Investigations were conducted during 2015-2016, in major jasmine growing districts of Tamil Nadu, for assessing the distribution, infestation level and the relative importance of leaf webworm of jasmine, Nausinoe geometralis. The incidence was more in Madurai (28.75%) followed by Coimbatore (27.65%), Virdhunagar (25.42%) and Tiruneveli (25.36%) districts. Forty nine % respondents were aware of leaf webworm as a pest, but only nine % respondents ranked it as the most important pest. The technological gap indices (TGI) were high in adopting right frequency in spraying of chemicals (91%), usage of biological control agents (87%) and effective cultural practices viz., regular raking of soil to destroy pupa (85%) and collection and destruction of fallen and discolored buds and flowers (82%). A majority of respondents (52.94%) had high level of technological gap, whereas, only 11.76% were in low level of technology gap. Thus, efforts should be taken to create awareness among jasmine growers for the use of eco-friendly bio-control methods against jasmine leaf webworm as well as other pests of jasmine.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of goat husbandry and distribution as development projects in income generation and social development in southern Ghore in Jordan. South Ghore is one of the poverty pockets with distinctive characteristics. This triggers searching for suitable developmental strategies without degrading natural environmental resources in this area. The present study includes a sample of 100 surveyed households in six different villages using a questionnaire technique. The findings of the study showed that the common attitudes of the participants' answers were positive concerning the effect of the goat distribution projects on the socioeconomic sustainable development. The findings revealed that the most common obstacle is the high cost of the animal feed which consumes a large portion from livestock production output, in addition to the inappropriate veterinary services in the region and the retrieval of the number of young goats by the granter in the first three years of the project. This research recommends that more development projects are to be conducted on regular bases in these regions due to their significance in development.
The Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA), defined as a semi-autonomous decentralized participatory and market-driven extension model represents a shift away from transferring technologies for major crops to diversifying output. As the ATMA programme is under operation in Assam for the last ten years, the researchable questions may arise about to what extent the functions of ATMA through cafeteria of activities at district level are achieved such as farmer oriented activities, farm information dissemination, agricultural technology refinement, validation and adoption (R-E-F-Linkage), administrative and capital expenses, innovative activities and other innovative activities etc. Keeping in view the broad aims of the ATMA and to find out relevant answers on the above stated questions, a study was carried out in three CSS-ATMA districts of Assam namely Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon and Goalpara in the year 2015-16 with a view to find out the organizational level performance of ATMA under new extension reforms. A purposive sampling method was followed to select the districts for the study. The result of the findings highlighted that the trend of achievement of cafeteria of activities as per ATMA guideline were below 50.00 per cent in the three consecutive years viz., 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 except in few activities where the achievement of activities under the heads “Agril. Technology Refinement, Validation and Adoption (R-E-F-Linkage)”, “Administrative/Capital Expenses” and “Innovative Activities”, were 62.50 per cent, 59.39 per cent and 50.03 per cent respectively in the year 2013-14. On the other hand, in the year 2014-15, the achievement of activities under the head “Other Innovative Activities” were 100.00 per cent.
Economic development is the effect for which entrepreneurship is caused. Economic development essentially means a process of change in income of the people in society, which directly leads to upward change in real per capita income of a country. Entrepreneurship has an important role to play in development of a country. Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the most important factors contributing to the direct and indirect changes in the society such as employment generation, national income, balanced regional development, dispersal of economic power, better standard of living, creating innovation, capital formation, resource mobilization, backward and forward linkages, promotes country’s export trade. Women entry into business is a new phenomenon. Women entry into entrepreneurship is traced out as an extension of their activities mainly to 3 Ps, viz., Pickles, Powder and Pappad. With growing awareness about business and spread of education among women over the period, women have started shifting from 3 Ps to engross to 3 modern Es, viz., Engineering, Electronics and Energy. They are contributing towards the growth of economy and improvement of their socio-economic conditions. Government of India has given importance to women empowerment in the country and several schemes have been introduced for the upliftment of women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs in the country are increasing due to the increase in the women literacy rate in India. The concept of Podupu Lakshmi Ikya Sangam is a boon for the rural women in some states of India. It has not only raised their income but also their social status. Overview of the direct and indirect changes of members of PLIS is depicted in this following article. Research has revealed that income generation and employment generation are the direct changes and perceived impacts in psychological, sociological, economic and political dimensions are the indirect changes.
This study investigated the perceived training needs of smallholder rice farmers on urea deep placement (UDP) technology in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 162 rice farmers by using a well-structured questionnaire administered to the respondents. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used for analysis of collected data. The results showed that respondents were predominantly male, married and had secondary education, with mean age of 46 years. The mean household size was 10 persons, average farm size and average number of rice plots were 1.1 ha and 1 plot respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that extension visit, paddy rice output and training were positive and significant to the use of UDP technologies, while age, education level, farm size, access to credit and compatibility were negatively significant. The areas of priority for training are use of seed sorting box (99.4%), line transplanting (99.0%), USG application (89.4%), panicle harvesting (79.4%) and nursery establishment (60.0%). Majority (72.6%) of the farmers are willing to attend on-the-job training if given the opportunity. The study recommended that the government and non-governance agencies in Benue State should give utmost priority to the training needs of the smallholder rice farmers to improve their knowledge level and use of UDP technologies in the State for increased rice production.