This article examines the agricultural advisory services support package of the program for the improvement of the Competitiveness of Family Agro-pastoral Farms (ACEFA) and its impacts on Family Agro-pastoral Farms (EFA) and Producer Groups (PG) in the Dja-et-Lobo Division in the Southern Region of Cameroon. The study is based on the survey of 143 Family Agro-pastoral Farms, 19 Advisory Agents with 4 Specialized Advisory Agents (SC), 15 Producer Group Advisory Agents (CGP), and the Divisional Technical Unit Head (CTD) of the ACEFA program. It is observed that the agricultural advisory services promoted are done individually and in groups, following a participatory approach at the demand of EFA officials and members of the PG. The actors involve face challenges in the implementation and understanding of the promoted approaches, with some tools that they judged to be too complex. It appears this approach and its tools are not well adapted to suit the profiles and educational level of many EFA and Advisory Agents. The findings contribute to the emerging literature on agricultural advisory services and extension program efficiency. It is suggested that the ACEFA program should adjust its approach and tools to suit the profiles of EFA members and Advisory Agents.
Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in information dissemination in agriculture sector is getting popular day by day especially in technology transfer to the farmers. While various forms of ICT devices and centers abound in Bangladesh today. The recent innovation of agricultural information delivery developed by the government initiative started with 20 Agricultural Information and Communication Center (AICC) and planned to increase the numbers to cover most of the Agro-Ecological Regions of the country. In connection to this issue, this study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of Agricultural Information and Communication Centers (AICC) in technology transfer to farmers. Besides, important factors were identified those could contribute to farmers’ understanding on effectiveness of AICC. The study was conducted in five sub-districts of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. One hundred AICC users were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect the data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data. More than one-third (37%) of the farmers perceived that effectiveness of AICC in technology transfer was high while 38% of the farmers perceived as “moderately effective” and 25% perceived as “low effective”. Farmers' characteristics such as education, farm size, annual family income, organizational participation, extension contact, awareness on ICT facilities, access to ICT facilities, knowledge on ICT, and training received on ICT had significant positive relationship with their perceived effectiveness of AICC while age and household size had negative and insignificant relationship with effectiveness of AICC. The influential factors that affecting the effectiveness of AICC were education, annual family income and knowledge on ICT were confirmed by the multiple regression models. This model also explained that these three explanatory variables together explained 81.2% variation in perceived effectiveness of AICC while knowledge on ICT explained 70% variation in perceived effectiveness of AICC. Lack of operational knowledge of computer, lack of training facilities on ICT, low awareness among rural farmers were identified as the major constraints of using AICC facilities. However, extension policy makers should take into consideration above findings and provides ICT training to the users, developing ICT infrastructure, adequate maintenance of the center facilities etc. that influence to make AICC effective and sustainable.
Land fragmentation is a common agricultural phenomenon in many countries where a single large farm is subdivided into a large number of separate small land plots. This paper is based on a study that was carried out to evaluate the impact of land fragmentation on food security in three agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Embu County in Kenya from January to November 2016. The study used data collected from 384 farm-households that were randomly selected from three AEZs in the Embu County, using the 4-stage cluster sampling method. The AEZs were the Sunflower-Cotton Zone, the Coffee Zone and the Tea Zone, based on the official AEZs classification system in Kenya. Household caloric acquisition method was used to compute a household food security index (HFSI) that was used to measure the household food security status. The effect of farm size on food security was evaluated using the Binary Logit Regression method. The results showed that the average number of people in a household was 3.73 in the Tea Zone, 3.59 in the Coffee Zone and 3.93 in the Sunflower Zone, and that farm size had a positive and significant effect on food security in the Sunflower (P=.029) and Tea zones (P=.007), but not in the Coffee Zone (P=.365). Further, it was found that the minimum farm-size that could ensure the attainment of the minimum (cut-off) point for household food security (HFSI = 1) was above 2 ha in the Sunflower Zone and 0.5 ha in the Tea Zone. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that further fragmentation of farms below 0.5 ha in the Coffee and Tea zones and 2 ha in the Sunflower Zone should be discouraged to ensure sustainable food security in the study area. For the farms that are already below the minimum cut-off size for food security, measures to increase these farms’ productivities so that they can support more people per ha should be devised and implemented.
The present study aims to assess the consumer awareness about eight consumer rights in Deesa city and to correlate their awareness with the age, education and media exposure. Descriptive research design was used for the study. Two hundred women were selected randomly from different societies of Deesa Taluka of Gujarat State. Data was collected during the period of June to December, 2016. An interview schedule was developed to collect data on personal characteristics of the respondents, various sources of information for consumer education utilized by them and consumer problems faced by them. Teacher made test was used to assess the awareness level of women regarding consumers’ rights. Awareness regarding consumer responsibilities and consumer protection laws was also assessed. Data was analyzed by applying suitable descriptive types of statistical tools such as mean score, frequency, percentage and correlation. Rank was given on the basis of mean scores. It was found in the present study that majority of the respondents (69%) were having moderate awareness level about consumer rights. On comparing mean scores of awareness level of respondents regarding consumer rights, they were highly aware about “Right to information (mean score-21.62)” followed by “Right to Redress(mean score-21.57)”. Consumers were more aware about Right to information in comparison to other rights. Consumer protection was explored as a vulnerable area, which needs to be taken care of. Education had a significant impact on consumer awareness.
Nature has endowed the state of Jammu and Kashmir (India) with wide range of agro- climatic conditions which permits the production of varieties of temperate fruits. The district Shopian was purposively selected, because of potentiality for the development of horticulture, mainly because 90 percent area of the district was under apple plantation. The study was conducted in different altitudes and major training need components identified for the study were crop production, plant protection, harvesting and marketing etc. It was observed that integrated disease management received highest score in all the three altitudes under study, and was the most prioritized thematic area for training needs. Soil and water testing received first priority in mid and high altitude areas while it got second level of priority in low altitude areas. The training needs for micro irrigation system in orchards were given lowest priority by the fruit growers in all the three altitudes.