during evisceration which leads to contamination of carcass. The edible offal’s pluck (heart, lungs, trachea and esophagus) were pulled out as a unit and these were not hung on a hook instead it was place on floor, similarly paunch (stomach and intestines) were also dropped on floor. Meat retailers apart from selling meat from animals slaughtered at slaughter houses significant proportion of respondents were also slaughtering animals (mostly sheep and goat) at their own retail meat shops. Chicken were exclusively slaughtered at retail meat shops in front of the consumers. Personal hygiene was poorly maintained by meat handlers owing to their illiteracy, unawareness, lack of facilities and nature of work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Economics of Traditional viz High Density Mango Cultivation in Karnataka

M. G. Kerutagi, Mallu B. Deshetti, K. Abhilash

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/31837

This study has examined (i) the growth in area, production and productivity of mango (ii) assess cost and return structure of Mango Cultivation, (iii) the financial feasibility of mango cultivation under traditional viz high-density planting orchard in Dharwad district. Using multistage random sampling technique (30) traditional and (30) High density plant orchard, with a total of 60 respondents were selected from two villages in Dharwad. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and financial feasibility method. The study has indicated that, the annual maintenance cost of traditional mango

(sn.PNG.21,783/Ac) was lower compared to HDP (sn1.PNG.48,132/Ac). Mango is harvested in a single season in a year. In high-density orchard, the average yield obtained was more (7.86 t/Ac) than in traditional orchard (3.50 t/Ac). However, the sale price was sn2.PNG.25,986, sn3.PNG.25,995 in both high-density and traditional orchard respectively. Feasibility analysis revealed that, the NPV @ 12 percent discount rate were positive with sn4.PNG.1,16,032.25 and sn5.PNG .4,34,686.29 in traditional and HDP. Similarly B: C ratios were 1.49 and 2.00 in traditional and HDP respectively. Pay Back Period was found to be higher in traditional i.e. 5.90 years whereas in high-density orchard it was 5.54 years. The internal rate of returns was calculated to be 18.20 percent & 26.00 percent in traditional & high-density planting. Therefore, investment in Mango was financially feasible in both the type of cultivation. In the other hand, processing units are not available locally which is one of the back drop under value addition sector, hence government should plan for establishing new processing units and involve in training the farmers in processing of mango (pickle, juice, pulp extract etc.), so that wastage of mango fruits can be reduced and value addition can serve as an alternative employment opportunity and also arrange for proper marketing set up in the region to safeguard the interest of mango growers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Qualitative Study Examining Core Competency Needs of Agricultural Extension Professionals in Nepal

Ramjee P. Ghimire, Murari Suvedi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/34517

Aims: To identify core competencies required for extension professionals in Nepal, which is needed to provide right education and training and to prepare a competent extension workforce.

Study Design: This was an exploratory qualitative study, which followed an inductive method of data analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: The study conducted in Nepal in May 2015 used focus group discussions for data collection. Each focus groups lasted for about two hours. 

Methodology: Participating in three focus groups were purposively selected 23 Nepalese extension experts from agricultural education, extension, research, non-governmental organization and the private sector. A pre-approved discussion guide was used to streamline group discussions. Review of the secondary literature, specially pertaining to the U.S.-based extension core competency related literature were the bases for the questions used in the discussion guide. Discussions were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Transcriptions were read through, themes that emerged were coded using open, axial and selective coding, which resulted in ten core competencies. Opinions that stood out are reported and discussed in the paper.

Results and Conclusions: The study identified ten core competencies that Nepalese agricultural extension professionals require to perform their tasks well. Those core competencies are: program planning, program implementation, resource mobilization, technical knowledge, coordinating skills, professionalism, strengthening extension research linkages, communication, leadership and managerial skills, and information and communication technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Wet Land Power Weeder for Paddy

Keshavalu ., B. Prasan Patil, V. Raghavendra, Shafat Khan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJAEES/2017/34910

Weeding now a day’s necessitates the introduction of suitable power weeders for paddy cultivation. A study was conducted at Farmers field with power weeder. The geometry of crop used was 60×10 cm and the performance of power weeder was compared with conventional method of hand weeding. The working width of the power weeder was 15 cm. The data collected were analyzed and the major findings of the field evaluation for actual field capacity of manual weeding and power weeder observed was 0.005 ha/hr and 0.15 ha/hr, respectively. The maximum value of weeding index of 99 percent was observed in case of weeding operation by manual method compared to that of power weeder (93.7 percent). The plant damage of power weeder and manual weeder was observed as 8 and 2 percent, respectively. The savings in cost of weeding operation using power weeder when compared to manual weeding was 63.62 percent.