Aim: To verify the relationship between social-support and peer-relationship among adolescents in Haryana.
Study Design: A cross – sectional study was conducted on 460 adolescents of 11th and 12th standard in Haryana.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Haryana, between July 2013 and December 2013.
Methodology: Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) and Peer – Relationship Questionnaire (PRQ) were used to assess the social – support and peer – relationship among adolescents respectively.
Results: Female adolescents (53%) received more social – support in terms of quantity (SSQN) and were more satisfied than their counterparts i.e., male adolescents (41%). Adolescents who were victimized at low level reported better social – support (M = 8.99). Results further exposed that social – support quantity increases, the pro – social behavior (r = 0.09, p < 0.05) within peers during adolescence also increases. Social – support from family members increases, the victimization (r = -0.12, p < 0.05) decreases and as social – support from non – family members’ increases, chances of victimization (r = 0.12, p < 0.05) also increases.
Conclusion: If adolescents do not get social – support at the time they need either from family members or non – family members, they will become victim earlier.
It was an attempt to examine the profitability and factors affecting milk supply of dairy farms in selected areas in Chittagong District. Primary data were collected from both milk producers and traders during the months of August to September 2015. Simple descriptive method and stepwise multiple regression models were used to analyze the data. The return over investment indicates that dairy farming is a profitable business in Chittagong District. Stepwise multiple regression models were specified and estimated to identify the factors affecting of milk supply of dairy farmers. Regression analysis revealed that three variables i.e., number of milking cows, the age of household head and experience of dairy farming, as important factors affecting sale volume of milk. The survey result identified that the supply of milk trading was predominantly traditional, fragmented and only one cooling plant which has limited capacity but no other formal agreement either collectors or farmers. As a result, most of the surplus milk absorbed by the sweetmeat shops.
Smallholder integrated farming system (IFS) is debated as an alternative to conventional external input driven commercial farming in developing nations. The sustainability of IFS is the key to secure sustainable livelihoods of millions of small and marginal farmers and they need to be monitored and assessed precisely. This asks for a valid set of sustainability assessment indicators that envisage the social, economic and ecological dimensions of sustainability and are validated by the agri-experts working in a specific agroclimatic zone. The present study was conducted to screen sustainability assessment indicators for IFS, in the context of coastal agroclimatic zone of West Bengal, India. Guided by an indicator framework, a pool of 87 indicators were scouted and given to the local agri-experts for rating their relevance against a 4-point scale. Based on the weighted mean score of the indicators, ease of access to them, cost of their measurement, clarity of the indicators to the experts and their redundancy, local agri-experts screened 52 indicators covering the social, economic and ecological dimensions of sustainability. The important selected Ecological indicators were Biomass availability, Soil organic Carbon, Depth of ground water table, Soil macronutrient etc. Similarly, important Economic indicators were Cost of cultivation, Ownership of land, Input sources, Off-farm income etc. and Social indicators were Gender equity, Adherence to local culture, Workload of women and Balanced nutrition etc. In this study, we outlined the methodology of selecting these sustainability assessment indicators of IFS with special reference to the context of developing nations that resulted in a rich pool of contextual sustainability indicators for the coastal agroclimatic zone of West Bengal, India. We also discussed some core methodological and logistic issues associated with this. Adaptation of this methodology of indicator screening might be used in different contexts of smallholder systems for monitoring farm-level sustainability of IFS.
Aims: To explore the agricultural credit potential, performance and relationship with agricultural growth in India’s.
Study Design: The study is based on secondary data of agricultural GDP and agricultural credit (Direct Institutional Credit). At first, the performance of agriculture credit is conferred using compound annual growth rate of credit disbursement over the time and analyses the disbursement of agricultural credit of scheduled commercial banks to marginal, small, medium and large farmers. Further, the empirical research has conducted to explore the relationship between agriculture credit and economic growth in long-short run using time series data.
Place and Duration of Study: Time series data of Agricultural gross domestic product and farm credit has been taken from Hand Book of RBI and National Account Statistics (CSO) from the period of 1980 to 2011.
Methodology: The study uses Johansen Co-integration test to analyze the long term association between agriculture gross domestic product (AGDP) and Agriculture Credit. Moreover, Vector Error Correction Model is applied for understanding the long run and short run causality.
Results: Findings from the analysis suggest that over the period, agriculture gross domestic product is highly responsive to an increase in agricultural credits. A unidirectional causality is running from Agricultural credit to Agricultural Gross Domestic Product.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that Agricultural credit is a necessary input for inclusive agricultural sector growth. For financial and social inclusion, the government should take strong steps to disburse credit to agricultural sector as agricultural credit leads to production of agriculture and agriculture has the power to cause growth to all sectors of the economy inclusively.
The impact of climate change on agricultural production is a serious source of worry to farmers in rural communities in Nigeria. This is because their economy mainly depend on agriculture which is seriously affected by global climate change. The objectives of this study were to identify gaps in knowledge about climate change and to collate traditional coping and adaptive practices of climate change in Mmaku Mountainous Community Awgu Area, Enugu State Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to 220 randomly selected farmers in Mmaku Mountainous Community, Awgu Area Enugu State. The result of the study revealed that most of the respondent knew about climate change through radio, 70 sampled respondents out of 220 stated that climate change include a change of weather parameters apart from temperature over a long period (over 20 to 30 years), indiscriminate felling of trees and bush burning where the major causes of climate change in the study area. The study recommended that training and sensitization programmes are needed in the study area to create more awareness on the causes, impact and prevention of climate change. Government should as a matter of urgency provide motorized boreholes in the study area to reduce the suffering encountered by women and children in search of drinking water.